Link:Presentation of Jean François Delfraissy

Report
New Challenges in Infectious
Diseases
Pr Jean François Delfraissy
Dr Bernadette Murgue
Institut de Microbiologie et Maladies
Infectieuses (IMMI)
The Heavy Burden of Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases account for 26% of all deaths worldwide
Leading cause of mortality in ressources limited countries
18%
Two-thirds of worldwide deaths
% of deaths
36%
in children <5 years old
15%
Pneumonia
Diarrhoea
Other infections
Non infectious
31%
CEA
CHRU
CNRS
CPU
INRA
INRIA
INSERM
INSTITUT PASTEUR
IRD
2
New pathogens and diseases: 1983-2010
Year
Agent
Disease
1983
HIV
AIDS
1983
Helicobacter pylori
Peptic ulcer disease
1985
Enterocytozoon bieneusi
Microsporidiosis
1986
Cyclospora cayatenensis
Cyclosporidiosis
1988
Human Herpes 6
Roseola infantum
1988
Hepatitis E virus
Hepatitis E
1989
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
Ehrlichiosis
1989
Hepatitis C virus
Hepatitis C
1989
Guanarito virus
Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever
1992
Bartonella henselae
Cat scratch disease
1993
Sin nombre virus
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
1 994
Sabia virus
Brazilian hemorrhagic fever
1995
Human herpesvirus 8
Kaposi sarcoma
1997
H5N1
Avian influenza
1999
Nipah virus
Nipah virus disease
2003
2009
SARS Coronavirus
A/H1N1v
SARS
Influenza pandemic
2010…
NDM-1
Multiresistant bacteria
2….
???
CEA
CHRU
CNRS
CPU
???
INRA
INRIA
INSERM
INSTITUT PASTEUR
IRD
Emergence: a global threat
– Newly apparent in the human population
e.g. AIDS, Ebola, SRAS, H5N1, H1N1
– Rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range e.g.
dengue, chikungunya, West Nile
– Multiresistant pathogens e.g Tuberculosis
NDM-1, E. Coli (O 104)
CEA
CHRU
CNRS
CPU
INRA
INRIA
INSERM
INSTITUT PASTEUR
IRD
Medical and Scientific challenges (1)
• Resistance : Tuberculosis, Bacteria, MDR…
• Transmission of infection (mechanisms, nosocomial…)
• Vaccination: new vaccines, immunity, SHS…
• Emerging diseases; zoonosis, human ecology, biodiversity
• Infectious agents and non infectious diseases: cancer,
cardiovascular, obesity, allergy, inflammation,…
• The commensal microbiota : from homeostasis to disease
• The big 3 : HIV, Tuberculosis, Malaria
CEA
CHRU
CNRS
CPU
INRA
INRIA
INSERM
INSTITUT PASTEUR
IRD
Medical and Scientific challenges (2)
• Discovery of new viruses, new bacteria
• New technologies : deep sequencing, omics…
• Molecular basis of host defense
• Microbial and host biodiversity
• Biomarkers, Point of care, Pharmacogenomics
CEA
CHRU
CNRS
CPU
INRA
INRIA
INSERM
INSTITUT PASTEUR
IRD
Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Key points : France 2011
• Main Institutions : Institut Pasteur, Inserm, CNRS, IRD
• Others : ANRS, CEA, CIRAD, INRA, Universités
• 12% of French research forces: 300 teams, 2000 Scientists &
Technical staff
• 18% French biomedical publications: 5000 publications per
year
• 1 Network of vaccine research centres
• Translationnal and clinical research: 35 clinical units
involved, including HIV and hepatits
• 4 large research network in ressources limited countries
CEA
CHRU
CNRS
CPU
INRA
INRIA
INSERM
INSTITUT PASTEUR
IRD
French International Research Network

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