Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age Socialization • The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society. • The social experience by which people learn culture • Socialization is the essential link between the individual and society. Why Socialization Is Important • Teaches us ways to think, talk and act that are necessary for social living. • Ensures that members of society are socialized to support the existing social structure. • Allows society to pass culture on to the next generation. Human Development Each of us is a product of two forces: 1. Heredity- “nature” • Determines our physical makeup. 2. Social environment -“nurture.” • Determines how we develop and behave. The Biological Sciences: The Role of Nature Charles Darwin Human behavior was instinctive – our “nature” U.S. economic system reflects “instinctive human competitiveness” People are “born criminals” Women are “naturally” emotional and men are “naturally” more rational The Social Sciences: The Role of Nurture John B. Watson (1878-1958) Behaviorism Held that behavior is not instinctive but learned People are equally human, just culturally different Human behavior is rooted in nurture not nature Social Isolation Ethically, researchers cannot place humans in total isolation to study what happens Harry & Margaret Harlow (1962) Studied rhesus monkeys Found that complete isolation for even six months seriously disturbed development Unable to interact with others in a group Confirmed the importance of adults in cradling infants Isolation caused irreversible emotional and behavioral damage Studies of Isolated Children Anna Social isolation caused permanent damage At age 8, mental development was less than a 2-year-old Began to use words at age 10 Because mother was mentally retarded, perhaps Anna was similarly challenged California Case Childhood isolation resulting from parental abuse At age 13, mental development of a 1-yearold Became physically healthy with intensive treatment Language ability remained that of a young child CRITICAL REVIEW Evidence points to the crucial role of social experience in forming personality Humans can sometimes recover from abuse and short-term isolation There is a point at which isolation in infancy causes permanent developmental damage Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) • Human development occurs in three states that reflect different levels of personality: – Id: Present at birth; Pleasure principle – Ego: Develops over the first few years; Reality principle – Superego: Develops in a preschool child; Morality principle Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Personality Development To the id, the world is a jumble of physical sensations that bring pleasure or pain As the superego develops, moral concepts of right and wrong are learned Id and superego remain in conflict Managed by the ego in a well-adjusted person Freud’s Theory of Personality Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget used five key concepts to explain how cognitive development occurs: – Schema – Assimilation – Accommodation – Equilibrium – Equilibration Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2) children understand the world through sensory contact and immediate action. 2. Preoperational stage (age 2 to 7) - children begin to use words as symbols and form mental images. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 3. Concrete operational stage (7 to 11) children think in terms of tangible objects and events. 4. Formal operational stage (12 and up) adolescents begin to think about the future and evaluate different courses of action. Conservation and Reversibility Problems Conservation and Reversibility Problems Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning 1. Preconventional level (7 to 10) Children’s perceptions are based on punishment and obedience. 2. Conventional level (10 to adult) People are concerned with how they are perceived by peers and how one conforms to rules. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning 3. Postconventional level (few adults reach this stage) People view morality in terms of individual rights; “moral conduct” is judged by principles based on human rights that transcend government and laws. Carol Gilligan’s Stages of Female Moral Development • Stage 1: A woman is motivated primarily by selfish concerns. • Stage 2: She recognizes her responsibility to others. • Stage 3: She makes a decision based on a desire to do the greatest good for self and for others. The Looking-Glass Self 1. We imagine how we look to others. 2. We imagine how other people judge the appearance that we think we present. 3. If we think the evaluation is favorable our self-concept is enhanced. • If we think the evaluation is unfavorable, our self-concept is diminished. Mead and Role-taking The self is divided into “I” and “Me”: • “I” represents the unique traits of each person. • “Me” is composed of the demands of others and the awareness of those demands. • “I” develops first. “Me” is formed during first three stages of self development. Mead’s Three Stages of Self-Development 1. Preparatory Stage (up to age 3) Children prepare for role-taking by imitating the people around them. 2. Play Stage (3 - 5) Children begin to see themselves in relation to others. Mead’s Play Stage Mead’s Three Stages of Self-Development 3. Game Stage (early school years) Children understand their social position and the positions of those around them. Children become concerned about the demands and expectations of others. 4. Generalized Other (Later school years) The concept of socially acceptable behavior is internalized. Erik H. Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development Stage 1 The challenge of trust versus mistrust Birth to about 18 months Gain a sense of trust that the world is safe Stage 2 Toddlerhood – The challenge of autonomy (versus doubt and shame) Up to age 3 Failure to gain self control leads to doubt in abilities Stage 3 Preschool – The challenge of initiative (versus guilt) Four- and 5-year-olds Learn to engage their surroundings or experience guilt at having failed to meet expectations Stage 4 Preadolescence – The challenge of industriousness (versus inferiority) Between ages 6 and 13 Feel proud of accomplishments or fear they do not measure up Stage 5 Adolescence – The challenge of gaining identity (versus confusion) Teen years Struggle to establish identity Almost all teens suffer confusion in establishing identity Stage 6 Young adulthood – The challenge of intimacy (versus isolation) Challenge of forming and keeping intimate relationships Balancing the need to bond with the need to have a separate identity Stage 7 Middle adulthood – The challenge of making a difference (versus selfabsorption) Challenge of middle age is to contribute to the lives of others Failing leads to self-centeredness or becoming caught up in own limited concerns Stage 8 Old age – The challenge of integrity (versus despair) Near the end of life, people hope to look back on accomplishments with a sense of integrity For the self-absorbed, old age brings a sense of despair over missed opportunities Agents of Socialization • Family • School • Peer group • Mass Media Functionalist Perspective: Functions of Schools • Teach students to be productive members of society. • Transmit culture. • Social control and personal development. • Select, train, and place individuals on different rungs in society. Conflict Perspective: Schools • Experiences depend on social class, racial– ethnic background, gender, and other factors. • Children learn to be neat, punctual, quiet, wait their turn, and remain attentive to their work. • Schools socialize children for later roles in the work force. Media As Socializing Agents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Inform us about events. Introduce us to a variety of people. Provide an array of viewpoints on current issues. Make us aware of products that will supposedly help us. Entertain us.