Rice standards pure Kenyan Pishori

Report
Rice standards pure Kenyan
Pishori
Anne kimani
overview
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Qualities of basmati
Basmati in the world market
Factors affecting quality
Causes of loss of standard
Breeding of Basmati
Way forward
Basmati aroma and grain quality
• Aroma and cooked kernel elongation (CKE) are
the two most important quality traits
• Basmati varieties are superior aromatic varieties
because they combine aroma with superior and
unique grain qualities
• Other unique traits are
• opaque kernel unlike the translucent Indicas.
• unique cooking and eating qualities
• non waxy, non glutinous
• does not stick on cooking.
• It has medium gel strength which makes it
cook flaky remaining soft on cooking and has
high volume expansion of high amylose rice
• Basmati aroma is caused by varying
concentrations of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, which
is about 12 times more than the
concentrations found in unscented varieties
which give it the distinctive spicy fragrance.
Basmati agronomy
• It is low yielding
• It is tall
• Poor nitrogen response due to lodging
Comparative export prices of non- basmati and
Basmati rice varieties-January to December
Jan
Feb
Mar. Aprl May June July
Aug. Sep
Oct.
Nov
Dec
US$,f.o.b.
Thai
premium
332
333
335
341
316
320
323
310
306
303
338
394
360
396
400
400
377
362
359
345
332
360
432
448
342
353
350
360
360
340
340
370
360
318
345
380
876
879
880
888
901
916
956
972
1022 1060 1083 1009
1100 900
900
900
1060 1100 1100 1100 838
Vietnam
rice
Pakistan
rice
Thai
Fragrant
100%
Basmati
ordinary
750
750
750
Control of Aroma and grain quality
• Genetic control
• Aroma in scented rice has its unique economic value and understanding
its inheritance pattern assists rice breeders on the breeding methods to
adopt.
• Cooking Method
• The recommended cooking of basmati rice is, rinse rice thoroughly with
water, soak for twenty minutes, and then boil it in with water at the ratio
of 1:2 (rice: water)
• Post Harvest handling and Ti me of storage
• Post harvest processes that include drying, milling, and storage space and
time are reportedly to be particularly important in preservation of aroma
and flavor in aromatic rice.
• Climate at maturity
• Rice ripened at a low temperature (day 25°C/night 20°C) than that which
ripened at high temperature (day: 35°C/night: 30°C)
• Rice as a geographica indicatorsl.
Reported causes of un evenness in
Basmati standards
• rice blast disease reportedly caused poor grain
quality, development, it has been reported that
rice blast leads to low rice recovery caused by
increase in broken grain, higher white rice and
lighter 100 grain weight all that contribute to
grain quality. Le hu Hai( 2007)
• stalk borers, due to inadequate nutrients
shrievelled grains are produced when lavae
attacks at dough stage again causing poor milling
out turn andcooking quality
• lack of irrigation water drought causes poor
grain filling a reduction in a thousand grain
weight and a reduction in yield,
• lack of certified seed Grist said this affect out
turn as the setting of the polisher is affected.
• deterioration of soil chemistry due to
continuous water logging with resultant soil
toxicity
• lack of extension services
• Deliberate adulteration of local Basmati with
non-aromatic imported and local rice varieties
among them local ITA 310
• Improper drying
• Time in storage the longer the grains stay in
store the better they get in cook ability,
elongation and aroma.
• Genetic deterioration caused by lack of
breeding interventions.
• Heterogeneity has been noted in l/b ratio
• Plant height
• Varietal maturity time and therefore currently
confused
Breeding of Basmati
• Not an indica / not a japonica
• Poor compatibility
• When basmati is used as a pollen donor not
all traits are transferred
• Continue selecting basmati and using basmati
as a pollen donor
Mitigation
In view of the economic importance of Basmati as
an income generating variety to rice farmers
• Breeding interventions for grain quality and
aroma in Basmati rice is essential.
• development and dissemination of Basmati
cultivation technology which include time of
planting and planting zones, fertilizer
requirements especially potassium, soil water
control and blast disease control.
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• Development of tropical post harvest handling
of Basmati in relationship to aroma and grain
quality retention
• Enact laws protecting Kenyan Basmati from
illegal adulteration by non Basmati varieties
as production in the highland increase
• Challenges
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