Stratigraphy, the Fossil Record & Adaptive Radiation Ju Whan Kim, Jacob Finnegan, Richard Kerfoot & Charmaine Chan BIOL 1510 Module 1 Group B-26 S Introduction S Stratigraphy S The Fossil Record S Adaptive Radiation Images obtained from: http://www.micropress.org/stratigraphy/graphics/vol1.jpg, http://www.detectingdesign.com/images/FossilRecord/Time%20Scale.jpg, http://www.cod.edu/people/faculty/fancher/AdapRadB.jpg Stratigraphy • • • • Diagram of Stratigraphy http://www.earth-time.org/trollart.html (Earth Time is supported by the National Science Foundation) Study of rock layers and layering Two subfields • Lithostratigraphy • Biostratigraphy Focus on Biostratigraphy: • Establish correlations between time-equivalent rock strata • What is the purpose? Related to Fossil Record and Adaptive Radiation What are Arthropods? S Over 90% of the animal kingdom, and found everywhere S Phylum Arthropoda S 5 Class Distinctions Insects Arachnids Crustaceans Images obtained from http://insected.arizona.edu/arthroinfo.htm Chilopods Diplopods Fossil Record S Traces of animals from the past (Radio-Carbon Dating) S Shows patterns of changes that occurred over time S Relationship deduced and recorded in Phylogenic Trees Images obtained from: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/, http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/images/256.jpg Adaptive Radiation S Fast evolution of a lineage to adapt S Marked by increase in number and diversity of species S “When a single lineage produces many descendant species that live in a wide diversity of habitats and use a wide array of resources” (Freeman, 2011) Ancestor Images obtained from: http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/spider_labeled.gif, http://www.clemson.edu/cafls/departments/esps/research/adler/images/female3.gif, http://4.bp.blogspot.com/ The Discovery in Italy S Alexander Schmidt found Arthropods fossilized in amber in Italy, approximately 225 – 235 million years old (Schmidt et al., 2012) S Previous: Lebanon, Approximately 125 - 135 Million Years Old. (Koteja and Azar, 2008) Image obtained from: (Schmidt) Ancestor Schmidt’s Data • • Traits: • Left: Detached Mouthparts, Wormlike Appearance. • Right: Appears Flattened, Larger Comparison and Evidence of Adaptive Radiation: • Two Fossilized Arthropods in Amber (Schmidt et al., 2012) the Arthropods adapted to their environment and developed distinct characteristics that could place them differently in the Phylogenetic Tree. (Schmidt et al., 2012) Discussion (Location) • Possible Contributions to Adaptive Radiation: • • • • The Break-Up of the supercontinent Pangaea United States Geological Survey pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/historical.html From the Triassic to the Cretaceous Periods, Europe and Asia rotated clockwise. Triassic Italy: tropical Triassic Lebanon: colder Cretaceous Lebanon: More mild than the Triassic Lebanon – organisms need to adjust to change in climate Schmidt’s findings were similar to an extant species of arthropod found in New Zealand (which during the Triassic, was attached to Australia, which, in turn, was attached to Antarctica) (Schmidt et al, 2012) Discussion (Comparison of Mouthparts) • Time and adaptive radiation VS. leads to a evolution of species. • Why do the species evolve and new characteristics form? • Habitat Preference • Mutation •What if separate species? • Species Isolation • Choice of Food How can we connect Stratigraphy to the Fossil Record? S Stratigraphy and the Fossil Record S Stratigraphy provides a means to add to the fossil record S The Arthropoda Fossil Record specifically S Evolution and change over time S Evidence of Location S As fossils Take Home Message! B io s t r a t i g r ap hy is h e l p f u l in d e t e r m in i n g t h e h is t o r y o f a r t h r o p o d s b e c au s e it p e r m it s f o r t h e ex p an s io n o f t h e ir f o s s il r e c o r d a n d t h e o b s e r van c e o f t h e ir evo l u t io n an d ad ap t ive r ad ia t i o n s in c e t h e y o r ig in a t e d . Literature Cited Freeman, Scott. 2011. Phylogenies and the History of Life. Biological Science 484, 639-643. Hanken, James et al. 2004. Modern Biostratigraphy of the Trenton Group. Geologic Overview of the Trenton Group at West Canada Creek, New York. 1-12. Koteja, Jan and Dany Azar. 2008. Scale Insects from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccinea). Alavesia 2:133-167. Myrow, Paul et al. 1999. Collaborative Research: Integrated Stratigraphic Study of CambrianOrdovican Inner Shelf Facies of the Western United States. National Science Foundation: Grant request. Schmidt, Alexander. 2012. Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period. PNAS Early Edition 1-6.