Session PowerPoint slides - 2015 Early Childhood Inclusion Institute

Report
Making Inclusion Work: Focus on
Ongoing Assessment
Mary McLean, Ph.D.
NATIONAL CENTER ON QUALITY
TEACHING AND LEARNING
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/ttasystem/teaching
AGENDA
• How is information collected for all
children relative to EC standards or
curriculum
• How is information collected about
progress toward IEP goals/IFSP
outcomes?
AGENDA
• How does planning for assessment
happen?
• How is assessment information used to
inform teaching?
• How is assessment information shared?
FRAMEWORK FOR EFFECTIVE PRACTICE
SUPPORTING SCHOOL READINESS FOR ALL CHILDREN
Ongoing Child
Assessment for
Children with
Disabilities
PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT
• Screening
• Evaluation to determine eligibility for
special education
• Assessment for program planning
• Monitoring child progress
• Program evaluation
“THINKING ABOUT YOUR PROGRAM”
DOCUMENT
Think about an
inclusive program you
work in or are aware
of as we consider five
questions about the
assessment system
that currently exists.
Question #I
How is information about
children collected for
monitoring progress toward
general early childhood
standards or curriculum
goals?
• What data reporting
requirements exist?
• What instruments are
used and when?
FROM THE HEAD START PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
• Program Evaluation
• Support Learning
FROM THE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
STEPS TO ACHIEVE SCHOOL READINESS GOALS
1307.3 (b)(2)(i)
– (i) Aggregating and analyzing aggregate child-level
assessment data at least three times per year (except
for programs operating less than 90 days, which will be
required to do so at least twice within their operating
program period) and
– using that data in combination with other
program data to determine grantees' progress
toward meeting its goals, to inform parents and
the community of results,
– to direct continuous improvement related to
curriculum, instruction, professional development,
program design and other program decisions;
FROM THE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
STEPS TO ACHIEVE THE SCHOOL READINESS GOALS
1307.3 (B)(2)(II)
• (ii) Analyzing individual ongoing, child-level assessment
data for all children birth to age five participating in the
program and
• using that data in combination with input from parents
and families to determine each child's status and
progress with regard to, at a minimum, language and
literacy development, cognition and general
knowledge, approaches toward learning, physical wellbeing and motor development, and social and
emotional development and
• to individualize the experiences, instructional strategies,
and services to best support each child.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURES
FROM THE HEAD START ACT
641A(B)(2)
)
Measures shall
• be developmentally, linguistically and culturally
appropriate for the population served;
• be reviewed periodically, based on advances in the
science of early childhood development;
• be consistent with …professional and technical
standards related to the assessment of young
children;
• Be valid and reliable in the language in which they
are administered;
13
CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURES
FROM THE HEAD START ACT
641A(B)(2)
)
Measures shall
• be administered by staff with appropriate training for
such administration;
• provide for appropriate accommodations for
children with disabilities and children who are limited
English proficient;
• Be high-quality research-based measures that have
been demonstrated to assist with the purposes for
which they were devised;
• 641A(b)(2)
14
RESOURCES
• Understanding and Choosing Assessments and
Developmental Screeners for Young Children Ages 35: Profiles of Selected Measures
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/mr/opre/screeners_final.pdf
• Resources for Measuring Services & Outcomes in
Head Start Programs Serving Infants & Toddlers
http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/ehs/perf_
measures/reports/resources_measuring/res_meas_ti
tle.html
15
Question #1 (cont’d)
• How is data collected?
• Who collects the data?
16
Suggestion: Ongoing Child Assessment
A system of ongoing, authentic assessment that
is embedded into the typical routines and
planned activities of the Head Start classroom
House Foundation
• Ongoing child assessment
informs instruction and
facilitates program
evaluation.
Ongoing Assessment
An initial and continuous system of assessment
that informs instruction including:
• Decisions about what to teach
• Decisions about how to teach
• Decisions about when to make changes in
teaching
Ongoing assessment is authentic
assessment
Ongoing assessment information
can be used to inform teaching
and used to rate an assessment
instrument on a periodic basis
Authentic Assessment Resources
• Neisworth, J.& Bagnato, S. (2005). DEC recommended practices:
Assessment. In Sandall, Hemmeter, Smith & McLean (Eds) DEC
recommended practice: A comprehensive guide for application.
Longmont, CO: Sopris West Publishing Co.
• NAEYC and NAECS/SDE (2003). Early childhood curriculum,
assessment, and program evaluation: Building an effective
accountable system in programs for children birth through age 8.
http://www.naeyc.org/about/positions/cape.asp
• DEC (2007). Promoting positive outcomes for children with
disabilities: Recommendations for curriculum, assessment and
program evaluation.
www.dec-sped.org
• Snow, C. & VanHemel, C. (2008). Early childhood assessment:
Why, what and how? Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Direct _________________________ Authentic
Assessment
Assessment
“…the science of the strange behavior of children
in strange situations with strange adults for the
briefest possible period of time” Bronfenbrenner
(1977)
(direct assessment)
“The best way to understand the development of
children is to observe their behavior in natural
settings while they are interacting with familiar
adults over prolonged periods of time.”
Bronfenbrenner, 1977
(authentic assessment)
Direct Assessment
Authentic Assessment
• Procedures for consistency in
administration and scoring are
built in
• Consistency depends on teacher
training and monitoring of
implementation
• Behavior sampled may not be
representative of child’s typical
behavior
• Behavior measured is child’s
typical behavior
• Increased utility for instruction
(Mathematica Policy Research, 2007)
How to assess:
Assessment strategies
Question #2
How is information
about progress toward
IEP goals/IFSP
outcomes collected:
• how ?
• who?
• when?
Suggestion: Embed assessment of IEP
goals and IFSP outcomes
Assessing progress toward many IEP goals/IFSP
outcomes can be embedded in the ongoing
assessment system.
Question #3
How is
planning for
assessment
completed?
Suggestion: Embed Plannning
Planning for assessment can be embedded into
planning for instruction.
“Why” is a very Important Question!
“If I knew what you were going to
use the information for, I would
have done a better job of
collecting it”
Introduction to Data Analysis Handbook
Academy for Educational Development
http://ece.aed.org/publications/mshs/dataanalysis/WebDataAnalysis.pdf
31
Teacher
“If I knew what you were
going to use the
information for I would
have done a better job of
collecting it.”
Planning What to Assess
• Universal learning targets for all curriculum areas
for the whole class
• Specific targets for children who may need a bit
of extra help to stay on track
• Specific goals or skills for children with
Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), (IFSPs)
or Behavior Support Plans (BSPs)
33
Planning When to Assess:
Assessment Matrix
Schedule
All Children
Free Play
Conversation skills
Checklist
Teacher
Matthew
Follows teacher direction
to join group
Anecdotal
Any adult
Early writing
Work samples
Assistant
Circle
Attends and participates
Video to watch later
Assistant
Snack
Counts out five objects
Checklist
Adults at tables
Carla
Identifies printed name
Anecdotal
Assistant
Activity Matrix/Data Sheet
Schedule
Arrival
Free Play
Circle
Outside
Snack
Shelby
Matthew
Respond to peers
2/2
Engage in activity
8 minutes
Imitate adult words
Throw ball with two hands
4/4
Use pincer grasp
Remove and hang up coat
1/1
Join ongoing play
5/7
Davion
2/2
Imitate adult actions 4
Join ongoing play
1/1
Request preferred item
3/4
Tell full name with model
3/3
Request preferred item 1/2
Pour juice with help
1/2
4/9
Free Play
2-word utterance
4
Imitate adult actions 3
Circle/Departure
2-word utterance
3
Identify positional concepts
2/2 under, on top
Transitions
Follow 2-step directions
2/2
Copy square
2/2
Follow 2-step direction 2/2
Question #4
How is assessment
information used to
inform teaching:
• How is it
organized?
• Who reviews it and
makes decisions?
• How frequently?
Organize and Analyze the Data
39
40
Individual Child Progress
Toby – Turning
pages in book
4
3
2
1
0
5/7
5/14
24
5/22
5/24
An Assessment System with High Utility
• Informs program planning and progress
monitoring and program evaluation
• Informs general early childhood
planning/monitoring and IFSP/IEP
planning/monitoring
The Assessment-Instructional
Cycle
Observation
Instruction
Documentation
Interpretation Hypothesis setting
Schedule Time to Review the
Information you have Gathered
Suggestion: Schedule time to review
the data
Schedule regular meetings for the purpose of
analyzing and reviewing data to inform teaching
Question #5: How is assessment
information shared?
Gathering and sharing information with families
Family involvement
expands the
validity of
assessment
information and
the effectiveness
of intervention
Strategies for Gathering and Sharing
Information with Families
• Utilize home visits as a strategy to connect with
families
• Make periodic requests for information from families
(describe specific skills to watch for at home.)
• Use assessment tools that have family report forms:
AEPS, HELP, GOLD
• Use existing informal communication mechanisms
(traveling notebook, daily conversations, e-mail,
telephone.)
Resources for Partnering with Families
• Brotherson, M. A., Summers, J. A., Bruns, D. A., & Sharp, L. M.
(2008). Family-centered practices: Working in partnerships
with families. In P. J. Winton, J. A. McCollum, & C. Catlett
(Eds.), Practical approaches to early childhood professional
development: Evidence, strategies, and resources (pp. 53–80).
Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants,
Toddlers and Families.
• Cheatham, G. A., & Santos, R. M. (2011). Collaborating with
families from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
Young Children, 66(5), 76–82.
Resources for Partnering with Families
• Woods, J. J., & Lindeman, D. P. (2008). Gathering and giving
information with families. Infants and Young Children, 21(4),
272–284. Retrieved from
http://depts.washington.edu/isei/iyc/21.4_woods.pdf
• Woods, J. J., & McCormick, K. M. (2002). Welcoming the
family. Toward an integration of child- and family-centered
practices in the assessment of preschool children. Young
Exceptional Children, 5(3), 2–11.
Gathering and sharing information with
other service providers
How to Include Information from Other
Providers Systematically
• Plan collaborative activities for observations
• Schedule periodic team meetings or staffings
• Share information and request information
What about children who are Dual
Language Learners?
Strategies for Assessing Children who are
Dual Language Learners
• 1) Assess each child who is DLL in receptive language and
expressive language in both English and in the home
language.
• 2) For assessment of the domain areas that are not language,
the child can demonstrate competencies in either English or
the home language.
• 3) If no adults speak the child’s home language, find a
qualified interpreter.
• 4) Carefully select assessment instruments.
Resources for Assessing Children who are
Dual Language Learners
• California Department of Education (2009). Preschool English learners:
Principles and practices to promote language, literacy and learning.
Sacramento, CA: Author
http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/documents/psenglearnersed2.pdf#searc
h=preschool%20english%20learners%20ten%20principles&view=FitH&pag
emode=none
• Castro, D., Espinosa, L, and Paez, M. (2011). Defining and measuring
quality in early childhood practices that promote dual language learners’
development and learning. In M. Zaslow, I. Martinez-Beck, K Tout, and T.
Halle (Eds). Quality measurement in early childhood settings, 257-280.
Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishing Company.
Resources for Assessing Children who
are Dual Language Learners
• Espinosa, L. (2008). Challenging common myths about young
English language learners. Foundation for Child Development
Policy Brief No, Eight. Available online :
http://fcdus.org/sites/default/files/MythsOfTeachingELLsEspinosa.pdf
• Santos, A., Cheatham, G. & Duran, L. (2012) Supporting young
children who are dual language learners with or at-risk for
disabilities. Young Exceptional Children Monograph #14.
Missoula, MT: Division for Early Childhood.
Thank You!

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