Matter Atomic Theory Counting Particles P.T. Trends Grab Bag 100 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 300 400 300 400 300 400 300 400 500 600 500 600 500 600 500 600 200 300 400 500 600 What is Chemistry? The Study of Matter What is the name for a substance that cannot be broken down by either chemical or physical means? An Element What is the name for a substance that contains 2 or more elements and cannot be broken down by physical means? Compound What is a combination of 2 or more substances that can be separated by physical means? A mixture What type of mixture is not uniformly blended? Heterogenous Mixture What is a cation? A positively charged ion What type of mixture is uniformly blended? Homogenous mixture Most of the mass of an atom is found where? The Nucleus Most of an atom is made up of what? Empty Space What is the mass of a proton in AMU’s? 1 amu What is the mass of an electron? Essentially Zero What two particles’ masses are used in determining the atomic mass number? Protons + Neutrons Which scientist’s gold foil experiment helped to show that most of an atom is empty space? Rutherford What does the atomic number of an element mean? The number of protons How do you determine the number of electrons in a neutral atom? # of electrons = atomic number What is an isotope? An element with a different number of neutrons How many protons and neutrons does 37Cl have? 17 protons and 20 neutrons How many electrons does 20Ca2+ have? 18 electrons What kind of energy does an excited electron typically emit? Light What is electron affinity? An atom’s desire to grab an extra electron What is the periodic trend for electron affinity? Increases from left to right What is the periodic trend for ionization energy Increases from left to right What are the two periodic trends for atomic radius? Decreases from left to right Increases from top to bottom Why does atomic radius increase as you move from the top to the bottom of the Periodic Table? Extra shells are added Which type of elements are found to the left of the stairs? Metals Name 3 characteristics of metals Good conductors Shiny luster Malleable Ductile Solids at room temp Tend to lose electrons What are valence electrons? Electrons in the outermost shell How many valence electrons does an atom with an electron configuration of 2-8-18-5 have? 5 valence electrons What is sublimation? A change in phase from a solid directly into a gas What are the only 2 elements that are liquids at room temperature on the periodic table? Bromine and Mercury Final Jeopardy Category: Periodic Trends Define Ionization Energy. The amount of energy required to remove the outermost electron of an atom.