personal pronouns. - Laing Middle School

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PRONOUNS
Pronouns
• A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a
noun or another pronoun. A pronoun can
refer to a person, place, thing, or idea. The
word that a pronoun refers to is called the
antecedent.
Refers to
Raymon visited Death Valley, and he was
impressed.
Personal pronouns
• Pronouns such as we, I, he them, and it are
called personal pronouns. Personal pronouns
have a variety of forms to indicate different
persons, numbers, and cases.
Person and Number
• These are first-person, second-person and
third-person personal pronouns, each having
both singular and plural forms.
Singular
Plural
I went out.
We left early.
You left too.
You are leaving.
He came by bus.
They came by car.
Case
• Each personal pronoun has three cases:
subject, object, and possessive. Which form to
use depends on the pronouns function in a
sentence.
Subject: He read about Death Valley.
Object: Julie asked him about the rocks.
Possessive: Ramon brought his book.
Subject Pronouns
• A subject pronoun is used as a subject in a
sentence or as a predicate pronoun after a
linking verb.
Singular
Plural
I
We
You
You
He, she, it
They
Pronouns as Subjects
• Use a subject pronoun when the pronoun is a
subject or part of a compound subject.
You and he think the movie was scary.
Predicate Pronouns
• A predicate pronoun follows a linking verb and
identifies the verb’s subject. Use the subject
case for predicate pronouns.
identifies
The owner was he.
subject
Predicate
Pronoun
Object Pronouns
• An object pronoun is used as a direct object,
an indirect object, or an object of a
preposition.
Singular
Plural
Me
Us
You
You
Him, her, it
Them
Direct Object
• The pronoun receives the action of a verb and
answers the question whom or what.
Direct Object
The mysterious death of king Tut fascinates me.
Indirect Object
• The pronoun tells to whom or what or for
whom or what an action is performed.
to
Chu lent me a video on the topic.
Indirect
Object
Direct
Object
Object of a Preposition
• The pronoun follows a preposition (such as to,
from, for, against, by, or about).
We will save the video for you.
preposition Object of a
preposition
Possessive Pronouns
• A possessive pronoun is a personal pronoun
used to show ownership or relationship.
Singular
Plural
My, mine
Our, ours
Your, yours
Your, yours
Her, hers, his, its
Their, theirs
The Chinese museum kept its amazing secret for years.
No one saw the mummies in their colorful clothes.
Then Professor Mair and his tour group arrived.
Reflexive Pronouns
• A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and
directs the action of the verb back to the subject.
Reflexive pronouns are necessary to the meaning
of a sentence.
reflects
Houdini called himself a master escape artist.
Intensive Pronouns
• An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or
another pronoun in the same sentence.
Intensive pronouns are not necessary to the
meaning of a sentence.
You yourselves have seen magic shows on TV.
Interrogative Pronouns
• An interrogative pronoun is used to introduce
a question.
Who made up this riddle?
Interrogative Pronoun
Use
Who, whom
Refers to people
What
Refers to things
Which
Refers to people or things
Whose
Indicates ownership or relationship
Using Who and Whom
• Who is always used a subject or predicate
pronoun.
Who knows the answer to the riddle?
Your favorite comedian is who?
• Whom is always used as an object.
Whom did you tell?
To whom did you give my name?
Demonstrative Pronouns
• A demonstrative pronoun points out a
person, place, thing, or idea. The
demonstrative pronouns – this, that, these,
and those – are used alone in a sentence.
Singular
Plural
This is the game that we created.
These are the rules.
That is the spinner.
Those are the playing pieces.
Pronoun Agreement
• The antecedent is the noun or pronoun that a
pronoun replaces or refers to. The antecedent
and the pronoun can be in the same sentence
or a in different sentences.
Refers to
Louis writes his own detective stories.
Replaces
Agatha Christie writes mysteries. Her stories
are famous.
Agreement in Numbers
• Use a singular pronoun to refer to a singular
antecedent.
One story has its setting in Egypt.
• Use a plural pronoun to refer to a plural
antecedent.
The characters have their motives for murder.
Agreement in Person
• The pronoun must agree in person with the
antecedent.
3rd person
Louis likes his mysteries to have surprise
endings.
2nd person
You want a story to grab your attention.
Indefinite-Pronoun Agreement
• An indefinite pronoun does not refer to a
specific person, place, thing, or idea.
Something unusual is going on in Loch Ness.
Has anyone photographed the Loch Ness
monster?
Singular Indefinite Pronouns
• Use a singular personal pronoun to refer to a
singular indefinite pronoun.
Refers to
Everyone took his or her camera to the lake.
Refers to
One dropped his camera in the water.
Plural Indefinite Pronouns
• Use a plural personal pronoun to refer to a
plural indefinite pronoun.
Refers to
Several reported their sightings of the monster.
Refers to
Many could not believe their own eyes!
Pronoun Problems – “we” and “us”
• The pronoun we or us is sometimes followed by a
noun that identifies the pronoun. Use we when
the pronoun is a subject or a predicate pronoun.
Use us when the pronoun is an object.
We owners don’t always understand our pets.
Dogs and cats often surprise us owners.
Pronoun Problems – Unclear
Reference
• Be sure that each personal pronoun refers
clearly to only one person, place, or thing.
• Confusing: Tony and Fred want to become
veterinarians. He now works at an animal
shelter (who works? Tony or Fred?)
• Clear: Tony and Fred want to become
veterinarians. Fred now works at an animal
shelter.
Pronoun Problems – Pronouns in
Compounds
• Use the subject pronoun I, she, he, we, and
they in a compound subject with a predicate
noun or pronoun.
Kathy and he decided to research a mystery.
The research team was Jim and I.
Pronoun Problems – Problems in
Compounds
• Use the object pronouns me, her, him, us, and
them in a compound object.
Samantha asked Jim and me about the movie.
Kathy loaned our report to Mac and her.
Intervening Phrases
• Sometimes words and phrases come between a
subject and a pronoun that refers to it. Don’t be
confused by those words in between, Mentally cross
out the phrase to figure out agreement.
Jim, like the others, brought his map. (His agrees with
Jim, not with others.)
Five planes from a Navy airfield lost their way in the
Bermuda triangle. (Their agrees with planes, not
with airfield.)

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