Air Review

Report
Air Review
Weather, climate, and
pollution
Climate is the general pattern
of weather over a period of at
least




a. 30 years
b. 30 days
c. 30 minutes
d. 30 centuries
Climate is the general pattern
of weather over a period of at
least

a. 30 years
Environmentalists are likely to

a. ventilate their homes periodically

b. use houseplants that filter the air

c. maintain the vents for stoves,
fireplaces, and heaters

d. all of these answers

Environmentalists are likely to

a. ventilate their homes periodically

b. use houseplants that filter the air

c. maintain the vents for stoves,
fireplaces, and heaters

d. all of these answers

Indoor air pollution could be
sharply reduced by
a. modifying building codes to
prevent radon infiltration
 b. requiring exhaust hoods or vent pipes
for stoves, refrigerators, or other
appliances burning natural gas or other
fossil fuels

c. finding substitutes for potentially
harmful chemicals

d. all of these answers

Indoor air pollution could be
sharply reduced by
a. modifying building codes to
prevent radon infiltration
 b. requiring exhaust hoods or vent pipes
for stoves, refrigerators, or other
appliances burning natural gas or other
fossil fuels

c. finding substitutes for potentially
harmful chemicals

d. all of these answers

Humans are protected from
air pollution by
a. sneezing and coughing

b. mucus capturing small particles

c. nasal hairs filtering out large
particles

d. all of these answers

Humans are protected from
air pollution by
a. sneezing and coughing

b. mucus capturing small particles

c. nasal hairs filtering out large
particles

d. all of these answers

In 1990, EPA rated indoor air
pollution as the ____ out of 18
sources of cancer risk.




a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
In 1990, EPA rated indoor air
pollution as the ____ out of 18
sources of cancer risk.

a. first
Acid deposition can
a. release soluble aluminum ions

b. deplete acid-buffering chemicals in
the soil

c. altering calcium and magnesium
uptake from the soil

d. all of these answers

Acid deposition can
a. release soluble aluminum ions

b. deplete acid-buffering chemicals in
the soil

c. altering calcium and magnesium
uptake from the soil

d. all of these answers

Acid deposition can affect
living organisms by
a. killing fish, aquatic plants, and
microorganisms in lakes and streams

b. damaging tree roots

c. making trees more susceptible to
diseases

d. all of these answers

Acid deposition can affect
living organisms by
a. killing fish, aquatic plants, and
microorganisms in lakes and streams

b. damaging tree roots

c. making trees more susceptible to
diseases

d. all of these answers

In general, acid deposition
can have harmful effects
when pH falls below the level
of ___.




a. 8.1
b. 5.1
c. 6.1
d. 7.1
In general, acid deposition
can have harmful effects
when pH falls below the level
of ___.


b. 5.1
Which of the following areas
would be least likely to have a
thermal inversion?
a. an area near the coast

b. an area in the central plains

c. a valley surrounded by mountains

d. the leeward side of a mountain
range

Which of the following areas
would be least likely to have a
thermal inversion?


b. an area in the central plains
Which of the following
statements is true?




a. thermal inversion occurs when a layer
of cold air prevents warm air from rising
b. thermal inversions exacerbate pollution
problems
c. thermal inversions last only a few
minutes to a few hours
d. normally, cool air near Earth’s surface
expands and rises, carrying pollutants higher
into the troposphere
Which of the following
statements is true?


b. thermal inversions
exacerbate pollution problems
The frequency and severity of
smog in an area depends
least upon the
a. local climate and topography

b. fuels used in industry, heating, and
transportation

c. size of the ozone hole over the
Arctic

d. density of the population

The frequency and severity of
smog in an area depends
least upon the

c. size of the ozone hole over the
Arctic
Scientists classify indoor and
outdoor air pollution as
a. high-risk human health problems

b. moderate-risk human health
problems

c. low-risk human health problems

d. high-risk ecological problems

Scientists classify indoor and
outdoor air pollution as

a. high-risk human health problems
. In 1987, 36 nations meeting in
Montreal, Canada developed the
Montreal Protocol to reduce
production of




a. carbon dioxide
b. nitrous oxide
c. CFCs
d. toxic wastes
. In 1987, 36 nations meeting in
Montreal, Canada developed the
Montreal Protocol to reduce
production of

c. CFCs
Human health problems
closely associated with ozone
depletion include all of the
following except
a. skin cancer

b. eye cataracts

c. increased incidence of heart
disease

d. suppression of the immune
response

Human health problems
closely associated with ozone
depletion include all of the
following except

disease
c. increased incidence of heart
Which of the following
charges against the theory of
ozone depletion is true?




a. CFC molecules cannot reach the stratosphere
because they are heavier than air
b. The best models of ozone production and
destruction estimate that global ozone levels
should be 10% less than what we actually observe
c. Sodium chloride from the evaporation of sea
spray contributes more chlorine to the
stratosphere than do CFCs.
d. There is no scientific proof that ozone
depletion is occurring.
Which of the following
charges against the theory of
ozone depletion is true?
 b.
The best models of ozone production
and destruction estimate that global
ozone levels should be 10% less than what
we actually observe
Which if the following is false?




a. over 44 years passed from the first
production of CFCs until the firs awareness
that they could cause environmental
damage
b. CFCs are stable, odorless, nonflammable,
nontoxic, and noncorrosive chemicals
c. CFCs are found in bubbles in Styrofoam
and insulation
d. CFCs are important because they help
screen out ultraviolet radiation from reaching
Earth’s surface
Which if the following is false?
 d.
CFCs are important because they help
screen out ultraviolet radiation from
reaching Earth’s surface
Prevention approaches to
global warming include all of
the following except
a. increase beef production to
strengthen public health

b. halt deforestation

c. switch to sustainable agriculture

d. slow population growth

Prevention approaches to
global warming include all of
the following except

a. increase beef production to
strengthen public health
The fossil fuel that released the
least carbon dioxide per unit
of energy is




a. oil
b. natural gas
c. coal
d. petroleum
Scientists who claim the global climate system
is so complex we will never have the
level of certainty wanted by decision makers
urge
a. take no action now because
global warming is all hype

b. take action now based on the
precautionary principle

c. take no action until we get more
data

d. take action to reverse the climate
changes we have caused thus far

Scientists who claim the global climate system
is so complex we will never have the
level of certainty wanted by decision makers
urge

b. take action now based on the
precautionary principle
In a warmer world we would
expect more




a. droughts
b. hurricanes
c. prolonged heat waves
d. all of these answers
In a warmer world we would
expect more




a. droughts
b. hurricanes
c. prolonged heat waves
d. all of these answers
We are uncertain about how
a. carbon dioxide will affect the rate
of photosynthesis

b. continued changes in polar ice will
occur

c. temperature fluctuations over the
last 100 years

d. all of these answers

We are uncertain about how
a. carbon dioxide will affect the rate
of photosynthesis

b. continued changes in polar ice will
occur

c. temperature fluctuations over the
last 100 years

d. all of these answers

We have the most certainty
about
a. variations in solar output

b. the role the oceans will play in
global warming

c. temperature fluctuations over the
last 100 years

d. the role of polar ice in global
warming

We have the most certainty
about

c. temperature fluctuations over the
last 100 years
Current global climate models
suggest that climate change
a. will never happen

b. will be toward the warmer side over
the next century

c. will be toward the colder side over
the next century

d. will reach stabilization after two
hundred years

Current global climate models
suggest that climate change

b. will be toward the warmer side over
the next century
Correspondence between
climate models and the real
world depends upon
a. the design and assumptions of the
model

b. the accuracy of the data

c. factors that amplify or dampen
changes in average global temperatures

d. all of these answers

Correspondence between
climate models and the real
world depends upon
a. the design and assumptions of the
model

b. the accuracy of the data

c. factors that amplify or dampen
changes in average global temperatures

d. all of these answers

In 1995, the International
Governmental Panel on
Climate Change concluded
that
a. global climate change is a hoax

b. the earth is likely to experience an
Ice Age in the next century
 c. the slight rise in temperature observed
over the last century was caused by
changes in solar cycles
 d. the slight rise in temperature observed
over the last century was probably
influenced by human causes

In 1995, the International
Governmental Panel on
Climate Change concluded
that
 d.
the slight rise in temperature observed
over the last century was probably
influenced by human causes
Atmospheric concentration of
carbon dioxide
 a.
was about 100 parts per million prior to
the Industrial Revolution, according to ice
core analysis

b. has declined exponentially since
the Industrial Revolution

c. has increased exponentially since
the Industrial Revolution

d. is projected to decrease by half by
2050
Atmospheric concentration of
carbon dioxide

c. has increased exponentially since
the Industrial Revolution
Increased greenhouse gases
originate from




a. burning fossil fuels
b. deforestation
c. use of CFCs
d. all of these answers
Increased greenhouse gases
originate from




a. burning fossil fuels
b. deforestation
c. use of CFCs
d. all of these answers
The most important
greenhouse gas contribution
by humans is




a. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
b. water vapor
c. nitrous oxide
d. carbon dioxide
The most important
greenhouse gas contribution
by humans is

d. carbon dioxide
The primary greenhouse gas in
the atmosphere is




a. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
b. water vapor
c. nitrous oxide
d. methane
The primary greenhouse gas in
the atmosphere is



b. water vapor
All of the following are
greenhouse gases except




a. carbon dioxide
b. water vapor
c. methane
d. nitrogen
All of the following are
greenhouse gases except

d. nitrogen
The term greenhouse effect




a. describes occupational diseases of
florists
b. describes the trapping of heat energy in
the troposphere by certain gaseous
molecules
c. describes the trapping of heat energy
in the stratosphere by nitrogen
d. describes efforts being made by the White
House to support environmental legislation
The term greenhouse effect
 b.
describes the trapping of heat energy
in the troposphere by certain gaseous
molecules
Climate is influenced by
a. the amount of incoming solar
radiation

b. Earth’s rotation

c. tilt of the Earth’s axis and Earth’s
revolutions

d. all of these answers

Climate is influenced by
a. the amount of incoming solar
radiation

b. Earth’s rotation

c. tilt of the Earth’s axis and Earth’s
revolutions

d. all of these answers

The two most important
factors in climate are




a. temperature and insulation
b. precipitation and pressure
c. humidity, clouds, and wind
d. temperature and precipitation
The two most important
factors in climate are

d. temperature and precipitation
Features of weather include all
of the following except:
a. temperature

b. barometric pressure

c. wind direction
 d. ozone concentration

Stratospheric ozone helps to
prevent
 a.
sunburn

b. skin cancer
 c. eye cancer and cataracts

d. all of these answers
Stratospheric ozone helps to
prevent
 a.
sunburn

b. skin cancer
 c. eye cancer and cataracts

d. all of these answers

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