Chapter 11: The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic 1800-1812 The election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr John Adams 1800 Election Results “Revolution of 1800” Election of 1800 pitted Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party vs. John Adams and his Federalist Party Jefferson and Burr tied. Jefferson prevailed in the House Led to 12th Amendment SIMPLIFYING THE GOVERNMENT Jeffersonian Republicanism—simple government is best. Jefferson reduced Naturalization Law requirements from 14 to 5 years. Eliminated the excise tax Reduced the military Jefferson Memorial JOHN MARSHALL AND THE POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT Before leaving office, John Adams (2nd President), attempts to “pack” the Federal courts with Federalists Judges Jefferson argued this was unconstitutional Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall rules in Marbury v. Madison (1803) that part of the Judicial Act was unconstitutional Established principle of Judicial Review – the ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 1803 Napoleon needed money to fight European wars, so he offered to sell Louisiana for $15,000,000 More than doubled the size of our country Lewis and Clark ordered to go explore new territory Louisiana Purchase Activity Lewis and Clark Expedition The Barbary States Pirates from North African countries capture ships in the Mediterranean. Demand payments to leave ships alone. Navy is sent to protect ships ◦ “…to the shores of Tripoli” Undeclared war from 1801-1805. A precarious neutrality Napoleon renews his war with Britain ◦ Britain ruled the seas and Napoleon the land 1806—London issues Orders in Council forcing ports closed in France and halting American shipping. Napoleon responds by seizing merchant ships including American Chesapeake Incident The Hated Embargo If America voluntarily cut off its exports, the offending powers would be forced to respect its rights. 1807—Congress passed the Embargo Act. ◦ Forbade the export of all goods from America ◦ Detrimental to the US (north and south alike) Repealed on March 1, 1809 Replaced by the Non-intercourse Act Why did the embargo fail? The US overestimated dependence of Br. and Fr. on American trade. Britain—received goods from Latin Am. France—ruled most of Europe Jefferson miscalculated the unpopularity Positives—helped manufacturing in the US MADISON ELECTED PRESIDENT 4th President 1808-1816 After two terms, Jefferson is succeeded by James Madison Madison was two-term President 1808-1816 Known as the “Father of the Constitution, Madison also is known for his leadership during the War of 1812 Macon’s Bill No. 2 If either Br. or Fr. repealed its commercial restrictions, US would restore its embargo against the non-repealing nation. Napoleon responded but with a bargain. ◦ Br. had 3 months to revoke the Orders of Council ◦ Br. refused and America renewed the embargo against Br. Mr. Madison’s War Causes: ◦ British “impressment” ◦ Arming of Natives ◦ “warhawks” ◦ Restore faith in republicanism War declared on June 1, 1812 British Impressment of U.S. seamen upset Americans A divided nation For: South/West Rep. in PA/VA Against: Fed. in New England Fed in north/south sympathized with Britain Opposed acquisition of Canada.