Making Inclusion Work: Focus on Ongoing Assessment Mary McLean, Ph.D. NATIONAL CENTER ON QUALITY TEACHING AND LEARNING http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/ttasystem/teaching AGENDA • How is information collected for all children relative to EC standards or curriculum • How is information collected about progress toward IEP goals/IFSP outcomes? AGENDA • How does planning for assessment happen? • How is assessment information used to inform teaching? • How is assessment information shared? FRAMEWORK FOR EFFECTIVE PRACTICE SUPPORTING SCHOOL READINESS FOR ALL CHILDREN Ongoing Child Assessment for Children with Disabilities PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT • Screening • Evaluation to determine eligibility for special education • Assessment for program planning • Monitoring child progress • Program evaluation “THINKING ABOUT YOUR PROGRAM” DOCUMENT Think about an inclusive program you work in or are aware of as we consider five questions about the assessment system that currently exists. Question #I How is information about children collected for monitoring progress toward general early childhood standards or curriculum goals? • What data reporting requirements exist? • What instruments are used and when? FROM THE HEAD START PERFORMANCE STANDARDS • Program Evaluation • Support Learning FROM THE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS STEPS TO ACHIEVE SCHOOL READINESS GOALS 1307.3 (b)(2)(i) – (i) Aggregating and analyzing aggregate child-level assessment data at least three times per year (except for programs operating less than 90 days, which will be required to do so at least twice within their operating program period) and – using that data in combination with other program data to determine grantees' progress toward meeting its goals, to inform parents and the community of results, – to direct continuous improvement related to curriculum, instruction, professional development, program design and other program decisions; FROM THE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS STEPS TO ACHIEVE THE SCHOOL READINESS GOALS 1307.3 (B)(2)(II) • (ii) Analyzing individual ongoing, child-level assessment data for all children birth to age five participating in the program and • using that data in combination with input from parents and families to determine each child's status and progress with regard to, at a minimum, language and literacy development, cognition and general knowledge, approaches toward learning, physical wellbeing and motor development, and social and emotional development and • to individualize the experiences, instructional strategies, and services to best support each child. CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURES FROM THE HEAD START ACT 641A(B)(2) ) Measures shall • be developmentally, linguistically and culturally appropriate for the population served; • be reviewed periodically, based on advances in the science of early childhood development; • be consistent with …professional and technical standards related to the assessment of young children; • Be valid and reliable in the language in which they are administered; 13 CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURES FROM THE HEAD START ACT 641A(B)(2) ) Measures shall • be administered by staff with appropriate training for such administration; • provide for appropriate accommodations for children with disabilities and children who are limited English proficient; • Be high-quality research-based measures that have been demonstrated to assist with the purposes for which they were devised; • 641A(b)(2) 14 RESOURCES • Understanding and Choosing Assessments and Developmental Screeners for Young Children Ages 35: Profiles of Selected Measures http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/mr/opre/screeners_final.pdf • Resources for Measuring Services & Outcomes in Head Start Programs Serving Infants & Toddlers http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/ehs/perf_ measures/reports/resources_measuring/res_meas_ti tle.html 15 Question #1 (cont’d) • How is data collected? • Who collects the data? 16 Suggestion: Ongoing Child Assessment A system of ongoing, authentic assessment that is embedded into the typical routines and planned activities of the Head Start classroom House Foundation • Ongoing child assessment informs instruction and facilitates program evaluation. Ongoing Assessment An initial and continuous system of assessment that informs instruction including: • Decisions about what to teach • Decisions about how to teach • Decisions about when to make changes in teaching Ongoing assessment is authentic assessment Ongoing assessment information can be used to inform teaching and used to rate an assessment instrument on a periodic basis Authentic Assessment Resources • Neisworth, J.& Bagnato, S. (2005). DEC recommended practices: Assessment. In Sandall, Hemmeter, Smith & McLean (Eds) DEC recommended practice: A comprehensive guide for application. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Publishing Co. • NAEYC and NAECS/SDE (2003). Early childhood curriculum, assessment, and program evaluation: Building an effective accountable system in programs for children birth through age 8. http://www.naeyc.org/about/positions/cape.asp • DEC (2007). Promoting positive outcomes for children with disabilities: Recommendations for curriculum, assessment and program evaluation. www.dec-sped.org • Snow, C. & VanHemel, C. (2008). Early childhood assessment: Why, what and how? Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Direct _________________________ Authentic Assessment Assessment “…the science of the strange behavior of children in strange situations with strange adults for the briefest possible period of time” Bronfenbrenner (1977) (direct assessment) “The best way to understand the development of children is to observe their behavior in natural settings while they are interacting with familiar adults over prolonged periods of time.” Bronfenbrenner, 1977 (authentic assessment) Direct Assessment Authentic Assessment • Procedures for consistency in administration and scoring are built in • Consistency depends on teacher training and monitoring of implementation • Behavior sampled may not be representative of child’s typical behavior • Behavior measured is child’s typical behavior • Increased utility for instruction (Mathematica Policy Research, 2007) How to assess: Assessment strategies Question #2 How is information about progress toward IEP goals/IFSP outcomes collected: • how ? • who? • when? Suggestion: Embed assessment of IEP goals and IFSP outcomes Assessing progress toward many IEP goals/IFSP outcomes can be embedded in the ongoing assessment system. Question #3 How is planning for assessment completed? Suggestion: Embed Plannning Planning for assessment can be embedded into planning for instruction. “Why” is a very Important Question! “If I knew what you were going to use the information for, I would have done a better job of collecting it” Introduction to Data Analysis Handbook Academy for Educational Development http://ece.aed.org/publications/mshs/dataanalysis/WebDataAnalysis.pdf 31 Teacher “If I knew what you were going to use the information for I would have done a better job of collecting it.” Planning What to Assess • Universal learning targets for all curriculum areas for the whole class • Specific targets for children who may need a bit of extra help to stay on track • Specific goals or skills for children with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), (IFSPs) or Behavior Support Plans (BSPs) 33 Planning When to Assess: Assessment Matrix Schedule All Children Free Play Conversation skills Checklist Teacher Matthew Follows teacher direction to join group Anecdotal Any adult Early writing Work samples Assistant Circle Attends and participates Video to watch later Assistant Snack Counts out five objects Checklist Adults at tables Carla Identifies printed name Anecdotal Assistant Activity Matrix/Data Sheet Schedule Arrival Free Play Circle Outside Snack Shelby Matthew Respond to peers 2/2 Engage in activity 8 minutes Imitate adult words Throw ball with two hands 4/4 Use pincer grasp Remove and hang up coat 1/1 Join ongoing play 5/7 Davion 2/2 Imitate adult actions 4 Join ongoing play 1/1 Request preferred item 3/4 Tell full name with model 3/3 Request preferred item 1/2 Pour juice with help 1/2 4/9 Free Play 2-word utterance 4 Imitate adult actions 3 Circle/Departure 2-word utterance 3 Identify positional concepts 2/2 under, on top Transitions Follow 2-step directions 2/2 Copy square 2/2 Follow 2-step direction 2/2 Question #4 How is assessment information used to inform teaching: • How is it organized? • Who reviews it and makes decisions? • How frequently? Organize and Analyze the Data 39 40 Individual Child Progress Toby – Turning pages in book 4 3 2 1 0 5/7 5/14 24 5/22 5/24 An Assessment System with High Utility • Informs program planning and progress monitoring and program evaluation • Informs general early childhood planning/monitoring and IFSP/IEP planning/monitoring The Assessment-Instructional Cycle Observation Instruction Documentation Interpretation Hypothesis setting Schedule Time to Review the Information you have Gathered Suggestion: Schedule time to review the data Schedule regular meetings for the purpose of analyzing and reviewing data to inform teaching Question #5: How is assessment information shared? Gathering and sharing information with families Family involvement expands the validity of assessment information and the effectiveness of intervention Strategies for Gathering and Sharing Information with Families • Utilize home visits as a strategy to connect with families • Make periodic requests for information from families (describe specific skills to watch for at home.) • Use assessment tools that have family report forms: AEPS, HELP, GOLD • Use existing informal communication mechanisms (traveling notebook, daily conversations, e-mail, telephone.) Resources for Partnering with Families • Brotherson, M. A., Summers, J. A., Bruns, D. A., & Sharp, L. M. (2008). Family-centered practices: Working in partnerships with families. In P. J. Winton, J. A. McCollum, & C. Catlett (Eds.), Practical approaches to early childhood professional development: Evidence, strategies, and resources (pp. 53–80). Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families. • Cheatham, G. A., & Santos, R. M. (2011). Collaborating with families from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Young Children, 66(5), 76–82. Resources for Partnering with Families • Woods, J. J., & Lindeman, D. P. (2008). Gathering and giving information with families. Infants and Young Children, 21(4), 272–284. Retrieved from http://depts.washington.edu/isei/iyc/21.4_woods.pdf • Woods, J. J., & McCormick, K. M. (2002). Welcoming the family. Toward an integration of child- and family-centered practices in the assessment of preschool children. Young Exceptional Children, 5(3), 2–11. Gathering and sharing information with other service providers How to Include Information from Other Providers Systematically • Plan collaborative activities for observations • Schedule periodic team meetings or staffings • Share information and request information What about children who are Dual Language Learners? Strategies for Assessing Children who are Dual Language Learners • 1) Assess each child who is DLL in receptive language and expressive language in both English and in the home language. • 2) For assessment of the domain areas that are not language, the child can demonstrate competencies in either English or the home language. • 3) If no adults speak the child’s home language, find a qualified interpreter. • 4) Carefully select assessment instruments. Resources for Assessing Children who are Dual Language Learners • California Department of Education (2009). Preschool English learners: Principles and practices to promote language, literacy and learning. Sacramento, CA: Author http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/documents/psenglearnersed2.pdf#searc h=preschool%20english%20learners%20ten%20principles&view=FitH&pag emode=none • Castro, D., Espinosa, L, and Paez, M. (2011). Defining and measuring quality in early childhood practices that promote dual language learners’ development and learning. In M. Zaslow, I. Martinez-Beck, K Tout, and T. Halle (Eds). Quality measurement in early childhood settings, 257-280. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishing Company. Resources for Assessing Children who are Dual Language Learners • Espinosa, L. (2008). Challenging common myths about young English language learners. Foundation for Child Development Policy Brief No, Eight. Available online : http://fcdus.org/sites/default/files/MythsOfTeachingELLsEspinosa.pdf • Santos, A., Cheatham, G. & Duran, L. (2012) Supporting young children who are dual language learners with or at-risk for disabilities. Young Exceptional Children Monograph #14. Missoula, MT: Division for Early Childhood. Thank You!