Learning about Informal Care - Bay Area Early Childhood Funders

Report
Learning about Informal Care
Bernadette Sangalang, David and Lucile Packard Foundation
Jaime Thomas, Mathematica Policy Research
Ana Chang, Concept Hatchery
Early Childhood Funders Meeting
February 19, 2015
1
Overview
• The Packard Foundation’s Early Learning Strategy
• Learning about informal caregivers (family, friends, neighbors)
• Research findings from Mathematica and Concept Hatchery
2
Early Learning Strategy
Improve the quality of early learning and
developmental experiences in both formal and
informal settings for children, birth through
age five, in California.
• Improving professional development for
educators and caregivers to improve the quality of
care provided through the formal system.
• Providing parents, family, and friends that care
for children with the skills and support they need
to provide quality, nurturing environments for
children to grow to ensure they are on track and
ready for the classroom by age five.
3
Children spend time in a variety of settings
FORMAL
INFORMAL
Age in years
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Based on analysis of California sample from the 2005 NHES ECPPS and 2007 RAND California Preschool Study; settings
listed are those where children spend any time, even if not the majority; “FFN” here is noted as “relative care” in the study;
“home-based child care” noted as “non-relative care” in the study. Source: Karoly, Lynn, “The Use of Early Care and
Education by California Families,” RAND, 2012
4
Learning about informal caregivers
Who are informal caregivers, what motivates
them, what their typical days entail, the kinds
of caregiving resources they want and need…
5
Our research partners
Literature review of recent national and
Ca l i fornia-specific research
Ethnographic research wi th s ets of
pa rents a nd their i nformal ca regivers.
Discussions wi th child ca re resource and
referra l agencies
The focus was on understanding the
a tti tudes, beliefs, relationships, a nd
i nteractions that affect how a nd why
pa rents a nd ca regivers make the
deci sions they do, rather than on what
they do.
Key informant interviews wi th state and
county i nformal caregiver networks a nd
i ni tiatives
In-person interviews wi th provi ders and
community members connected to
community-based centers servi ng
pa rents a nd ca regivers.
Convening wi th ca regivers and
community members to understand
ca regiver and parent needs a nd to
i dentify s olutions that can work for the
community.
Site visits to community organizations
tha t s erve parents and ca regivers
6
Packard Foundation’s next steps
• Disseminate informal care research findings
• Continue to learn from local communities and the field
• Develop framework and plan for testing scalable pilots
7
Mathematica’s study for CFC
• Research questions
• Study components
• Dissemination plan
• Overview of findings
8
Research questions
• Who are informal caregivers in California?
• What are their existing networks and needs for support?
• What are promising outreach methods and approaches to meet their needs?
9
Study components
• A literature scan of recent national and California-specific research on informal
caregiving
• Interviews with two state- and four county-level key informants to learn about
existing informal caregiver networks and initiatives
• Discussions with five individuals from child care resource and referral agencies
and other organizations with knowledge of California’s voucher-based child care
subsidy system
• Site visits to five community organizations in Alameda and Santa Clara counties
that provide resources and services for parents and caregivers
• Graphic representations of social systems and supports for informal caregivers
and parents through a technique called ecomapping
10
Mathematica’s findings presented in 3 briefs
• Setting the Stage: The Importance of Informal Child Care in California
• A Close Look: Informal Child Care Arrangements and Support in California
(tentative title)
• The third brief will discuss the needs expressed by informal caregivers and
parents, gaps in resources they are able to access, and recommendations for
programs and policies to address needs and gaps
11
Setting the Stage: The Importance of Informal Child
Care in California
• Many children spend crucial developmental years in informal care
• Informal child care meets the needs of low-income, working parents
• Parents and others share concerns about quality in informal care
• Parents, caregivers, and state and local agency staff agree that informal
caregivers need resources and support
12
A Close Look: Informal Child Care Arrangements and
Support in California
• Findings from “ecomaps” of care arrangements and sources of support related
to child care for parents and informal caregivers
• Young children are the most common recipients of informal child care;
grandparents typically provide such care
• Parents commonly rely on more than one informal caregiver
• Many informal caregivers do not receive remuneration for the care they provide,
and child care subsidy use is nonexistent in our sample
• Friends and family are the most common sources of support related to child
care
– Some parents and caregivers rely on institutional support (for example, child
care resource and referral agencies or neighborhood libraries)
13
Friends and family are the most
common source of support related
to child care
Family 2
Girl, 7
Family 3
Boy, 5
Family 1
Girl, 1
Informal caregiver, 42
Household members:
Son, 5
Daughter, 7
Husband, 42
Husband
Parents
from
Family 3
Nephew
Mother
from
Family 1
Relationship to families
receiving care
Friend
Other Family Member
Grandparent
Neighbor
Sisters
Parents
from
Family 2
Quality of Support
Strong support
Weak support
Note: Arrows indicate flow of support
14
Respondent
Families receiving care
Support system
ISC1
Themes for the third brief
• Needs expressed by informal caregivers and parents
• Barriers that informal caregivers have experienced in accessing resources
• Outreach methods recommended by informal caregivers and parents
• Elements of promising outreach methods and approaches targeting informal
caregivers
15
Understanding
Informal Systems
of Care
Research funded by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation
Bay Area Early Childhood Funders Meeting
Feb.19.2015
Note: Photos and names have been changed to protect the privacy of research participants. Photos in this presentation are shown courtesy of Flickr Creative Commons.
Full list of photographers and references may be found in the public report available on the Packard Foundation CFC web site.
Concept Hatchery
EARLY CHILDHOOD FUNDER’S MEETING FEBRUARY 2015
16
LEARNING ABOUT INFORMAL CARE
Understanding lives
Amara, 24
Elsa, 38
Beth, 21
Noreen, 42
Antonia, 21
Sasha, 33
Unprepared but coping
Progressive & lacking time
Supported & anxious
Overwhelmed & informed
Disconnected & weary
Affluent & well connected
Michaela
4 months
Jose
14 months
Peter
4 months
Ranisha, 45
Sofía, 63
Jackie, 22
Grandmother
Devoted & disconnected
Grandmother
Diligent & engaged
Family friend
Confident & parent-centric
Concept Hatchery
Johanna
3 years
Tara, 45
Aunt
Respectful & stabilizing
EARLY CHILDHOOD FUNDER’S MEETING FEBRUARY 2015
Roberto
1 year
Carmen, 41
Hired help
Generous & isolated
Sam & Tom
2 & 4 years
Emilia, 50
Hired help
Sensible & undervalued
17
LEARNING ABOUT INFORMAL CARE
Antonia and Carmen
Caring for kids is hard work! You get no breaks
and no benefits. And it’s not appreciated. I wish
I knew other babysitters like me. - Carmen
I wish my mom
was nearby.
When I found
out I was
pregnant I was
so scared and
wished the
earth would
swallow me.
- Antonia
Concept Hatchery
EARLY CHILDHOOD FUNDER’S MEETING FEBRUARY 2015
18
LEARNING ABOUT INFORMAL CARE
Elsa and Sofía
It’s never too late
for learning. - Sofía
You’ll always find
some resources on
the street. - Elsa
Concept Hatchery
EARLY CHILDHOOD FUNDER’S MEETING FEBRUARY 2015
19
LEARNING ABOUT INFORMAL CARE
Motivations and Interactions
Weary and
feeling guilt
Parents
& Family
Care
providers
An extra pair of
hands
Overloaded
with information
Monotony and
logistical hurdles
Need trusted
sources
Limited information
seeking
Building a new
identity
Concept Hatchery
Parents seek information and take
charge of their child’s needs;
caregivers are experienced but
follow parent lead
EARLY CHILDHOOD FUNDER’S MEETING FEBRUARY 2015
20
LEARNING ABOUT INFORMAL CARE
Experiences and motivations
Different types of informal care providers engage with the child and family in different
ways.
Track
Journey
Family and close friends are on a “road trip”, knowing they
will be connected with the family and child in the long haul.
•
•
•
•
Discovery
Bonding and experiences
Understand THIS child, not all children
Emotional job
Concept Hatchery
Hired professional informal care providers are on a “track.”
They have defined patterns of work with the same age range of
children for a variety of families, sometimes over decades.
•
•
•
•
•
Safety
Support, not advice
Invested in long-term jobs
Careful not to step out of bounds
Functional job
EARLY CHILDHOOD FUNDER’S MEETING FEBRUARY 2015
21
LEARNING ABOUT INFORMAL CARE
Needs Hierarchy
Grow
Concept Hatchery
Make Changes . Give Back
Empower
Support . Identity
Choices . Permissions
Connect
Language . Peer Network
Mobility . Information Access
Stabilize
Shelter . Food . Safety
EARLY CHILDHOOD FUNDER’S MEETING FEBRUARY 2015
22
Thank you
Concept Hatchery
Concept Hatchery
EARLY CHILDHOOD FUNDER’S MEETING FEBRUARY 2015
23

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