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Subject:
Chemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Date:
Jan 24, 2014
Today’s Topic
Intro to Chemistry
In your own words, describe the term Chemistry
Answer:
The study of matter and it’s changes.
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Two:
Gain an understanding of terms related to basic chemistry
Three:
Receive an introduction to Chemistry
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Chemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Date:
Jan 27, 2014
Today’s Topic
Intro to Chemistry
Define substance
Answer:
A substance, also known as a chemical, is matter has a definite composition.
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Two:
Explain the formation and importance of ozone.
Describe the development of chlorofluorocarbons.
Three:
Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space.
Chemistry is the study of everything around us
All the stuff in the universe is made from building blocks
formed in the stars.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Notes Continued
These building blocks and everything Made from them Are called matter.
Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
Ultraviolet light damages living organisms.
Earth's atmosphere contains a layer of ozone that absorbs
ultraviolet light and protects living organisms.
The Exosphere: 500 km
Thermosphere: between 85 km and 500 km
Mesosphere: between 50 and 85 km
Stratosphere: between 10 and 50 km
Troposphere: from the ground up to 10 km
Ozone is a substance in the atmosphere made up of oxygen.
A substance, also known as a chemical, is matter has a
definite composition.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Notes Continued
Ozone is born when oxygen gas is exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
And the mid-1980s, scientists detected in areas in the ozone layer over Antarctica.
What do because I know zone hole?
Chlorofluorocarbons, (CFCs) argues as coolant in refrigerators
and propellant in aerosol cans.
CFCs were considered safe because they are not toxic and don't react to other chemicals,
CFCs were 1st detected in the atmosphere in the 1970s, and the concentration
continued to increase through the 1990s.
Was there a connection between ozone thinning and increasing CFCs in atmosphere?
All of the stuff in the universe is made of a. Mixtures b. Matter c. O zone d. Mass
Which of the following protects living organisms from harmful ultraviolet light?
A. CFC B. Oxygen gas C. Exosphere
D. Ozone
Compare and contrast mass and weight
Explain why chemists are interested in a submicroscopic description of matter.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Chemistry
Date:
Jan 28, 2014
Today’s Topic
Intro to Chemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Explain why chemists are interested in a submicroscopic description of matter.
Answer:
The structure, composition, and behavior of all matter can be described on this
sub microscopic atomic level
.
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Identify the areas of emphasis the various branches of chemistry.
Two:
Three:
Technology: a practical application of scientific information.
Branches of chemistry involve the study of different kinds of matter.
Matter has many different forms mass is a measurement that
reflects the amount of matter.
Weight is a measure of mass and the force of gravity on in object.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Notes Continued
Weight can change from place to place, but mass is constant.
Much of matter and his behavior is macroscopic Meaning that it can be
observed without a microscope.
The structure, composition, and behavior of all matter can be described on
this sub microscopic atomic level
Chemistry explains events on the atomic level that causes macroscopic observations.
A model is a verbal, visual, or mathematical explanation of experimental data
A model is a verbal, visual, or mathematical explanation of experimental data
Branches
Area of emphasis
Examples of emphasis
Organic chemistry
pharmaceuticals, plastics
most carbon containing chemicals
minerals,
Inorganic chemistry in general, mattered at does not
contain carbon
the behavior and changes a matter
reaction rates reaction
Physical chemistry
and the related energy changes
mechanisms
Analytical chemistry
food nutrients
components and composition of
substance
matter and processes of living organisms Metabolism fermentation
Biochemistry
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Notes Continued
pollution, biochemical cycles
Industrial chemistry chemical processes in industry
paints coatings
Polymer chemistry
polymers and plastics
textile coating and plastic
Environmental chemistry
matter and the environment
Theoretical chemistry
chemical interactions
Thermo chemistry
It’s involved in chemical processes
Summary Notes: Next Page
any areas of emphasis
heat of reaction
Subject:
Chemistry
Date:
Jan 29, 2014
Today’s Topic
Intro to Chemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
In your own words, describe the difference between a theory and a scientific law
Answer:
A theory is an explanation that has been repeatedly supported by many experiments.
A scientific law is a relationship in nature that is supported by
many experiments and no exceptions to these relationships are found.
.
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Two:
Three:
Gain an understanding of scientific inquiry and learn the
systematic approach which is an organize method of solving a problem.
Scientists use scientific methods to systematically pose and test
solutions to questions and assess the results of the tests.
The scientific method is a systematic approach used in scientific
study, whether it is chemistry, physics, biology, or another science.
It is an organized process used by scientists to do research, and
provides methods for scientist to verify the work of others.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Notes Continued
The steps in a scientific method are repeated until a hypothesis is supported or discarded
An observation is the act of gathering information.
Qualitative data is obtained through observations that describe color, smell,
shape or other physical characteristics that is related to the 5 senses
A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for what has been observed.
Quantitative data is obtained from numerical observations that describe how much,
how little, how big or how fast.
In experiment is a set of controlled observations that test the hypothesis.
A variable is a quantity or condition that can have more than one value
An independent variable is the variable you plan to change.
The dependent variable is the variable of the changes in value in response to the change
in the independent variable.
A control is a standard for comparison in an experiment
A conclusion is a judgment based on the information obtained from the experiment.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Notes Continued
A hypothesis is never proven, only supported or discarded.
A model can be used to make predictions.
Molina and Rowland's motto show how CFCs could destroy the ozone.
Ultraviolet radiation combines with oxygen.
A theory is an explanation that has been repeatedly supported by many experiments.
A theory takes a broad principle of nature that has been supported over time by
repeated testing.
Theory are successful if they can be used to make predictions that are true.
A scientific law is a relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments
and no exceptions to these relationships are found.
Compare and contrast
pure research, applied research, and technology
Apply knowledge of laboratory safety
synthetic: something that is human made and does not necessarily occur in nature.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Notes Continued
Some scientific investigations result into development of technology that can
improve our lives and the world around us.
Pure research is research to gain knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself.
Applied research is research undertaken to solve a specific problem.
Chance discovery occurred when scientists obtain results that are far
different from what they expected
You are responsible for your safety and the safety of others around you
Applied research showed that CFCs and a few other chemicals react with the ozone
many nations agreed in 1987 to the Montréal protocol, to phase out CFC use.
From 1986 to 2000 CFCs in antarctica parts for Treo dropped from over 500 to less than 200.
Scientists have learned the ozone thinning occurs over antarctica every spring.
Chemists solve many real problems we face today such as:
Ozone depletion
Finding cures for disease
Reducing the weight of cars
Models are tools that scientists, including chemists use
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Notes Continued
Macroscopic observations of matter replant the action of Atoms on a submicroscopic scale.
There are several branches of chemistry including organic industry in organic chemistry
physical chemistry analytical chemistry and biochemistry
Scientific methods are systematic approaches to solving problems.
Qualitative data describes an observation;
Quantitative data use numbers.
Independent variables are changed in an experiment
Dependent variables change in response to the independent variable.
A theory is a hypothesis that is supported by many experiments.
Scientific methods can be use in pure research or in applied research.
Some scientific discoveries are accidental, and some are the result of diligent research
in response to a need.
Laboratory safety is the responsibility of everyone in the laboratory.
Many of the conveniences we enjoy today are technological applications of chemistry.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Test
1. ______ is anything that has_______ and takes up space.
A. Matter; mass
C. Matter; weight
B. Mass; manner
D. Weight; mass
2. Chemistry tries to explain_______ observations based on_________ observations.
A. Macroscopic; submicroscopic
B. Macroscopic; nuclear
C. Atomic; submicroscopic
D. Microscopic; macroscopic
3. Scientific methods are______ approaches to solving problems.
A. Dependent
C. Hypothetical
B. Independent
D. Systematic
4. What are accidental discoveries, like penicillin, called?
A. Applied discoveries
B. Chance discoveries
C. Pure discoveries
D. Newton's law
5. Quantitative data describes observations that are _____.
A. Numerical
C. Independent
Summary Notes: Next Page
B. Conditions
D. Hypothesis
Chemistry Test
6. Which of the following is not an example of qualitative data?
A. 1.35 kg
B. Red flower
C. Green car
D. Orange flower
7. What kind of research is done for the sake of knowledge?
A. Pure
B. Exploratory
C. Applied
D. Model
8. Which of the following has a definite composition?
A. Building block
B. Variable
C. Substance
D. Mixture
9. What varies with change in gravitational force?
A. Matter
B. Weight
D. Composition
C. Mass
10. Which of the following would be an example of quantitative data?
A. Blue socks
C. 6 kg
Summary Notes: Next Page
B. Square peg
D. Loud noise
Chemistry Test
11. Which of the following describes a systematic approach to solving problems?
A. Pure research
B. Hypothetical method
C. Theoretical method
D. Scientific method
12. Laboratory safety is the responsibility of everyone in the laboratory.
A. Everyone in the Lab
B. The science teacher only
C. The Principal
D. The students in the lab only
13 A control is a __________ for comparison in an experiment
A. Independent variable
B. Dependent variable
D. Response
C. Standard
14. Mass can change from place to place, but weight is constant.
A. False
B. True
15. Dependent variables change in response to the independent variable.
A. False
B. True
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Test
16. What is the discovery of nylon an example of?
A. Pure research
B. Applied research
C. Variables
D. Chance discovery
17. ________ is/are anything that has mass and takes up space.
A. Solids
B. Building block
C. Forces
D. Matter
18. Which type of variables are controlled by the scientists?
A. Independent
B. Dependent
D. Response
C. Pure
19. Weight is a measure of________ and________.
A. Force; gravity
C. Matter; mass
B. Mass; gravity
D. Gravity; motion
20. Producing heat resistant plastics is an example of what kind of research?
A. Independent
B. Dependent defendant
C. Pure
Summary Notes: Next Page
D. Applied
Chemistry Test
1. ______ is anything that has_______ and takes up space.
A. Matter; mass
C. Matter; weight
B. Mass; manner
D. Weight; mass
2. Chemistry tries to explain_______ observations based on_________ observations.
A. Macroscopic; submicroscopic
B. Macroscopic; nuclear
C. Atomic; submicroscopic
D. Microscopic; macroscopic
3. Scientific methods are______ approaches to solving problems.
A. Dependent
C. Hypothetical
B. Independent
D. Systematic
4. What are accidental discoveries, like penicillin, called?
A. Applied discoveries
B. Chance discoveries
C. Pure discoveries
D. Newton's law
5. Quantitative data describes observations that are _____.
A. Numerical
C. Independent
Summary Notes: Next Page
B. Conditions
D. Hypothesis
Chemistry Test
6. Which of the following is not an example of qualitative data?
A. 1.35 kg
B. Red flower
C. Green car
D. Orange flower
7. What kind of research is done for the sake of knowledge?
A. Pure
B. Exploratory
C. Applied
D. Model
8. Which of the following has a definite composition?
A. Building block
B. Variable
C. Substance
D. Mixture
9. What varies with change in gravitational force?
A. Matter
B. Weight
D. Composition
C. Mass
10. Which of the following would be an example of quantitative data?
A. Blue socks
C. 6 kg
Summary Notes: Next Page
B. Square peg
D. Loud noise
Chemistry Test
11. Which of the following describes a systematic approach to solving problems?
A. Pure research
B. Hypothetical method
C. Theoretical method
D. Scientific method
12. Laboratory safety is the responsibility of everyone in the laboratory.
A. Everyone in the Lab
B. The science teacher only
C. The Principal
D. The students in the lab only
13 A control is a __________ for comparison in an experiment
A. Independent variable
B. Dependent variable
D. Response
C. Standard
14. Mass can change from place to place, but weight is constant.
A. False
B. True
15. Dependent variables change in response to the independent variable.
A. False
B. True
Summary Notes: Next Page
Chemistry Test
16. What is the discovery of nylon an example of?
A. Pure research
B. Applied research
C. Variables
D. Chance discovery
17. ________ is/are anything that has mass and takes up space.
A. Solids
B. Building block
C. Forces
D. Matter
18. Which type of variables are controlled by the scientists?
A. Independent
B. Dependent
D. Response
C. Pure
19. Weight is a measure of________ and________.
A. Force; gravity
C. Matter; mass
B. Mass; gravity
D. Gravity; motion
20. Producing heat resistant plastics is an example of what kind of research?
A. Independent
B. Dependent defendant
C. Pure
Summary Notes: Next Page
D. Applied
Subject: Chemistry
Date:
Jan 30, 2014
Today’s Topic
SI Units
Today’s Starter Question:
Why do you think we use the SI for the standards worldwide?
Answer:
To keep all research consistent all around the world.
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Learn SI base units.
Learn prefixes used with SI units
Two:
Learn how to recognize and determine significant digits
Three:
SI Based Units.
Base quantity
Length
Mass
Time
Temperature
Amount of Substance
Electric current
Luminous
Base Unit
meter
kilogram
second
kelvin
mole
ampere
candela
Summary Notes: Next Page
Symbol
m
kg
s
K
mol
A
cd
Subject: Chemistry
Date:
Jan 31, 2014 Today’s Topic
SI Units
Today’s Starter Question:
Write the symbols for the following base quantities: Length,
Answer: Mass, Time, Temperature, Amount of Substance,Electric Current
Luminous Intensity.
m, kg, s, K, mol, A, cd
Today’s Objectives: “Continued:”
One:
Two:
Three:
Prefix
femto
pico
nano
micro
Learn prefixes used with SI units
Learn how to recognize and determine significant digits
Prefixes Used with SI Units
Symbol
f
p
n
µ
Multiplier
0.000000000000001
0.000000000001
0.000000001
0.000001
Scientific Notation
10 -15
10 -12
10 -9
10 -6
-3
Example
femtosecond (fs)
picometer (pm)
nanometer (nm)
microgram (µg)
milli
centi
deci
kilo
mega
m
c
d
k
M
0.001
0.01
0.1
1000
1,000,000
10
10 -2
10 -1
10 3
10 6
milliamps (mA)
centimeter (cm)
deciliter (dL)
kilometer (km)
megagram (Mg)
giga
tera
G
T
1,000,000,000
1,000,000,000,000
10 9
10 12
gigameter (Gm)
terahertz (THz)
Student input:
Atom
e-
Nucleus
p+
n
Protons
Neutrons
e-
Electrons
Student input:
Covalent Bond
Molecule of Water
p+
ep+
Nucleus
ee-
e-
e-
ee-
e8p+
8n
Protons
e-
Neutrons
e-
The 1st energy level
can hold 2 electrons
H2O
The second energy
level can hold 8 electrons
Electrons
Subject:
Chemistry
Date:
Feb 4, 2014
Today’s Topic
Biochemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Explain the characteristics of the neutron, proton and electron .
Neutrons and protons are located at the center of the atom which is
called the nucleus. Protons are positively charged particles (P+).
Electrons are negatively charged particles (E-) located on the outside
of the nucleus. Electrons constantly move around the nucleus in energy
levels.
Today’s Objectives:
Diagram the particles that make up an atom. Compare covalent and ionic
One:
bonds.
Answer:
An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances
By physical or chemical means. Elements are made of only one type of atom.
Two: The periodic table of elements is organized into horizontal rows, called periods, and
vertical columns called groups.
Three:
Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons are called isotopes.
Isotopes that give off radiation are called radioactive isotopes.
A compound is a pure substance formed when two or more different elements combine.
Compounds are always formed from a specific combination of elements in a fixed ratio.
Compounds are physically and chemically different than the elements that comprise them.
Compounds cannot be broken down into simpler compounds or elements by physical
means, however, they can be broken down by chemical means.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Student input:
Covalent Bond
Molecule of Water
ep+
ee-
ee-
e-
p+
Nucleus
ee-
8p+
8n
Protons
e-
Neutrons
e-
H2O
Electrons
Student input:
Chapter 6
Ionic Bond:
e-
7 e-
8 e-
8 e-
2 e11 p+
11 n
2 e-
17 p+
17 n
8 e-
8 e2 e-
8 e11 p+
11 n
Na
+ Chlorine atom
+
17 n
+
+
Sodium atom
2 e- 17 p+
Cl
Sodium ion
+
NaCl
Chlorine ion
Chemical properties, such as reactivity, depend on an element’s electron configuration:
When the highest occupied energy level of an atom is filled with electrons, the atom is
stable and not likely to react.
The chemical properties of an element depend on the number of valence electrons.
These atoms all have two
valence electron
These atoms all have one
valence electron
These atoms all have six
valence electron
These atoms all have four
valence electron
These atoms all have three
valence electron
Example
These atoms all have five
valence electron
These atoms all have
Seven valence electron
1A
2A
3A
4A
Group
5A
6A
7A
8A
He
H
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
K
Mg
Ga
Ge
As
Se
Br
Kr
one electron in outer
most shell
two electron in outer
most shell
three electron in outer
most shell
five electron in outer
most shell
Ne
four electron in outer
most shell
six electron in outer
most shell
These atoms all have
eight valence electron
Electron Dot Diagrams for Some Group A Elements
eight electron in outer
most shell
seven electron in outer
most shell
Subject:
Chemistry
Date: Feb 6, 2014
Today’s Topic Scientific Notation
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
10 -9
Write the following numbers using scientific notation:
0.000000001, 0.000000000000001, 15,000,000, 19,000,
0.0000001, 1,000,000,000,000
10 -15 1.5 X 10
7
1.9 X 10 4
10 -7 1.0 X 10
12
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Two:
Three:
Obtain a clear understanding of determining
significant digits.
Obtain a clear understanding of scientific notation
Summary Notes: Next Page
Scientific Notation
243,500,000,000
0.000000001
1.0 X 10
-9
2.435 X 10
0.0000000231
2.31 X 10
-8
11
0.00030007
3.0007 X 10
-4
Scientific Notation
Precision
30.0 m is less precise than
30.01
and 30.01 is less precise than 30.001
5 X 10.3 = 51.5
The answer has to be 52
Because 5 is the least precise number in the
equation
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Topic Scientific Notation
Today’s Starter Question:
Identify the significant digits in the following numbers:
0.089, 5.3098, 78.10001, 4.21, 3.1
Answer:
2,
5,
7,
3,
2
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Distinguish between accuracy and precision.
Determine the precision of measured quantities.
Two:
Three:
Measurements quantify our observation.
A measurement is a comparison between an unknown quantity
and a standard.
The degree of exactness of a measurement is called its precision.
The precision of a measurement is one half the smallest division
of the instrument.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Principles of Science
Date:
Sept. 28, 2011 Today’s Topic Scientific Notation
Today’s Starter Question:
Identify the significant digits in the following numbers:
0.089, 5.3098, 78.10001, 4.21, 3.1
Answer:
2,
5,
7,
3,
2
Today’s Objectives: “Continued”
One:
Two:
Distinguish between accuracy and precision.
Determine the precision of measured quantities.
Three:
A measure of 67.100 g is precise to the nearest thousandth of a gram.
Accuracy describes how well the results of a measurement agree
with the “real” value; that is the accepted value as measured by
competent experimenters
A common method for checking the accuracy of an instrument is
called the two point calibration.
Does the instrument read 0 when it should and secondly give a
correct reading when it is measuring an accepted standard
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Today’s Topic Scientific Notation
Date:
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
In your own words, explain the difference between multiplying
and dividing using scientific notation
The main difference is the fact that you will add the exponents when multiplying and
you will subtract the exponent of the divisor from the exponent of the dividend
when you divide
Today’s Objectives:
One: Obtain an understanding of how to multiply and divide using scientific notation.
Two:
Multiply the values of M and add the exponents n. Multiply the units.
3
Three:
Example: (4 X 10 kg) (5 X 10
11
m) = (4 X 5) X 103 + 11 kg.m
= 20 X 10 14 kg.m
= 2.0 X 10 15 kg.m
Divide the value of M and subtract the exponent of the divisor from the exponent
of the dividend.
6
3
8
Example: 8 X 10 m
=
X 10 6 – (-3) m 3 - 2
-3
2
2 X 10 m
2
= 4 X 10
9
m
Summary Notes: Next Page
Scientific Notation
Practice Multiplying and Dividing using
Scientific Notation
(6 X 10 4 kg) (6 X 10
9
m) = (6 X 6) X 10 4 + 9 Kg.m
= 36 X 10 13 Kg.m
= 3.6 X 10 14 Kg.m
Scientific Notation
Practice Multiplying and Dividing using
Scientific Notation
8
4
4
2
9 X 10 m
3 X 10 m
=
9
3
X 10
4
8 - 4
= 3 X 10 m
2
m
4- 2
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Topic
Multiplying and Divding
Scientific Notation
Today’s Starter Question:
Work the following problem: (5 X 10 4 kg) (3 X 10 5 m)
Answer:
= (5 X 3) X 10 4 + 5 kg.m
= 15 X 10 9 kg.m
= 1.5 X 10 10 kg.m
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Gain an understanding of how to add and subtract using the scientific notation:
Two:
You can not add or subtract unlike terms.
Three:
Practice the problems on the following pages to secure a complete understanding of
how to add and subtract using scientific notation.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Scientific Notation
First Period
Practice Adding and Subtracting using
Scientific Notation
9
8
9
9.0X 10 kg + 7.0 X 10 kg
Currently, these two terms are not alike in regard
to scientific notation.
The exponents are not the same
In order to make the exponents the same
Move the decimal one digit to the left.
This causes the exponent to rise by 1
9
Now, rewrite the equation like this
0.9 X 10 9 kg This is the
Make sure you line the decimals up
correct answer.
Now, simply add the bases and leave
the exponents as is
7.0 X 10 kg
7.9 X 10 9 kg
Scientific Notation
All Periods:
Practice Adding and Subtracting using
Scientific Notation
8
9.0X 10 kg
8
-
6
7.0 X 10 kg
Currently, these two terms are not alike in regard
to scientific notation.
The exponents are not the same
In order to make the exponents the same
Move the decimal two digits to the left.
This causes the exponent to rise by 2
8
Now, rewrite the equation like this
9.0 X 10 8 kg This is the
Make sure you line the decimals up
correct answer.
Now, simply subtract the bases and
leave the exponents as is
- 0.07 X 10 kg
8.93 X 10 8 kg
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Topic
Multiplying and Divding
Scientific Notation
Today’s Starter Question:
Work the following problem: 5.0 X 105 kg + 3.0 X 10 4 kg
Answer:
= 5.0 X 10 5 kg
+ 0.3 X 10 5 kg
5.3 X 10 5 kg
This is the correct answer
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Learn how to convert related SI units:
Two: Standard: A standard is an exact quantity that people agree to
use to compare measurements.
Three:
Measurement: The dimensions, capacity, or amount of something.
SI: The international system of units, which is used to keep
research consistent around the world.
Volume: The amount of space occupied by an object is called its volume.
Mass: A measurement of quantity of matter in an object.
Density; Is the mass per unit volume of a material.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Scientific Notation
Problem # 3
9
7
9
9.0X 10 kg + 5.0 X 10 kg
Currently, these two terms are not alike in regard
to scientific notation.
The exponents are not the same
In order to make the exponents the same
Move the decimal two digits to the left.
This causes the exponent to rise by 2
9
Now, rewrite the equation like this
0.09X 10 9 kg This is the
Make sure you line the decimals up
correct answer.
Now, simply add the bases and leave
the exponents as is
+5.00 X 10 kg
5.09X 10 9 kg
Scientific Notation
Problem # 4
7
4.0X 10 kg
7
-
4
7.0 X 10 kg
Currently, these two terms are not alike in regard
to scientific notation.
The exponents are not the same
In order to make the exponents the same
Move the decimal three digits to the left.
This causes the exponent to rise by 3
7
Now, rewrite the equation like this
4.000X 10 7 kg This is the
Make sure you line the decimals up
correct answer.
Now, simply subtract the bases and
leave the exponents as is
- 0.007X 10 kg
3.993X 10 7 kg
Chemistry Test
1 Matter is composed of small particles called ________.
A. Atoms
C. Molecules
B. Particles
D. ions
2. Atoms are made up of smaller particles called _______.
A. pure compounds
B. Ions
C. pure substances
D. neutrons, protons and electrons
3. A sub atomic particle that carries a negative charge.
A. proton
C. neutron
B. electron
D. molecule
4. A sub atomic particle that is located outside the nucleus .
A. electron
B. charge
C. proton
D. neutron
5. Elements on the periodic table that have the same number of electron in the outer shell
are in the same _______
A. period
C. group
B. level
D. class
Chemistry Test
6. An isotope is an atom that has a different number of _____________.
A. proton vs. electrons
B. Ions vs particles
C. neutrons vs. protons
D. molecules vs atoms
7. A carbon atom that has 8 neutrons is called a(n) __________ .
A. pure molecule
B. isotope
C. ion
D. model
8. The atomic number tells you the number of ___________ that’s in an atom.
A. Protons or electrons
B. variables
C. charges
D. ions
9. A(n) _____ is a pure substance formed when two or more different elements combine.
A. charged particle
B. isotope
D. compound
C. neutral particle
10. Compounds can be broken down chemically.
A. true
Summary Notes: Next Page
B. false
Change the following numbers into Scientific Notation
11. 0.000000001
13. 243,500, 000, 000
12. 0.000003001
14. 19, 000, 100
15. 0.0000563
Write the number of significant digits
16. 0.000000001
18. 243,500, 000, 000
17. 0.000003001
19. 19, 000, 100
20. 0.0000563
Solve the following problems:
8
9
21. 5.0 X 10 kg + 3.0 X 10 kg
22.
8
4
4
2
9 X 10 m
3 X 10 m
23. 9.0X 10 7 kg + 5.0 X 10 9 kg
24.
7
4.0X 10 kg
-
5
7.0 X 10 kg
Converting SI Units
A conversion factor is a ratio that is equal to one and is used to change
One unit to another.
For Example,
There are 1,000 mL in 1 L, so 1,000 mL = 1 L.
If both sides of this equation are divided by 1 L, the equation becomes:
1,000 mL
= 1
1L
To convert units, you multiply by the appropriate conversion factor.
For Example,
To convert 1.255 L to mL, multiply 1.255 L by a conversion factor.
Use the conversion factor with new units (mL) in the numerator (on top),
and the old units (L) in the denominator (on bottom).
1.255 L
X
1,000 mL
1L
= 1,255 mL
Do all conversions using this concept.
Converting SI Units
Convert 1,567 centimeters to millimeters.
100 mm
1,567 cm
=
= 156,700 mm
1 cm
Convert 520 kilometers to meters.
Convert 55.012 kilograms to grams.
Convert 1,000,000 micrometers to centimeters.
Converting SI Units
How long in centimeters is a 3,075 mm rope?
Identify known values and the unknown value.
Identify the known values.
The rope is 3,075 mm
1m = 100 cm = 1,000 mm
Identify the unknown value.
How long in centimeters (cm).
Solve the problem.
This is the equation you need to use:
? Cm =3,075 mm
X 100cm
1000 mm
Cancel units and multiply:
100cm
3,075 mm
X
1000 mm
= 307.5 cm
Name________________
Period______
Scientific Notation Quiz
(5) Convert 1,567 centimeters to millimeters.
100 mm
1,567 cm
=
= 156,700 mm
1 cm
(6) Convert 55.012 kilograms to grams.
55.012 kg
1000 g
=
1 kg
1
55.012 kg
1
X
1000 g
1 kg
= 55,012 g
=
55,012 g
1 kg
. kg
=
55,012 g
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Topic
Multiplying and Divding
Scientific Notation
Today’s Starter Question:
An Astronomical Unit is the standard measurement for the
Answer: distance from Earth to the Sun (AU). The distance is about
11
150 billion (1.50 X 10 m ) Calculate what 1 AU would equal in km
1 AU = 1.50 X 10 11m 1,000 m = 1 km 1.50 X 1011 m. km
8
=
1.50
X
10
km
1.0 km
1.50 X 1011 m
X
1,000 m 1.0 X 103 m
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Two:
Correctly answer 6 problems related to scientific notation and
Converting from one SI unit to another
Three:
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Chemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
Date:
Today’s Topic
Feb 10, 2014
Measuring Matter
Calculate what 1 AU would equal in km.
The distance is about 150 billion km.
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Two:
Explain how a mole is used to indirectly count the
number of particles of matter.
Moles to Particles
Three:
6.02 X 10
23
Conversion Factor
1 Mole
Ex. Number of molecules in 3.50 mol of sucrose.
3.50 mol of sucrose X
6.02 X 10
1 Mole
Summary Notes: Next Page
23
24
= 2.11 X 10 Molecules of Sucr
Chemists use the mole to count atoms, molecules, ions, and
formula units.:
Chemists need a convenient method for accurately counting the
number of atoms, molecules, or formula units of a substance.
The mole is the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a
Substance.
1 mole is the amount of atoms in 12 g of pure carbon-12, or
6.02 X 10 23 atoms.
The number is called Avogadro”s number
Summary Notes: Next Page
Conversion factors must be used.
Moles to particle.
Conversion factor:
6.02 X 10 23particles
1 mol
Number of molecules in 3.50 mol of sucrose
3.50 mol sucrose X
Summary Notes: Next Page
6.02 X 10
23
particles = 2.11 X 10 24
molecules
1 mol sucrose
Particles to moles
Use the inverse of Avogadro’s number as the conversion factor.
1 mol
Number of representative particles X
6.02 X 10 23 particles
Number of molecules in 3.50 mol of sucrose
2.11 X 10 24molecules sucrose X
Summary Notes: Next Page
1 mol sucrose
6.02 X 10
23 molecules
=
3.50 mol sucrose
1. How many moles are in 2.11 X 10 24 molecules of sucrose
2. How many particles are in 5 moles of CO2.
3 . What is the mass of 3 moles of C6H12oO6?
4 . What is the atomic number of carbon.
5 . What is the molar mass of 5 moles of H2O molecules.
6 . How many particles are in 5 moles of H2O molecules.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Chemistry
Date:
Feb 11, 2014
Today’s Topic
Measuring Matter
Today’s Starter Question:
How many particles are in 5 moles of CO2
23
6.02 X 10
Answer:
Conversion Factor
1 Mole
23
6.02 X 10
24
5 mol of CO2
X
= 3.01 X 10 Molecules of CO2
1 Mole
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Become able to relate the mass of an atom to the mass of a
Two: mole of atoms
Three: Convert between number of moles and the mass of an element.
Convert between number of moles and number of atoms of an
element.
Summary Notes: Next Page
A mole always contains the same number of particles; however,
Moles of different substances have different masses.
1 mole of copper and 1 mole of carbon have different masses.
Molar mass is the mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance.
The molar mass of any element is numerically equivalent to its
atomic mass and has the units g/mol.
Mole to mass.
number of moles X Mass in grams = mass
1 mole
X 63.546 g Cu
= 191g Cu
1 mole Cu
3.00 moles of copper has a mass of 191g.
Ex. 3.00 mol Cu
Summary Notes: Next Page
Convert mass to moles with the inverse molar mass conversion
factor.
Convert moles to atoms with Avogadro’s number as the conversion
factor.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Representative particle: an atom, molecule, formula unit, or ion.
The molar mass of a compound can be calculated from its chemical
Formula and can be used to convert from mass to moles of that
Compound.
Chemical formulas indicate the numbers and types of atoms
Contained in one of the compound.
One mole of CCl2F2 contains one mole of carbon atoms, two moles
Of Cl atoms, and two moles of F atoms.
The molar mass of a compound equals the molar mass of each
element, multiplied by the moles of that element in the chemical
Formula, added together.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Chemistry
Date:
Feb 14, 2014
Today’s Topic
Measuring Matter
Today’s Starter Question:
How many moles of NaCl are in 5.50 grams NaCl?
1 mole compound
Answer:
Conversion Factor
grams compound
5.50 grams of NaCl X
1 mol of NaCl
= 0.094 mols of NaCl
58.443 grams
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Explain what is meant by the percent composition of a compound.
Two:
Three:
Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound
From mass percent and actual mass data.
Percent by mass: The ratio of the mass of each element to the
total mass of the compound expressed as a percent
A molecular formula of a compound is a whole-number multiple
of its empirical formula.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Chemistry
Date:
Feb 14, 2014
Today’s Topic
Measuring Matter
Today’s Starter Question:
How many moles of NaCl are in 5.50 grams NaCl?
1 mole compound
Answer:
Conversion Factor
grams compound
5.50 grams of NaCl X
1 mol of NaCl
= 0.094 mols of NaCl
58.443 grams
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Explain what is meant by the percent composition of a compound.
Two:
Three:
Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound
From mass percent and actual mass data.
Percent by mass: The ratio of the mass of each element to the
total mass of the compound expressed as a percent
A molecular formula of a compound is a whole-number multiple
of its empirical formula.
Summary Notes: Next Page
The molar mass of a compound demonstrates the law of
conservation of mass.
For elements, the conversion factor is the molar mass of the
compound.
The procedure is the same for compounds, except that you must
first calculate the molar mass of the compound.
The conversion factor is the inverse of the molar mass of the
compound.
1 mole compound
5..50 g compound X
185.0 g compound
Summary Notes: Next Page
= 0.0297 mol compound
Convert mass to moles of compound with the inverse of molar mass.
Convert moles to particles with Avogadro’s number.
Summary Notes: Next Page
The percent by mass of any element in a compound can be found by
Dividing the mass of the element by the mass of the compound and
Multiplying by 100.
Mass of element
Percent by mass (element) =
X
100
Mass of compound
The percent by mass of each element in a compound is the percent
Composition of a compound.
Percent composition of a compound can also be determined from its
Chemical formula.
Mass of element in 1 mol of compound
Percent by mass
X
=
Molar mass of compound
Summary Notes: Next Page
100
The percent by mass of any element in a compound can be found by
Dividing the mass of the element by the mass of the compound and
Multiplying by 100.
Mass of element
Percent by mass (element) =
X
100
Mass of compound
The percent by mass of each element in a compound is the percent
Composition of a compound.
Percent composition of a compound can also be determined from its
Chemical formula.
Mass of element in 1 mol of compound
Percent by mass
X
=
Molar mass of compound
Summary Notes: Next Page
100
Subject:
Chemistry
Date:
Feb 19, 2014
Today’s Topic
Measuring Matter
Today’s Starter Question:
What is the percent composition of C, H and O atoms
In one molecules of glucose, (C6 H12 O6)
Answer:
First, find the atomic mass for C, H, and O.
C = 12g
H = 1g O = 16g
6 X 12g
12 X 1g 6 X 16g
= 72g
= 12g
= 96g = tot wt glucose 180g
72g
12g
96g
X 100 = 40% C
X 100 = 7% H
X 100 = 53% O
180g
180g
180g
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Two:
Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for a
compound from mass percent and actual mass data.
Three:
A molecular formula of a compound is a whole number
multiple of its empirical formula
Summary Notes: Next Page
The empirical formula for a compound is the smallest whole
number mole ratio of the element
You can calculate the empirical formula from percent by mass by
Assuming you have 100.00g of the compound. Then, convert the
mass of each element to moles
Hematite = Fe2 O3
Magnetite = Fe3 O4
Which ore provides the greatest percent of iron per kilogram?
Summary Notes: Next Page
The empirical formula may or may not be the same as the
molecular formula.
Molecular formula of hydrogen peroxide = H2 O2
HO
Empirical formula of hydrogen peroxide
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Chemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Date:
Feb 20, 2014
Today’s Topic
Measuring Matter
Which ore provides the greatest percent of iron per
kilogram?
Answer:
Hematite = Fe2 O3
Magnetite = Fe3 O4
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for a
compound from mass percent and actual mass data.
Two:
Three:
The molecular formula specifies the actual number of atoms of
Each element in one molecule or formula unit of the substance.
Molecular formula is always a whole-number multiple of the
Empirical formula..
Summary Notes: Next Page
Measuring Matter Test 2-21-2014
1. Find the molecular mass of 1 mole of hydrogen peroxide H2 O2
2. Number of molecules in 4.50 mol of sucrose.
3. What is the mass of 4.00 moles of copper.
4. How many moles of NaCl are in 8.50 grams NaCl?
5. What is the percent composition of C, H and O atoms
In one molecules of glucose, (C6 H12 O6)
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Chemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
Date:
Feb 24, 2014
Today’s Topic
Measuring Matter
Write the empirical formula for peroxide H2O2?
HO
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Explain what a hydrate is and relate the name of the hydrate to
its composition.
Two:
Three:
Determine the formula of a hydrate from laboratory data.
Crystal lattice: a three-dimensional geometric arrangement of
particles.
Hydrates are solid ionic compounds in which water molecules are
Trapped.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Percent
composition
Express percent by
mass in grams
Find the number of
Moles of each element
Mass of component
element
Mass of each element
Molar mass
Ratio of moles of elements
Examine the mole
ratio
If all are
Whole numbers
Write the empirical
formula
Summary Notes: Next Page
If not all whole numbers
Multiply by the smallest factor
That will produce whole numbers
Empirical Formula
Determine the integer
That relates the
Empirical and
Molecular formulas
Multiply the subscripts by n
Write the molecular formula
Summary Notes: Next Page
Experimental molar mass
Mass of empirical formula
(empirical formula) n
Molecular formula
=
n
Subject:
Chemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
Date:
Feb 25, 2014
Today’s Topic
Measuring Matter
Write the empirical formula for glucose C6H12O6
CH2O
Today’s Objectives:
One:
When heated, water molecules are released from a hydrate
leaving an anhydrous compound.
Two:
Three:
To determine the formula of a hydrate, find the number of
Moles of water associated with 1 mole of hydrate.
Summary Notes: Next Page
A hydrate is a compound that has a specific number of water
molecules bound to its atoms.
The number of water molecules associated with each formula unit of
the compound is written following a dot.
Sodium carbonate decahydrate = Na2CO3. 10H2O
Summary Notes: Next Page
FORMULAS OF HyDRATES
PREFIX
MOLECULES
H2O
FORMULA
NAME
MONO-
1
(NH4)2C2O4.H2O
AMMONIUM OXALATE MONOHYDRATE
DI
2
CaCl2 . 2H2O
Calcium chloride dihydrate
Tri-
3
NaC2H3O2 . 3H2O Sodium acetate trihydrate
Tetra-
4
FePO4 . 4H2O
Iron(lll) phosphate tetrahydrate
Penta-
5
CuSO4 . 5H2O
Copper (ll) sulfate pentahydrate
Hexa-
6
CoCl2 . 6H2O
Cobalt (ll) chloride hexahydrate
Hepta-
7
MgSO4 . 7H2O
Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate
Octa-
8
Ba(OH)2 . 8H2O
Barium Hydroxide octahydrate
Deca-
10
NaCO3 . 10H2O
Sodium carbonate decahydrate
Summary Notes: Next Page
Analyzing a hydrate:
Weigh hydrate.
Heat to drive off the water.
Weigh the anhydrous compound.
Subtract and convert the difference to moles.
The ratio of moles of water to moles of anhydrous compound
is the coefficient for water in the hydrate.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Anhydrous forms of hydrates are often used to absorb water,
Particularly during shipment of electronic and optical equipment.
In chemistry labs, anhydrous forms of hydrate are used to remove
Moisture from the air and keep other substances dry.
Heat to drive off the water.
Weigh the anhydrous compound.
Subtract and convert the difference to moles.
The ratio of moles of water to moles of anhydrous compound
is the coefficient for water in the hydrate.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Topic
Measuring Volume
Today’s Starter Question:
Write the correct definition for volume:
Answer:
The amount of space occupied by an object is called its volume.
Today’s Objectives: and Aim: Understand how to convert SI units.
One:
Learn how to measure volume and convert from one SI unit
to another SI unit:
Two:
Volume: If you want to know the volume of a solid rectangle, such
as a brick, you measure its length, width, and height
Three:
and multiply the three numbers and their units.
(V = l X w X h) The volume would then be expressed in cubic
centimeters, cm³
To find out how much a moving van can carry, your measurements
probably would be in meters, and the volume would be expressed in
cubic meters m³ because when you multiply you add your exponents.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Measuring Liquid Volume
In measuring a liquid volume, you are indicating the capacity of the container
that holds that amount of liquid
The most common units for expressing liquid volumes are liters and milliliters.
A liter occupies the same volume as a cubic decimeter, dm³.
A cubic decimeter is a cube that is 1 dm or 10 cm on each side:
1cm
1cm
1cm
1 cm X 1 cm X 1 cm = 1 cm³
1 mL
=
1 mL
= 1 cm³
Suppose you wanted to convert a measurement in liters to cubic centimeters, you
Use conversion factors to convert L to mL and then mL to cm³.
1.5 L X
1,000
1 L
mL
X
1,500 cm³
1
mL
=
1,500 cm³
Measuring Liquid Volume
1cm
1cm
1cm
1 cm X 1 cm X 1 cm
= 1 cm³ = 1 mL
1 mL
= 1 cm³
1dm
1dm
1dm
1dm X 1dm X 1dm
1dm³
= 1L
= 1dm³
Measuring Liquid Volume
This is a cm³ space or volume capacity.
Expressed like this:
1 cm X 1 cm X 1 cm
= 1 cm³ = 1 mL
1 mL
1cm
1cm
= 1 cm³
1cm
1 mL of water from this container
Will fill up this cm³ space:
So this is the
cm³ space
And this is the
mL of water
1 mL of water from this container:
Measuring Liquid Volume
This is a dm³ space or volume capacity.
Expressed like this:
1 dm X 1 dm X 1 dm
= 1 dm³ = 1 L
1L
= 1 dm³
1dm
1dm
1dm
1 L of water from this container
Will fill up this dm³ space:
dm³ space
And this is the L of water
So this is the
1 L of water from this container:
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Topic
Measuring Volume
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
How many liters of water can a rectangular shaped pan that
measures 20 cm wide, 20 cm long and 20 cm high whole:
20 cm X 20 cm X 20 cm = 8000 cm³
1 mL
8000 mL
1 L
8000 L
X
8000 cm³ X
=
=
=8 L
1 cm³
1000 mL
1
1000
Today’s Objectives: and Aim: Understand how to convert SI units
One:
Two:
Three:
Gain an understanding of how to measure matter.
Mass: Mass is the measurement of the quantity of matter in an
object.
The mass and volume of an object can be used to find the density
of the material the object is made of.
Density: Is the mass per unit volume of a material. You find density by
dividing an object’s mass by the object’s volume.
For example: The density of an object having a mass of 10g
and a volume of 2 cm³ is 5g / cm³
Summary Notes: Next Page
Measuring Matter
Derived Units:
The measurement unit for density, g / cm³ is a combination of SI units.
A unit obtained by combining different SI units is called a derived unit.
An SI unit multiplied by itself also is a derived unit
Thus the liter, which is based on the cubic decimeter, is a derived unit.
A meter cubed, expressed with an exponent -- m³ -- is a derived unit.
Densities of Some Materials at 20º C
Material
Density g/cm³
Material
Density g/cm³
Hydrogen
0.00009
Aluminum
2.7
Oxygen
0.0014
Iron
7.9
1.0
Gold
19.3
Water
Mini Lab
Determine the density of different objects:
One Example:
1.
Find a pencil that will fit in a 100mL graduated cylinder below the 90
mL mark.
2. Measure the mass of the pencil in grams.
3. Put 90mL of water (initial volume) into a 100mL graduated cylinder.
4. Lower the pencil, eraser first, into the cylinder.
5. Push the pencil down until it is just submerged.
6.
Hold it there and record the final volume to the nearest tenth of a
milliliter (mL)
Analysis:
1. Determine the water displacement by the pencil by subtracting the
initial volume from the final volume.
2. Calculate the pencil’s density by dividing its mass by the volume of
displaced.
3.
Is the density of the pencil greater than or less than the density of
water? How do you Know?
Temperature Scale Formula and Equations
9/5 = 1.8, 9/4 = 2.25, 10/8 = 1.25
From
To
Equation
Units
Units
Fahrenheit
Celsius
Fahrenheit
Kelvin
K = F + 459.67)
Fahrenheit
Rankine
Ra = F + 459.67
Fahrenheit
Re’aumur
Re = (F – 32) /2.25
Celsius
Fahrenheit
Celsius
Kelvin
Celsius
Rankine
Celsius
Re’aumur
Formula
C = (F – 32) / 1.8
F = C X 1.8
/1.8
+ 32
K = C + 273.15
Ra = C + 32 + 459.67
Re = C X 0.8
Temperature Scale Formula and Equations
9/5 = 1.8, 9/4 = 2.25, 10/8 = 1.25
From
To
Equation
Units
Units
Formula
Kelvin
Celsius
C = K – 273.15
Kelvin
Fahrenheit
Kelvin
Rankine
Kelvin
Re’aumur
F = K X 1.8 - 459.67
Ra = K X 1.8
Re = (K – 273.15)
Rankine
Celsius
C = (Ra – 32 – 459.67
Rankine
Fahrenheit
F = Ra – 459.67
Rankine
Kelvin
Rankine
Re’aumur
X 0.8
/1.8
K = Ra /1.8
Re = (Ra – 32 – 459.67)
/ 2.25
Temperature Scale Formula and Equations
9/5 = 1.8, 9/4 = 2.25, 10/8 = 1.25
From
To
Re’aumur
Celsius
Re’aumur
Fahrenheit
Equation
C = Re X 1.25
F = Re X 2.25 + 32
Re’aumur
Kelvin
K = Re X 1.25 + 273.15
Re’aumur
Rankine
Ra = (Re X 2.25 + 32 + 459.67)
ºC: Degrees Celsius (Centigrade), ºRe: Re’aumur, ºF: Degrees
Fahrenheit, K: Kelvin, ºRa: Rankine
Scale Factor
Boiling point of
Water at 1
atmosphere
Freezing point of
Water at 1
atmosphere
ºC
100
0
ºRe
ºF
K
ºRa
80
212
273.15
671.67
0
32
273.15
491.67
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Topic
Describing Motion
Today’s Starter Question:
Convert 23.8 degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit
Answer:
Use this equation: Fahrenheit
(23.8 X 1.8) + 32 = 42.84
/ + 32
= ( C X 1.8) + 32
74.84º Fahrenheit round up to
75º
Today’s Objectives: and Aim: Understand how to convert SI units
One:
Learn how to distinguish between distance and displacement
Review Vocabulary:
Instantaneous: Occurring at a particular instant of time.
Distance: Is how far an object has moved.
Displacement: Is the distance and direction of an object’s change
In position from the starting point.
Speed: Is the distance an object travels per unit of time.
Average Speed: Is the total distance traveled divided by the total time of travel
Instantaneous Speed: Is the speed at a given point in time.
Velocity: Includes the speed of an object and the direction of it’s motion.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Topic
Describing Motion
Today’s Starter Question:
Convert 23.8 degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit
Answer:
Use this equation: Fahrenheit = ( F – 32)
/ 1.8
(75 – 32) /1.8 = 43 /1.8
= 23.8º Celsius
Today’s Objectives: and Aim: Understand how to convert SI units
One:
Learn how to distinguish between distance and displacement
Review Vocabulary:
Instantaneous: Occurring at a particular instant of time.
Distance: Is how far an object has moved.
Displacement: Is the distance and direction of an object’s change
In position from the starting point.
Speed: Is the distance an object travels per unit of time.
Average Speed: Is the total distance traveled divided by the total time of travel
Instantaneous Speed: Is the speed at a given point in time.
Velocity: Includes the speed of an object and the direction of it’s motion.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Today’s Topic
Date:
Describing Motion
Today’s Starter Question:
Determine the speed of a car that moves 750 meters in 25 seconds
Answer:
=
Use this equation: speed ( in meters / seconds)
distance (in meters)
750 meters
30 m / s
Time (in second)
25 seconds
=
=
Today’s Objectives: and Aim: Understand how to convert SI units
One:
Explain the difference between speed and velocity.
Interpret motion graphs.
Summary Notes: Next Page
How to balance a chemical equation:
Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.
To Balance, use the coefficient to make the atoms equal on both sides of the
arrow.
Multiply the coefficient by the subscript
Al
+
Al
O 2
Aluminum
Plus Oxygen Gas
To Balance:
2X
2X
O
2 Al
+ 1.5 2
3
2
1
2
3
4
6
2
O
3
yields Aluminum Oxide
2 Al
2
O
3
2
3
4
6
Looks balanced, but you can’t have a half of an
Atom.
So, multiply both sides by 2
Now, the equation is balanced
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Topic
Biochemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
Explain the difference between a homogeneous mixture
and a heterogeneous mixture
When a mixture has a uniform composition throughout, it is called a
homogeneous mixture.
In a heterogeneous mixture, the components remain distinct, that is, you can
tell what they are individually.
Today’s Objectives:
Describe the difference between acids and bases.
One:
Substances that release hydrogen (H+) ions in water are acids.
Substances that release hydroxide (OH-) Ions in water are bases.
The more hydrogen ions a substance releases in water, the more acidic the
solution becomes.
Two: The more hydroxide ions a substance releases, the more basic the solution becomes
The pH scale is used to indicate strength of acids and bases. In other words, the
Three: . concentration of H+ ions in solution.
Pure water is neutral and has a pH of 7. Acidic solution have an abundance of H+
Ions and have a pH below 7. Basic solutions have more OH- than H+ and have a
pH above 7.
Buffers are mixtures that can react with acids or bases to keep the pH within a
Particular range. In cells, buffers keep the pH in cells within the 6.5 to 7.5 pH range
Summary Notes: Next Page
Reactants
Products
Subject:
Chemistry
Date:
Feb. 26, 2014
Today’s Topic
Biochemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Which three elements are most abundant in the human body,
Answer: Also, list some other elements that are found in the human body
Oxygen at 65%,
Carbon at 18.5%,
Hydrogen at 9.5%,
Nitrogen at 3.3%, Calcium at 1.5%, Phosphorus 1%, and
Others at 1.5%.
Today’s Objectives:
Learn how to balance a chemical equation.
One:
Two:
Three:
In chemical equations, the number of atoms found in the reactants
must equal the number of atoms in the product.
The coefficient is the number in front of the atom or molecule.
Example:
.
H
2
O
1 oxygen
2 H 2 O
2 hydrogen
Summary Notes: Next Page
2 oxygen
4 hydrogen
Reactants
Products
Subject:
Chemistry
Date:
Feb. 27, 2014
Today’s Topic
Biochemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Explain the difference between an acid and a base.
Answer:
Substances that release hydrogen (H+) ions in water are acids.
Substances that release hydroxide (OH-) Ions in water are bases.
Today’s Objectives:
Describe the role of carbon in living organisms.
One:
Organisms are made up of carbon-based molecules.
Two:
Scientists have devoted an entire branch of chemistry, called organic chemistry,
Three: to the study of organic compounds--- those compounds containing carbon.
Carbon compounds can be in the shape of straight chains, branched chains,
And rings, together carbon compounds lead to the diversity of life on Earth.
Macromolecules are large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic
molecules together, these large molecules are also called polymers.
Polymers are molecules made from repeating units of identical or nearly identical
.
Compounds,
called monomers that are linked together by a series of covalent bonds.
Biological macromolecules are organized into four major categories: carbohydrates,
Lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Reactants
Products
How to balance a chemical equation:
Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.
To Balance, use the coefficient to make the atoms equal on both sides of the
arrow.
Multiply the coefficient by the subscript
C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2
Glucose
Plus
C O 2 +
Oxygen Gas
yields
H 2 O
Carbon Dioxide
Plus
Water
6H
O
To Balance:
C
6
6
H
12
O 6
+ 6O 2
6 C
12
6
2
1
8
6
12
6
12
18
O
2
2
+
12
18
18
2
2
1
12
6
How to balance a chemical equation:
Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.
To Balance, use the coefficient to make the atoms equal on both sides of the
arrow.
Multiply the coefficient by the subscript
Al
+
Al
O 2
Aluminum
Plus Oxygen Gas
To Balance:
2X
2X
O
2 Al
+ 1.5 2
3
2
1
2
3
4
6
2
O
3
yields Aluminum Oxide
2 Al
2
O
3
2
3
4
6
Looks balanced, but you can’t have a half of an
Atom.
So, multiply both sides by 2
Now, the equation is balanced
How to balance a chemical equation:
Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.
To Balance, use the coefficient to make the atoms equal on both sides of the
arrow.
Multiply the coefficient by the subscript
C O2
C
1
O
+ H
2
2
+
C H
2
4H2
2
C
1
8
Now, the equation is balanced.
4
+ H
H4
4
2
2H
2
+
2
4
8
O
O
1
2
Quiz 2-28-2014
Balance chemical equations:
Without using your notes, balance the following chemical equations:
C O2
Al
+
+ H
2
O 2
C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2
C H
+ H
4
Al
2
O
2
O
3
C O 2 +
H 2 O
Name ______________ Period______________ Date
Balance the following chemical equation to check for understanding.
REMEMBER to Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.
To Balance, use the coefficient to make the atoms equal on both sides of the
arrow.
How to find the molecular and empirical formulas of a molecule.
C 6 H 12 O 6
This is one molecule of glucose.
The molecular mass of one molecule of glucose can be figured out by doing
the following:
One atom of carbon has a molecular mass of 12g / mol
Therefore, there a 6 carbon atoms in one molecule of glucose which has a
mass of 6 X 12 g / mol = 72 g of carbon
One atom of hydrogen has a molecular mass of 1 g / mol
Therefore, there a 12 carbon atoms in one molecule of glucose which has a
mass of 6 X 1 g / mol = 12 g of hydrogen
One atom of oxygen has a molecular mass of 16 g / mol
Therefore, there a 6 oxygen atoms in one molecule of glucose which has a
mass of 6 X 16 g / mol = 96 g of carbon
Name ______________ Period______________ Date
Balance the following chemical equation to check for understanding.
REMEMBER to Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.
To Balance, use the coefficient to make the atoms equal on both sides of the
arrow.
How to find the molecular and empirical formulas of a molecule.
C 6 H 12 O 6
72 g / mol C
This is one molecule of glucose.
The empirical formula is .
C H 2 O
12 g /mol H
96 g / mol O
180 g /mol of glucose
To check your work
180 g X .40 = 72 / 12 = 6
One mole of glucose is 40% carbon
180 g X .07 = 12 / 1 = 12
One mole of glucose is 7% Hydrogen
One mole of glucose is 53% Oxygen
180 g X .53 = 95.4 / 16 = 6
Name__________________ Date_ ___ Period__________
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.
S.
Colloid
Activation Energy
Heterogeneous Mixture
Exothermic
Distinct
Solute
Catalyst
Solution
Hydrogen Bond
Solvent
Substrate
Two
Homogeneous Mixture
Endothermic
Active Site
Enzymes
Polar Molecule
Mixture
Homogeneous
Biochemistry Test
B
The minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a
chemical reaction is called _____________________.
D
When the energy of the product is lower than the energy of the reactants, the
chemical reaction is ________________.
N
When the energy of the product is higher than the energy of the reactants, the
chemical reaction is _________________.
G
A ______________ is a substance that lowers the activation energy needed to start a
chemical reaction.
P
Special protein called ____________ are the biological catalysts that speed up the rate of
chemical reactions in biological processes.
K
The reactants that bind to the enzyme are called _______________.
O
The specific location where a substrate binds on an enzyme is called the __________.
O
Molecules that have an unequal distribution of charge are called
_______________, meaning that they have oppositely charged
regions.
C
A_____________ is a combination of two or more substances in which each substance
retains its individual characteristics and properties.
I
In water, the electrostatic attraction is called a _______________.
This bond is a weak interaction involving a hydrogen
atom and a fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen atom
M
When a mixture has a uniform composition throughout, it is called a
_____________________.
S
A solution is another name for a ________________________ mixture.
L
In a solution, there are __________ components, a solvent and a solute.
J
A __________ is a substance in which another substance is dissolved.
F
A __________ is a substance that is dissolved in the solvent.
E
In a heterogeneous mixture, the components remain ________, that is, you can
tell what they are individually.
H
A _________ is a homogeneous mixture; a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture.
A
Blood is a heterogeneous mixture called a _________.
1
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Topic
Biochemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Which three elements are most abundant in the human body,
Answer: Also, list some other elements that are found in the human body
Oxygen at 65%,
Carbon at 18.5%,
Hydrogen at 9.5%,
Nitrogen at 3.3%, Calcium at 1.5%, Phosphorus 1%, and
Others at 1.5%.
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Learn how to balance a chemical equation.
In chemical equations, the number of atoms found in the reactants
must equal the number of atoms in the product.
Three:
Two:
The coefficient is the number in front of the atom or molecule.
Example:
.
H
2
O
1 oxygen
2 H 2 O
2 hydrogen
Summary Notes: Next Page
2 oxygen
4 hydrogen
Reactants
Products
How to balance a chemical equation:
Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.
To Balance, use the coefficient to make the atoms equal on both sides of the
arrow.
Multiply the coefficient by the subscript
C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2
Glucose
Plus
C O 2 +
Oxygen Gas
yields
H 2 O
Carbon Dioxide
Plus
Water
6H
O
To Balance:
C
6
6
H
12
O 6
+ 6O 2
6 C
12
6
2
1
8
6
12
6
12
18
O
2
2
+
12
18
18
2
2
1
12
6
How to balance a chemical equation:
Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.
To Balance, use the coefficient to make the atoms equal on both sides of the
arrow.
Multiply the coefficient by the subscript
Al
+
Al
O 2
Aluminum
Plus Oxygen Gas
To Balance:
2X
2X
O
2 Al
+ 1.5 2
3
2
1
2
3
4
6
2
O
3
yields Aluminum Oxide
2 Al
2
O
3
2
3
4
6
Looks balanced, but you can’t have a half of an
Atom.
So, multiply both sides by 2
Now, the equation is balanced
How to balance a chemical equation:
Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.
To Balance, use the coefficient to make the atoms equal on both sides of the
arrow.
Multiply the coefficient by the subscript
C O2
C
1
O
+ H
2
2
+
C H
2
4H2
2
C
1
8
Now, the equation is balanced.
4
+ H
H4
4
2
2H
2
+
2
4
8
O
O
1
2
Name ______________ Period______________ Date
Balance the following chemical equation to check for understanding.
REMEMBER to Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.
To Balance, use the coefficient to make the atoms equal on both sides of the
arrow.
Multiply the coefficient by the subscript
C O2
+ H
2
C H
4
+ H
2
O
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
Biochemistry
Today’s Topic
Balance the following chemical equation:
CO + H
CH + H O
2
2
4
2
Today’s Objectives:
One:
C
Two:
1
O
2
2
+
4H2
2
C
1
H4
4
2H
2
+
2
Three:
4
8
O
1
2
8
.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Reactants
Products
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
Biochemistry
Today’s Topic
Balance the following chemical equation:
CO + H
CH + H O
2
2
4
2
Today’s Objectives:
One:
C
Two:
1
O
2
2
+
4H2
2
C
1
H4
4
2H
2
+
2
Three:
4
8
O
1
2
8
.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Reactants
Products
Subject:
Date:
Biochemistry
Today’s Topic
Today’s Starter Question:
Balance the following chemical equation:
CO + H
CH + H O
Answer:
2
2
4
2
Biological macromolecules are organized into four major
categories: carbohydrates, Lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Today’s Objectives:
Summarize the four major families of biological macromolecules.
One:
Two:
Three:
Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of one oxygen
And two hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom are called carbohydrates.
A general formula for carbohydrates is written.
( CH O )
2
n
This is a monosaccharide ( a simple sugar) with the subscript n ranging from
three to seven. Two monosaccharides linked together forms a disaccharide.
Glucose is a monosaccharide; Sucrose and lactose are both disaccharides.
Glycogen is a polysaccharide that is an energy storage form of glucose that is
found in the liver and skeleton muscles.
A. carbohydrate called cellulose provides structural support in plants.
Chitin is a nitrogen – containing polysaccharide that is the main component in the
Hard outer shell of shrimp, lobsters, and some insects, as well as the wall of some
fungi.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Reactants
Products
Subject:
Chemistry
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
Date:
March 3, 2014
Today’s Topic Naming Simple Compounds
Explain a Binary Compound (Type I)
Binary Ionic Compounds (Type I) contain a positive ion (cation) always written
first in the formula and a negative ion (anion).
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Learn how to name Binary Ionic Compounds. (Type I)
Two:
In naming binary ionic compounds, the following rules apply:
Three:
1. The cation is always named first and the anion is second.
2. A monatomic (meaning “one-atom”) cation takes its name from the name of
the element.
For example, Na + is called sodium in the names of compounds containing this ion.
. 3. A monatomic anion is named by taking the root of the element name and adding
-ide.
Thus the Cl - ion is called chloride.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Reactants
Products
Some common monatomic cations and anions follow:
Ions Present
Name
Compound
NaCl
Na + Cl Sodium chloride
Potassium iodide
K + IKI
Calcium Sulfide
Ca 2+ S 2CaS
Li3 N
Li + N 3Lithium nitride
Cs + Br CsBr
Cesium Bromide
MgO
Mg 2+ O 2Magnesium oxide
Summary Notes: Next Page
Some common monatomic cations and anions follow:
Name
Name
Anion
Cation
Hydride
Hydrogen
H+
HFluoride
Lithium
Li +
F Chloride
Sodium
Na+
Cl Bromide
Potassium
K +
Br Iodide
Cesium
Cs+
I Oxide
Beryllium
Be 2+
O 2Sulfide
Magnesium
S 2Mg 2+
Nitride
Ca 2+
Calcium
N 3Phosphide
Ba 2+
Barium
P 3Al 3+
Aluminum
Summary Notes: Next Page
Formulas from Names:
Given the name calcium chloride, we can write the formula
as CaCl2.
Because we know that calcium forms only Ca 2+ ions and that,
since chloride is Cl - , two of these anions will be required to
give a neutral compound.
In the binary ionic compounds (Type I), the metal present forms
Only a single type of cation. That is, sodium forms only Na + ,
Calcium forms only Ca 2+ , and so on.
There are many metals that form more than one type of positive
ion and thus form more than one type of ionic compound with
a given anion.
For example, the compound FeCl2 contains Fe 2+ ions.
and, the compound FeCl3 contains Fe 3+ ions.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Formulas from Names:
In the case of the examples on the previous slide, the charge on
the metal ion must be specified.
The systematic names for these two iron compounds are iron(II)
chloride and iron (III) chloride, respectively,
the roman numeral indicates the charge of the cation.
Another system for naming these ionic compounds that was used
for metals that form only two ions.
The ion with the higher charge has a name ending in –ic, and
the one with the lower charge has a name ending in-ous
For example, Fe 3+ is called the ferric ion, and Fe 3+ is called the
ferrous ion.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Common Type (II) cations:
ion
Systematic Name
ion
Systematic Name
Iron (III)
Fe 3+
Ag +
Silver
Iron (II)
Fe 2+
Zinc
Zn 2+
Copper (II)
Cu 2+
Cadmium
Cd 2+
Copper (I)
Cu +
Note that mercury (I) ions always
3
+
Cobalt (III)
Co
occur bound together to form
Cobalt (II)
Co 2+
Hg2 2+ ions.
Tin (IV)
Sn 4+
Although these are transition
Metals, they form only one type
Sn 2+
Tin (II)
of ion, and Roman numeral is
Pb 4+
Lead (IV)
not used.
Hg 2+
Mercury (II)
2+
Hg2
Mercury (I)
Summary Notes: Next Page
Subject:
Chemistry
Date:
March 3, 2014
Today’s Topic Naming Simple Compounds
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
Given the following names, write the formula for each compound
a. Potassium iodide c. gallium bromide
b. Calcium oxide
a. KI Contains K + and I b. CaO Contains Ca 2+ and O 2c. GaBr3 Contains Ga 3+ and Br - (must have 3Br - to balance charge of Ga 3+ )
Today’s Objectives:
One:
Gain an understanding of how to name type II binary compounds.
Two:
Three:
View practice problems on next slide.
Summary Notes: Next Page
Reactants
Products
1. Given the systematic name for each of the following compounds
a. CuCl b. HgO c. Fe2O3
2. Given the following systematic names, write the formula for each
compound. a. Manganese (IV) oxide b. Lead (II) chloride
Name
Comments
1. Formula
+
a. CuCl
Copper (I) chloride Because the anion Cl , the cation must be Cu
b. HgO
Mercury (II) oxide
c. Fe2O3
Iron (III) oxide
2. Name
Formula
a. Manganese (IV) oxide MnO2
b. Lead (II) chloride
Summary Notes: Next Page
PbCl2
(for charge balance), which requires a Roman
numeral I.
Because the anion O 2- , the cation must be Hg 2+
[mercury (II)]
The three O 2- , ions carry a total charge of 6 - , so
two Fe 3+ ions [iron (III)] are needed to give a 6 +
charge.
Comments
Two O 2- ions (total charge 4 - ) are required by the
Mn 4+ Ion [manganese (IV)]
Two Cl - ions are required by the Pb 2+ ion
[lead (II)] for charge balance.
1. Given the systematic name for each of the following compounds:
a. CoBr2
b. CaCl2 c. Al2O3
2. Given the following systematic names, write the formula for each
compound. a. Chromium (III) chloride b. Gallium iodide
Name
Comments
1. Formula
a. CoBr2 Cobalt (II) bromide Cobalt is a transition metal ; the compound- name
must have a Roman numeral. The two Br
must be balanced by a Co 2+ ions.
b. CaCl2
Calcium Chloride
c. Al2O3
Aluminum oxide
ions
Calcium, an alkaline earth metal, forms only the
Ca 2+ ions. A Roman numeral is not necessary.
Aluminum forms only the Al 3+ Ion.
A Roman numeral is not necessary.
2. Name
a. Chromium (III) chloride
b. Gallium iodide
Summary Notes: Next Page
Formula
CrCl3
GaI3
Comments
Chromium (III) indicates that Cr 3+ is present
so 3 Cl - ions are needed for charge balance.
Gallium always 3+ ions, so 3 I - ions are
required for charge balance.
1A
8A
2A
Li
+
Na
+
Mg 2+
K
+
2+
3A
4A
5A
N
Ca
Rb +
Sr
+
Cs
Ba
Al 3+
Cr 2+ Mn2+ Fe 2+ Co 2+
3+
3+
3+
3+
Co
Mn Fe
Cr
2+
2+
Common Type I cations
Summary Notes: Next Page
Cu 2+
2
3+ Zn
Cu
+
Ag
+
2+
Cd
Ga
3+
3-
6A
N
S
22-
7A
F
-
Cl
-
Br
I
-
Hg2 2+
3+
Hg
Common Type II cations
Common monatomic anions
Common polyatomic Ions
Name
Mercury (I)
Ammonium
Nitrite
Nitrate
Hydrogen sulfate
ion
2+
Hg2
NH4 +
NO2 NO3 SO3 -
Bisulfate is a widely used common name
OH CN PO4 3HPO4 22+
H2PO4
Hydroxide
Cyanide
Phosphate
Hydrogen Phosphate
Dihydrogen Phosphate
Summary Notes: Next Page
ion
Name
Thiocyanate
Carbonate
NCS - orSCN CO32- Hydrogen Carbonate
HCO3
Bicarbonate is a widely used common name
ClO - or OCl -Hypochloride
ClO2
ClO3
ClO4
C2H3O2
MnO4
Cr2O72O2 2C2O42S2O3 2-
Chlorite
Chlorate
Perchlorate
Acetate
Permanganate
Dichromate
Peroxide
Oxalate
Thiosulfate
So far the orbitals:
1S
2S
Gain an understanding of orbitals
2P
2P x
y
2P
z
The first orbital, the 1S orbital
Electrons 1 & 2
Electron 5
The 1S orbital will hold 2 electrons
Electrons 3 & 4
Electron 6
Electron 7
Electron 8
y
x
z
Next, we move to the 2S orbital
The third and fourth electrons will go in the 2S orbital
Next, we have three 2P orbitals which will hold 2 electrons each along an X, y, and Z axis
Learn about Electricity
Electric Charge
There are two types of electric charges, protons
have positive electric charge and electrons have
negative electric charge.
Electric Current
Electric charges move quickly from one place to
another. The net movement of electric charges
in a single direction is an electric current.
Electric Energy
Electrical energy is measured in units of kilowatt hours.
Electric Energy
(in kilowatt hours)
= Electric Power
E = Pt
(in kilowatt)
X Time (in hours)
Learn about Electricity
Electric Charge(Transferring Charge)
Electrons are bound more tightly to some atoms and
molecules. Electrons are more tightly bound in the soles
of your shoes than in a carpet.
Electrons are transferred from the carpet to the soles of your
shoes; therefore the sole of your shoes have an excess of
electrons and has a negative charge and the carpet has a
lost of electrons and has a positive charge.
The accumulation of excess electric charge on an object
is called:
Static Electricity
Learn about Electricity
Conservation of Charge
According to the law of conservation of charge, charge can
be transferred from object to object, but it can’t be
created or destroyed
Charges Exert Forces
Unlike charges attract each other and like charges repel
each other.
As the amount of charge on either object increases, the
electrical force also increases.
The further apart the objects, the weaker the electrical force
between them.
Learn about Electricity
Electric Fields
An electric field surrounds every electric charge, and exert
The force that causes other electric charges to be
attracted or repelled.
This is an example of how an electric field will
make a positive charge move
+
-
Learn about Electricity
Conductor
A material in which electrons are able to move easily is
a conductor.
The best electrical conductors are metals
Insulator
A material in which electrons are not able to move easily is
an insulator.
Electrons are held tightly to atoms in insulators.
Good insulators are plastics, wood rubber, and
glass.
Learn about Electricity
Charging by Contact
The process of transferring charge by touching or rubbing.
Charging by Induction
The rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused
by nearby charged objects.
Learn about Electricity
Lightning
Lighting is a large static discharge .
A static discharge is a transfer of charge between two
objects because of a buildup of static electricity.
Thunder
The electrical energy in a lightning bolt rips electrons off
atoms in the atmosphere and produces great amounts of
heat .
The heat causes air in the bolt’s path to expand rapidly
producing sound waves that you here as thunder.
Learn about Electricity
Electric Current
The net movement of electric charge in a single direction.
Voltage Difference
Related to the force that causes electric charge to flow.
Measured in volts
Electric Circuit
A closed path that electric current follows.
Resistance
The tendency for a material to oppose the flow of electrons
Learn about Electricity
Ohm’s Law
The relationship between voltage difference, current and
Resistance in a circuit.
The current in a circuit equals the voltage difference divided
by the resistance.
current (in amperes)
=
Voltage difference
I =
resistance
V
R
(in volts)
(in ohms
V
so R =
I
Learn about magnetism
Magnetism
Refers to the properties and interactions of magnets.
Magnetic Field
A magnet is surrounded by a magnetic field. A magnetic
field exerts a force on other magnets and objects made of
magnetic materials.
Magnetic Poles
The regions at the ends of a bar magnet is where the
magnetic force is strongest. All magnets have a north
pole and a south pole.
Learn about magnetism
How Magnets Interact
Two north poles or two south poles repels each other.
Magnetic Field Direction
When a compass is brought near a bar magnet, the compass
needle rotates until it is lined up with the magnetic field
lines. The north pole of a compass points in the
Direction of the magnetic field.
This direction is always away from a north magnetic pole
and toward a south magnetic pole
Learn about magnetism
Earth’s Magnetic Field
The north pole of a compass points north.
The direction of a magnetic
Is always away from the North
pole toward the south pole.
N
Toward
S
North geographic pole
Magnetic South
N
This is way the compass
Needle points North
W
E
S
When it lines up with the
Magnetic field.
N
S
Magnetic North
South geographic pole
Learn about magnetism
Magnetic Materials
Only a few metals, such as iron, cobalt, or nickel are
attracted to magnets or can be made into permanent magnets.
What makes these elements magnetic?
Every atom has electrons; electrons have magnetic
Properties. In most elements, the magnetic properties
Cancels out.
In iron, cobalt and nickel, these properties do not cancel out.
Each atom in these elements behaves like a small magnet
and has its own magnetic field.
Learn about magnetism
Magnetic Domains (a model for Magnetism)
In iron, cobalt, nickel and some other magnetic materials,
the magnetic field created by each atom exerts a force on
the other nearby atoms.
Because of these factors, large groups of atoms align their
magnetic poles so that almost all like poles point in the
same direction.
The groups of atoms with aligned magnetic poles are called
Magnetic Domains.
Because the magnetic poles of individual atoms in a
domain are aligned, the domain itself behaves like a magnet
with a north pole and a south pole.
Learn about magnetism
Permanent Magnets
A permanent magnet can be made by placing a magnetic
Material, such as iron, in a strong magnetic field.
The strong magnetic field causes the magnetic domains
In the material to line up.
Can a pole be Isolated
Because every magnet is made of many aligned smaller
magnets, even the smallest pieces have both a north
pole and a south pole
Learn about magnetism
Electric Current and Magnetism
Oersted hypothesized that the electric current must produce
a magnetic field around the wire, and the direction of
the field changes with the direction of the current
Moving charges and magnetic Fields
The direction of the magnetic field around the wire reverses
when the direction of the current in the wire reverses.
As the current in the wire increases, the strength of the
magnetic field increases.
Learn about magnetism
Electromagnets
An electromagnet is a temporary magnet made by wrapping
a wire coil carrying a curren around an iron core.
Moving charges and magnetic Fields
The direction of the magnetic field around the wire reverses
when the direction of the current in the wire reverses.
As the current in the wire increases, the strength of the
magnetic field increases.
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Solenoid
A single wire wrapped into a cylindrical wire coil.
The field inside the solenoid with an iron core can be a
1000 time greater than the field inside the solenoid without
The iron core.
Using Electromagnets to Make Sound
The CD player produces a voltage that changes according
to the musical information on the CD.
The CD player produces a voltage that changes according
to the musical information on the CD. The varying electric
Current causes both the strength and direction of the
magnetic field in the electromagnet to change
Learn about magnetism
Continued)
The electromagnet is surrounded by a permanent fixed
magnet.
The changing direction of the magnetic field in the
electromagnet causes the electromagnet to be attracted or
repelled by the permanent magnet.
This makes the electromagnet move back and forth, causing
the speaker cone the vibrate and reproduce the sound that
was recorded on the CD.
Learn about magnetism
Making an Electromagnet Rotate
The force exerted on an electromagnet by another magnet
can be used to make the electromagnet rotate.
+ N
Permanent Magnet
Unlike poles attract each other
Like poles repel each other
+
S
Permanent Magnet
Unlike poles attract each other
Like poles repel each other
Learn about magnetism
Producing Electric Current
Moving a loop of wire through a magnetic field causes an
electric current to flow in the wire.
Also, moving a magnet through a loop of wire produces a
current.
The magnet and wire loop must be moving relative to each
other for an electric current to be produced.
Electromagnetic Induction
The generation of a current by changing magnetic field.
If the current in a wire changes with time, the changing
magnetic field around the wire can also induce a current
In a nearby coil.
Learn about Nuclear Energy
Using Nuclear Energy
Energy is released when the nucleus of an atom breaks
apart.
In this process, called nuclear fission, an extremely small
Amount of mass is converted into an enormous amount of
energy.
Nuclear Reactor
A nuclear reactor uses the energy from controlled nuclear
reactions to generate electricity.
They contain a fuel that can be made to undergo nuclear
fission; they contain control rods that are used to control
the nuclear reactions .
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Nuclear Reactor Cont’d
They have a cooling system that keeps the reactor from
Being damaged by the heat produced.
The actual fission of the radioactive fuel occurs in a relatively
small part of the reactor known as the core .
Nuclear Fuel
Only certain elements have nuclei that can undergo fission.
Natrutally occuring uranium contains an isotope, U-235,
Whose nucleus can split apart.
The fuel that is in a nuclear reactor is usually uranium
dioxide. In a reactor, the uranium usually is enriched so
That it contains three percent to five percent U-235.
Learn about Nuclear Energy
Reactor Core
Contains uranium dioxide fuel in the form of tiny pellets.
The pellets are about the size of a pencil eraser and are
place end to end in a tube forming a fuel rod.
The tubes are then bundled and covered with a metal alloy.
The core of a typical reactor contains about a hundred
thousand kilograms of uranium in hundreds of fuel rods.
For every kg of uranium that undergoes fission in the core,
One gram of matter is converted into energy.
The energy released by this gram of matter is equivalent to
the energy released by burning 3 million kg of coal.
.
Learn about Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Fission
When a U-235 nucleus absorbs a neutron, it splits into two
smaller nuclei and two or three other additional Neutrons.
These neutrons strike other U-235 nuclei causing them to
release two or three more nuetrons each when they split..
This process is called a nuclear chain reaction .
Subject:
Date:
Today’s Starter Question:
Answer:
Today’s Topic
Structures and Organelles
Define the following terms 1) Lysosomes 2)
Mitochondria, 3) Vacuole 4) and Golgi Apparatus,
A vesicle that contains digestive enzymes for the Breakdown of excess or
worn-out cellular substances.
A membrane – bound organelle that makes energy available to the rest of the cell.
A membrane bound vesicle for the temporary storage of materials.
A flattened stack of tubular membranes that modifies protein and packages
them for distribution outside the cell
Today’s Objectives:
Explain the process of diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active
One:
transport.
Two:
Cellular transport moves substances within the cell and moves substances into and out of the cell
Substances dissolved in water move constantly in random motion called Brownian motion.
This random motion causes diffusion, which is the net movement of particle from an area where
there are many particle of the substance to an area where there are fewer particles of the substance.
The amount of substance in a particular area is called concentration.
When there is no further change in concentration, but continuous movement continues, the condition
is called dynamic equilibrium.
A form of transport called facilitated diffusion uses transport protein to move other ions and small
Molecules across the plasma membrane
Summary Notes: Next Page

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