Document

```2012清大電資院學士班
「頂尖企業暑期實習」

 實習企業：國家晶片系統設計中心
 實習學生：電資院學士班

 (一)實習時間：

 (二)實習地點：國家晶片系統設計中心
 (三)實習導師：林貴城 副研究員
 (四)參與動機：提前認識職場環境、學習類比
IC設計流程與相關知識

 隸屬財團人國家實驗研究院
 位於「新竹市科學園區展業一路26號」(奈米

 成立宗旨：「培育積體電路晶片及系統設計人

 晶片及系統設計
 晶片製作及測試
 教育訓練及推廣

 題目：感測器無線傳輸模組整合與驗證
 主要目標：完成射頻前端接收端電路
(包含LNA & Mixer)之設計與模擬
 Tool：
 References：CIC提供的RF相關課程、參考書

Courses
 Full Custom IC Design Concepts
 Design of RF CMOS IC
 RF Measurement
 Power Amplifier Design and simulation using
Reference Books
 Bezad Razavi – RF Microelectronics / Printice
Hall,1998
 Thomas H. Lee – The design of RadioFrequency Integrated Circuits / Cambridge
University Press,1998
 Bezad Razavi – Design of Analog CMOS
Integrated Cirtuits / McGraw-Hill, 2001
A BRIEF
INTRODUCTION
Basic Architecture
Focus on these two!!
Antenna
Bypass
Filter
LNA
Mixer
Channel
Select
Filter
Oscillator
Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)
The first active building block in
 Need to optimize noise figure(F)

Amplification
weak signal
Bypass
Filter
=
=

=

( + )
LNA
= 1 +

−1
= 1 +  − 1 + 2

3 −1
2
+
+…
It’s why noise figure is so important here.
Simulation Results

S-parameters and Noise figure
Gain
NoiseFigure
freq= 2.510GHz
freq= 2.510GHz
dB(S(2,1))=12.818 nf(2)=0.914
Gain and Noise Figure of LNA
at frequency - 2510 MHz
15
Gain
S11, S22 parameters and input/output impedence
Input
freq=2.510GHz
S(1,1)=0.297 / 64.211
impedance = 54.949 + j32.180
Output
freq=2.510GHz
S(2,2)=0.226 / 54.631
impedance = 60.111 + j23.396
5
Input
Output
NoiseFigure
0
S(2,2)
S(1,1)
nf(2)
dB(S(2,1))
10
-5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
freq, GHz
freq (1.000GHz to 5.000GHz)
Mixer
Use Down-Conversion mixer to convert RF
signal to IF signal.
 Basic Principle: time-domain multiplication

1
cos   ∙  cos   =     −   + cos  +
2

Design : switching(multiply a square wave)
cos   ∙

2
2
−
cos 3 +
cos 5 …

3
5
ωRF
Mixer
ωLO
Channel
ωIF
Select
Filter
ωIF=ωRF-ωLO
Simulation Results

Conversion gain

Linearity
Output spectrum at RF power -50 dBm
FundamentalTone
freq= 69.95MHz
dBm(a9_IP3..Vif)=-46.777
ThirdOrderTone
freq= 69.85MHz
dBm(a9_IP3..Vif)=-140.333
0
FundamentalTone
-50
dBm(a9_IP3..Vif)
Conversion Gain of Mixer
with RF freq=2510 MHz and IF freq 70 MHz
ConvGain
freq= 70.00MHz
dBm(Vif)-RF_Power=6.212
-100
ThirdOrderTone
-150
-200
50
-250
-300
0
69.0
69.5
70.0
70.5
71.0
freq, MHz
-50
Fundamental tone and Thrid-order tone
versus RF power
-100
20
0
-150
-20
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
freq, GHz
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Pif_toi_dBm
Pif_dBm
dBm(Vif)-RF_Power
ConvGain
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-140
-160
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
RF_Power
-15
-10
-5
0
Simulation:
 Gain
 1dB compression
 IIP3
 Noise Figure
Simulation Results
system simulation – using 2510 MHz input
signal with power -50 dBm
Gain
20
Gain
RF_freq=2.510E9
IF_gain=16.608
10
0
IF_gain

-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
1.0E9
1.5E9
2.0E9
2.5E9
3.0E9
RF_freq
3.5E9
4.0E9
4.5E9
5.0E9

 Concepts of RFIC and 4 basic building blocks
of a transceiver - LNA, Mixer, VCO and PA
 Design considerations and simulation
methods

 瞭解到自己對這個領域真的有興趣
 IC設計是一個很廣、很有趣的一門學問
 還有太多需要學習的

 找到自己會覺得有趣的題目
 以學習為最終目的
 保持積極的態度，主動學習

 照著原本規劃的方式修課
 盡可能多學一些，並持續在學習過程中

 盡可能學以致用，讓接下來的實作專題

 以成為一個出色的IC設計者為目標
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