Stratigraphy, Fossil Record and Adaptive Radiation

Stratigraphy, the Fossil Record
& Adaptive Radiation
Ju Whan Kim, Jacob Finnegan,
Richard Kerfoot & Charmaine Chan
BIOL 1510 Module 1
Group B-26
S Stratigraphy
S The Fossil Record
S Adaptive Radiation
Images obtained from:,,
Diagram of Stratigraphy
(Earth Time is supported by the National Science
Study of rock layers and
Two subfields
• Lithostratigraphy
• Biostratigraphy
Focus on Biostratigraphy:
• Establish correlations
between time-equivalent
rock strata
• What is the purpose?
Related to Fossil Record and
Adaptive Radiation
What are Arthropods?
Over 90% of the animal
kingdom, and found everywhere
Phylum Arthropoda
5 Class Distinctions
Images obtained from
Fossil Record
S Traces of animals from the past (Radio-Carbon Dating)
S Shows patterns of changes that occurred over time
S Relationship deduced and recorded in Phylogenic Trees
Images obtained from:,
Adaptive Radiation
S Fast evolution of a lineage to adapt
S Marked by increase in number and diversity of species
S “When a single lineage produces many descendant species that
live in a wide diversity of habitats and use a wide array of
resources” (Freeman, 2011)
Images obtained from:,,
The Discovery in Italy
S Alexander Schmidt found Arthropods fossilized in amber in
Italy, approximately 225 – 235 million years old (Schmidt et
al., 2012)
S Previous: Lebanon, Approximately 125 - 135 Million Years
Old. (Koteja and Azar, 2008)
Image obtained from: (Schmidt)
Schmidt’s Data
Left: Detached Mouthparts,
Wormlike Appearance.
Right: Appears Flattened, Larger
Comparison and Evidence of
Adaptive Radiation:
Two Fossilized Arthropods in Amber
(Schmidt et al., 2012)
the Arthropods adapted to their
environment and developed
distinct characteristics that could
place them differently in the
Phylogenetic Tree. (Schmidt et
al., 2012)
Discussion (Location)
Possible Contributions to
Adaptive Radiation:
The Break-Up of the supercontinent Pangaea
United States Geological Survey
From the Triassic to the Cretaceous
Periods, Europe and Asia rotated
Triassic Italy: tropical
Triassic Lebanon: colder
Cretaceous Lebanon:
More mild than the Triassic Lebanon
– organisms need to adjust to change
in climate
Schmidt’s findings were similar to
an extant species of arthropod
found in New Zealand (which
during the Triassic, was attached
to Australia, which, in turn, was
attached to Antarctica) (Schmidt
et al, 2012)
(Comparison of
• Time and adaptive radiation
leads to a evolution of species.
• Why do the species evolve
and new characteristics form?
• Habitat Preference
• Mutation
•What if separate species?
• Species Isolation
• Choice of Food
How can we connect Stratigraphy to
the Fossil Record?
S Stratigraphy and the Fossil Record
S Stratigraphy provides a means to add to the fossil record
S The Arthropoda Fossil Record specifically
S Evolution and change over time
S Evidence of Location
S As fossils
Take Home Message!
B io s t r a t i g r ap hy is h e l p f u l in
d e t e r m in i n g t h e h is t o r y o f
a r t h r o p o d s b e c au s e it p e r m it s f o r t h e
ex p an s io n o f t h e ir f o s s il r e c o r d a n d
t h e o b s e r van c e o f t h e ir evo l u t io n
an d ad ap t ive r ad ia t i o n s in c e t h e y
o r ig in a t e d .
Literature Cited
Freeman, Scott. 2011. Phylogenies and the History of Life. Biological Science 484, 639-643.
Hanken, James et al. 2004. Modern Biostratigraphy of the Trenton Group. Geologic Overview of
the Trenton Group at West Canada Creek, New York. 1-12.
Koteja, Jan and Dany Azar. 2008. Scale Insects from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon
(Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccinea). Alavesia 2:133-167.
Myrow, Paul et al. 1999. Collaborative Research: Integrated Stratigraphic Study of CambrianOrdovican Inner Shelf Facies of the Western United States. National Science
Foundation: Grant request.
Schmidt, Alexander. 2012. Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period. PNAS Early Edition 1-6.

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