Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Cory Breaux Ebola Hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by any of the four virulent strains of the Ebola virus http://students.cis.uab.edu/sajayi11/e bola_1.jpg Hemorrhagic fevers are diseases causing excessive bleeding, fever, and frequently death http://ars.elscdn.com/content/image/1s2.0-S0966842X0400188Xgr1.jpg Other Hemorrhagic diseases include yellow fever, Dengue fever and Marburg virus http://hardinmd.lib.uiowa.edu/pictures22/cdc /PHIL_2176_lores.jpg Ebola is a member of the filovirus family, which was first identified in 1967 http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/ content/14/8/800.long The natural reservoir is unknown, although some species of bats carry the virus http://www.ecohealthalliance.o rg/writable/rich_text_editor/im ages/hammer_headed_bat.jpg The virus particle, recognized by “Shepherd’s crook” shape, contains a single DNA strand http://students.cis.uab.edu/sajayi11/ ebola.jpg The first outbreak of Ebola was 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo https://eee.uci.edu/clients/bjbecker/PlaguesandPeop le/week10d.html All outbreaks have been in sub-Saharan Africa, and have been small (<318 cases) http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/sp b/images/ebola/ebolamap.jpg There have been 3 incidences of exposure in the US, but all have occurred in labs It is transmitted from animals to humans or human to human via bodily fluids http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/i cposters/index.htm Thus, healthcare workers are at the greatest risk for acquiring the disease http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/i cposters/index.htm Ebola enters the body via mucous membranes, skin abrasions or contaminated needles http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/core/lw/2.0/ht ml/tileshop_pmc/tileshop_pmc_inline.html?ti tle=Click%20on%20image%20to%20zoom&p= PMC3&id=2615158_DMM000471F1.jpg • Earliest symptoms are flu-like • Around day 5, characteristic rash appears http://assets3.scripps.or g/encyclopedia/graphics/ images/en/17160.jpg Infection then becomes systemic, leads to apoptosis, hemorrhage, shock and death • There is no treatment available – only containment stops spread http://www.who.int/features/marburg2/06 .jpg No vaccine currently exists, and the disease is difficult to distinguish early in an outbreak http://physiciansforhuman rights.org/assets/images/p anzi-ward.jpg Lethality makes research difficult in the lab and speed makes it difficult to assess epidemiologically during outbreaks http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/comm ons/8/8e/Positive-pressure_biosafety_suit.jpg References • Bente, D., J. Gren, J. E. Strong, and H. Feldmann. "Disease Modeling for Ebola and Marburg Viruses." Disease Models and Mechanisms 2.1-2 (2009): 12-17. PubMed. National Institutes of Health. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2615158/>. • "Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever." World Health Organization, Aug. 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. <http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/index.html>. • "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Information Packet." CDC Special Pathogens Branch - Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/Fact_Sheets/Ebola_Fact_Booklet.pdf>. • "Filoviruses." CDC Special Pathogens Branch. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/filoviruses.htm>. • "Interim Guidance for Managing Patients with Suspected Viral Hemorrhagic Fever in U.S. Hospitals." CDC Special Pathogens Branch Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 19 May 2005. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/pdf/vhf-interim-guidance.pdf>. • Rollin, Pierre E. "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers." CDC Yellow Book 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 July 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. <http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/viral-hemorrhagicfevers.htm>. • Suzuki, Y., Gojobori, T. “The Origin and Evolution of Ebola and Marburg Viruses.” Mol Biol Evol 14(8) (1997): 800-806. PubMed. National Institutes of Health. Web. 6 November 2012. <http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/8/800.long>. • Zampieri, Carisa A., Nancy J. Sullivan, and Gary J. Nabel. "Immunopathology of Highly Virulent Pathogens: Insights from Ebola Virus." Nature Immunology 8.11 (2007): 1159-164. Academic OneFile. Gale Cengage Learning. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?action=interpret&id=GALE%7CA190699659&v=2.1&u=unc_main&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount= 1>.