Learning from Challenging Text - Illinois Board of Higher Education

Report
THE CHALLENGES OF
IMPLEMENTING THE
COMMON CORE ELA
Timothy Shanahan
University of Illinois at Chicago
www.shanahanonliteracy.com
Big Shifts
• Challenging text
• Close reading
• Informational text
• Multiple texts
• Disciplinary literacy (Grades 6-12)
• Argument
• 21st century research and communication tools
• Writing about sources
Challenging Text
• Past standards focused on cognitive skills and ignored text
difficulty (in terms of the linguistic complexity)
• CCSS: Text difficulty is central to learning
• Specific cognitive skills have to be executed, but with texts that
are sufficiently challenging (Item 10).
• The shift raises text levels for the grades by about 2 grade
levels (across Grades 2-12)
Challenging Text (cont.)
• Quantitative factors: Readability formulas that predict
comprehension from vocabulary and sentence complexity
• Includes ATOS, Degrees of Reading Power, Flesch-Kincaid,
Lexiles, Reading Maturity, Source Reader
• Set higher than in the past”
FleschKincaid
2nd – 3rd
4th – 5th
6th – 8th
9th – 10th
11th –CCR
The Lexile
Framework®
1.98 –5.34
420 – 820
4.51 –7.73
740 – 1010
6.51 –10.34
925 – 1185
8.32 –12.12
1050 – 1335
10.34 –14.2
1185 – 1385
Challenging Text (cont.)
• CCSS requires that children will be taught from harder texts
than in the past (texts often likely to be at their “frustration
level”)
• ELA teachers often teach with texts that are thematically
complex, but that are linguistically simple
• Raises both grade level standards and discourages as much
out-of-level teaching as in the past
• This is the opposite of what teachers most elementary and
many secondary teachers have been taught
Challenging Text (cont.)
• This will be difficult to implement because it conflicts with how
teachers have been prepared and current practices
• The new tests and textbooks will present more challenging
texts (selecting harder texts is the easy part of the task)
• However, teaching students to read texts that they will struggle
with will require a very different approach
Resources
Shanahan, T., Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2012), March. The
challenge of challenging text. Educational Leadership.
Resources
Shanahan, T., Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2012), March. The
challenge of challenging text. Educational Leadership.
Close Reading
• New standards encourage close reading
• Close reading is an idea that emerged in ELA in the
1920s and 1930s
• It emphasizes a heavy reliance on the information within
text as the source of interpretation
Close Reading (cont.)
• Easiest to understand through contrasts with other
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approaches to reading
One way of reading is to examine the context and history
of a text
Another way is to examine a text through a particular
philosophy or ideology (e.g., Marxism, feminism)
Still another way is to focus heavily on the reader’s own
knowledge and experience to make sense of what is in
the text
Often readings, especially in elementary grades,
emphasize how to read rather than what is read
Close Reading (cont.)
• Close reading, unlike these other approaches, minimizes
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information from outside the text
Asks readers text dependent questions
Requires reliance on textual evidence to support answers
Emphasizes the content of the text over how to read
Asks readers to identify what the text says, how the text
works, and what the text means (in terms of critical
analysis and connections with other texts/sources)
Close Reading (cont.)
• New assessments will stay to text dependent questions,
and will ask students to identify what texts say, how texts
work, and for critical analysis and comparisons of texts
with other texts/sources
• Teachers will have to learn to put greater emphasis on the
texts than on the methods and strategies of reading (less
pre-reading, fewer questions about background
information, less contextualizing, more text dependent
questions)
• More short reads
• Multi-day commitments to text
Text dependent questions
• How did Frederick Douglass’ ability to read contribute to his
emotional struggle for freedom? Cite examples from the text to
support your answer.
• After reading Frederick Douglass’ narrative, in what ways does
America represent the hope for freedom that lived in the heart
of Frederick Douglass?
Grade 3 EBSR from End Of Year Assessment
Sample Item
Read all parts of the question before responding
Part A
What is one main idea of “How Animals Live?”
a. There are many types of animals on the planet.
b. Animals need water to live.
c. There are many ways to sort different animals.
d. Animals begin their life cycles in different forms.
Part B
Which detail from the article best supports the answer to Part A?
a. “Animals get oxygen from air or water."
b. "Animals can be grouped by their traits."
c. "Worms are invertebrates."
d. "All animals grow and change over time."
e. "Almost all animals need water, food, oxygen, and shelter to live."
SAMPLE ITEM
Part A
What does the word “regal” mean as it is used in the passage?
a. generous
b. threatening
c. kingly
d. uninterested
Part B
Which of the phrases from the passage best helps the reader understand the meaning
of “regal?”
a. “wagging their tails as they awoke”
b. “the wolves, who were shy”
c. “their sounds and movements expressed goodwill”
d. “with his head high and his chest out”
Passage
George, Jean C. Julie of the Wolves. New York: Harper and Row, 1972. Print.
PARCC is committed to using authentic texts. Permissions are pending for the
texts associated with this item.
Grade 6 TECR from Narrative Writing Task
Sample Item
Part A
Choose one word that describes Miyax based on evidence from the text. There is
more than one correct choice listed below.
reckless
Impatient
lively
imaginative
confident
observant
Part B
Find a sentence in the passage with details that support your response to Part A.
Click on that sentence and drag and drop it into the box below.
Part C
Find another sentence in the passage with details that support your response to
Part A. Click on that sentence and drag and drop it into the box below.
Grade 7 TECR from Research Simulation Task
Sample Item
Below are three claims that one could make based on the article “Earhart’s Final Resting
Place Believed Found.”
Claims
Earhart and Noonan lived as castaways on Nikumaroro Island.
Earhart and Noonan’s plane crashed into the Pacific Ocean.
People don’t really know where Earhart and Noonan died.
Part A
Highlight the claim that is supported by the most relevant and sufficient evidence within
“Earhart’s Final Resting Place Believed Found.”
Part B
Click on two facts within the article that best provide evidence to support the claim
selected in Part A.
assage
Lorenzi, Rosella. "Earhart’s Final Resting Place Believed Found." Discovery News.
Discovery News, 23 Oct. 2009. Web. 2 Feb. 2012.
<http://news.discovery.com/history/amelia-earhart-resting-place.html [1]>.
Disciplinary literacy
• Past standards have not made a big deal out of reading in
history/social studies or science
• Emphasis was on learning how to read and applying these
skills to content area textbooks
• However, there are unique reading demands within the various
disciplines (reading history is not the same thing as reading
literature, etc.)
• The common core state standards requires specialized reading
emphasis for literature, history/social studies and
science/technical subjects
Disciplinary Literacy (cont.)
• Disciplines possess their own language, purposes, ways of
using text
• There are special skills and strategies needed for students to
make complete sense of texts from the disciplines
• As students begin to confront these kinds of texts (especially in
middle school and high school), instruction must facilitate their
understanding of what it means to read disciplinary texts
Disciplinary Literacy (cont.)
• Thus, science students learn to follow and record multistep lab
procedures, and to account for exceptions or special cases
while history students are learning to analyze a series of events
to determine the causal relations among the events
• Or, history students learn to make sense of discrepancies
between primary accounts while science students learn to
analyze the relationship between the graphical and prose
information in a text
• Or, science and history both require summaries, but summaries
of what?
Chemistry Note-taking
Substances
Properties
Processes
Interactions
Atomic
Expression
History Events Chart
TEXT
WHO?
1
Relation:
2
Relation:
3
Relation
4
Main point:
WHAT?
WHERE?
WHEN?
WHY?
Informational text
• Past standards emphasized literary and informational texts, but
distribution was left to teachers
• Reading textbooks emphasized informational texts only about
20% of the time a decade ago, but this has been changing
• The common core standards requires the teaching of
comprehension within both informational and literary texts
• These new standards emphasize informational texts equally
with literary texts (in Grades K-5) – and a 70%-30% emphasis
in the Grades 6-12
Informational text (cont.)
• Informational text is text the primary purpose of which is to
convey information about the natural and social world.
• Informational text typically addresses whole classes of things in
a timeless way (they are not typically about specific instances).
• Informational text requires the interpretation of structures,
graphics, features, etc. that are not available in literary text
• This shift has been surprisingly controversial
Informational text
• http://www.glennbeck.com/2013/03/14/exposing-common-
core-kids-are-being-indoctrinated-with-extreme-leftistideology/
Multiple texts/sources
• Past standards have emphasized the reading of single texts:
students had to learn how to make sense of a story, article or
book (with perhaps an occasional emphasis on multiple texts)
• The common core state standards emphasize the interpretation
of multiple texts throughout (at all grade levels, and in reading,
writing, and oral language)
• Students will still have to be able to interpret single texts, but
much more extensive emphasis on reading and using multiple
texts (nearly 15% of the ELA standards explicitly mention
multiple texts)
Multiple Texts
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Compare and contrast the adventures of characters in familiar stories (K)
With prompting and support, recognize basis similarities in and
differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations or
descriptions) (K)
Distinguish major categories of writing from each other (e.g., stories and
poems), drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types (1)
Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g.,
Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures (1)
Identify similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic
(e.g., in illustrations or descriptions) (1)
Compare and contrast characters or events from different stories
addressing similar themes (2)
Describe similarities in and differences between two texts on the same
topic (2)
Multiple Texts
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Compare and contrast the plots, settings, and themes of stories written by
the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books in a
series) (3)
Compare and contrast information drawn from two texts on the same
subject (3)
Compare and contrast thematically similar tales, myths, and accounts of
events from various cultures (4)
Describe how two or more texts on the same subject build on one
another; provide a coherent picture of the same information they convey
(4)
Compare the treatment of similar ideas and themes (e.g., opposition of a
good and evil) as well as character types and patterns of events in myths
and other traditional literature from different cultures (5)
Multiple Texts
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Analyze stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries, adventure stories),
comparing and contrasting their approaches to similar themes and
topics (6)
•
Assess the similarities and differences between two or more texts on the
same subject and apply the knowledge gained to inform reading of
additional texts (6)
Analyze a specific case in which a modern work of fiction drawn on
patterns of events or character types found in traditional literature (7)
Analyze where two or more texts provide conflicting information on the
same subject and determine whether the texts disagree on matters of fact
or on matters of interpretation (7)
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Multiple Texts
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Compare a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character to
historical sources from the same period as a means of understanding
how authors use or alter history (8)
Compare and contrast how two or more authors writing about the
same topic shape their presentations of key information by
emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations
of facts (8)
Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on
the same topic (History, 6-8)
Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments,
simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from
reading a text on the same topic (Science, 6-8)
Multiple Texts
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Analyze a wide range of 19th and early 20th century foundational works of
American literature, comparing and contrasting approaches to similar
idea or themes in two or more texts from the same period (9-10)
Analyze how authors argue with or otherwise respond to one another’s
ideas or accounts of key events, evaluating the strength of each author’s
interpretation (9-10)
Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary
and secondary sources (9-10, History)
Compare experimental findings presented in a text to information from
other sources, noting when the findings support or contradict previous
explanations or accounts (9-10, Science)
Multiple Texts
• Analyze how an author draws on and transforms fictional source material in
a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare draws on a story from Ovid or how a
later author draws on a play by Shakespeare) (11-12)
• Synthesize explanations and arguments from diverse sources to provide a
coherent account of events or ideas, including resolving conflicting
information (11-12)
• Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into
a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among
sources (11-12)
• Integrate information from diverse sources (e.g., video, multimedia sources,
experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a concept,
process, or phenomenon, noting discrepancies among sources (11-12)
Writing about Text
• Past standards have emphasized writing as a free-standing
subject or skill
• Students have been expected to be able to write texts requiring
low information (or only the use of widely available background
knowledge)
• The common core puts greater emphasis on the use of
evidence in writing
• Thus, the major emphasis shifts from writing stories or opinion
pieces to writing about the ideas in text
Writing about Text
Read the following excerpt from a poem by Walt Whitman.
There was a child who went forth every day,
And the first object he look'd upon, that
object he became,
And that object became part of him for
the day or a certain part of the day,
Or for many years or stretching cycles
of years.
Whitman's poem suggests that certain objects become important to us and remain
important to us even if we no longer have them.
Write a story in which you tell about an object that remains important to the main
character over a period of years. The main character could be you or someone you know.
In your story, describe the main character's first encounter with the object, why the object
is so important to the character, and how, over the years, it remains a part of the
character’s life.
Writing about Text
Based on the information in the text “Biography of Amelia Earhart,” write an
essay that summarizes and explains the challenges Earhart faced
throughout her life.
Remember to use textual evidence to support your ideas.
________________________________________________
You have read three texts describing Amelia Earhart. All three include the
claim that Earhart was a brave, courageous person. The three texts are:
“Biography of Amelia Earhart”
“Earhart's Final Resting Place Believed Found”
“Amelia Earhart’s Life and Disappearance”
Consider the argument each author uses to demonstrate Earhart’s bravery.
Write an essay that analyzes the strength of the arguments about Earhart’s
bravery in at least two of the texts. Remember to use textual evidence to
support your ideas.
Writing about Text (cont.)
• Summarizing text
• Analyzing and critiquing texts
• Synthesizing texts
Writing about Text (cont.)
• Writing will need to be more closely integrated with reading
comprehension instruction
• The amount of writing about what students read will need to
increase
• Greater emphasis on synthesis of information and critical
essays than in the past
Argument
• In the past, students have been taught to treat texts as
sources of information
• However, scholars and other advanced readers do not
approach text in such static ways
• Instead, they see texts (all kinds of texts) as arguments
that authors present; and as such, readers can join in the
argument
• Similarly, writing standards have included “persuasive
writing” but have not typically required that students
engage in argument
Argument (cont.)
• Argument requires that a speaker/writer present a point of
view supported by evidence
• Also, it is wise to consider counter-arguments and
refutations for these
• CCSS requires more argumentative stances in reading
and more engagement in the writing of arguments
• This places a greater emphasis on content and reasoning
Argument (cont.)
• Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or
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texts,
Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the
claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and
create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims,
reasons, and evidence.
Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most
relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of
both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns,
values, and possible biases.
Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major
sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between
claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s)
and counterclaims.
Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the
norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the
argument presented.
Argument (cont.)
• Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly
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as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves
matters uncertain.
Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of
a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are
introduced and developed).
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including
figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on
meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly
fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g.,
the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic
resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.
Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly
stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production
of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text.
(Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)
21st Century Research/Communication
Tools
• Digital tools to produce and publish writing
• Multimedia (e.g., audio recordings, film, etc.)
• Presentation technology, including multimedia
• Internet search tools
• Digital references (e.g., glossaries, dictionaries,
thesauruses)
• Keyboarding skills
• Web supports: hyperlinks, interactive elements, electronic
menus, icons
• Communications technology
Technology
• With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce
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and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (K)
With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and
publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (1)
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information
presented orally or through other media. (1)
With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and
publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (2)
Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays
to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and
feelings. (2)
Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or
clarify the meaning of words and phrases. (2)
Technology
• With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish
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writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
(3)
Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital
sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. (3)
Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears. (4)
Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries,
electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text. (4)
Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears. (4)
Technology
• Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media
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and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (4)
Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and
digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key
words and phrases. (4)
Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries,
indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently
(5)
Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability
to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. (5)
Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or
beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale,
myth, poem). (5)
Technology
• With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet,
to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others;
demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two
pages in a single sitting. (5)
• Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from
print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished
work, and provide a list of sources. (5)
• Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and
formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (5)
• Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and
digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key
words and phrases. (5)
Technology
• Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening
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to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what
they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen
or watch. (6)
Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually,
quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or
issue. (6)
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to
interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding
skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting. (6)
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the
credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of
others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for
sources. (6)
Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual
displays in presentations to clarify information. (6)
Technology
• Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and
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digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise
meaning or its part of speech. (6)
Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps)
with other information in print and digital texts. (6-8)
Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or
multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (6-8)
Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text,
analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech
affects the impact of the words). (7)
Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life
story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in
each account. (7)
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and
cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and
citing sources. (7)
Technology
• Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search
terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or
paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and
following a standard format for citation. (7)
• Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims
and findings and emphasize salient points. (7)
• Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,
thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine
or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (7)
• Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays
faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the
director or actors. (8)
Technology?
• Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums
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(e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or
idea. (8)
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and
present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as
to interact and collaborate with others. (8)
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using
search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;
and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding
plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (8)
Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats
(e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social,
commercial, political) behind its presentation. (8)
Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries,
glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a
word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (8)
Technology
• Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or
shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other
information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. (9-10)
• Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources,
using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in
answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to
maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for
citation. (9-10)
• Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g.,
visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
(9-10)
• Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and
interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning,
and evidence and to add interest. (9-10)
Technology
• Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,
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•
thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine
or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology. (9-10)
Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with
qualitative analysis in print or digital text. (9-10)
Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources
(including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict
previous explanations or accounts. (9-10)
Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important
connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures,
tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (9-10)
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media
or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a
question or solve a problem. (11-12)
Technology
• Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or
shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or
information. (11-12)
• Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and
interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning,
and evidence and to add interest. (11-12)

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