ComputerHistory

Report
A short Computer History
Computer System as Multilevel Machine
Level 5
Problem-oriented language level
Translation (compiler)
Level 4
Assembly language level
Translation (assembler)
Level 3
Operating system machine level
Partial interpretation (operating system)
Level 2
Instruction set architecture level
Interpretation (microprogram) or direct execution
Level 1
Microarchitecture level
Hardware
Level 0
Digital logic level
Tanenbaum: Computer Architecture
Evolution of Multilevel Machines
•
Clear distinction between hardware and software
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•
•
Hardware implements machine instructions
Software uses those machine instructions for programming
The invention of microprogramming
•
•
•
1951 by Maurice Wilkes, University of Cambridge
Simplified hardware  reduced tube count and enhanced
reliability.
By 1970 using a microprogram was dominant
Evolution of Multilevel Machines
•
In the early days, people:
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–
–
–
–
•
•
reserved the computer for a block of time
brought in their FORTRAN program as a desk of punched cards
took the FORTRAN compiler out of a cabinet
inserted first the compiler and then the program
Inserted the program again for a second pass of the compiler
the compiler punched out the machine program.
put in the machine program
…
This procedure was normal in many compute
centers for years.
In 1960 the operators job was automated
The Evolution of Multilevel Machines
• The invention of the operating system
• Operating system was kept in memory
• It read and executed jobs consisting of the Fortran code and
the data cards for execution.
• Interspersed with OS commands like compile and execute
• One of the first widespread operating systems was
FMS (FORTRAN Monitor System)
• Additions, e.g., IO, were called operating system macros or
supervisor calls (today system calls)
• 1960 the timesharing system was developed at MIT
• Multiple users could access the machine simultaneously from
remote terminals
Computer Generations
• Zeroth Generation -1945: Mechanical Computers
• First Generation - 1955: Vacuum Tubes
• Second Generation - 1965: Transistors
• Third Generation – 1980: Integrated Circuits
• Fourth Generation - …: Very Large Scale Integration
• Fifth Generation: The invisible computer
The Zeroth Generation – Mechanical
Computers (1642 – 1945)
• Blaise Pascal
• built 1642 a computer to help his father in tax collection
• Gottfried Leibniz
• built 1670 a mechanical machine that could also multiply and
divide.
The Zeroth Generation – Mechanical
Computers (1642 – 1945)
• Charles Babbage (1792-1871)
• Built 1822 the difference engine to compute tables for navy
navigation. Result was engraved in a copper plate (write-once
medium)
• Built 1846 the analytical machine
consisting of store (for variables), the
mill (processing unit), input and output
section. It could execute different
programs on punched cards instead of
only one (difference engine).
• The programs were developed by Ada
Augusta Lovelace.
The Zeroth Generation
• Konrad Zuse (late 1930)
• 1938: Z1 mechanical engine, binary system, floating point
arithmetic, programs on punched tape
• 1941: Z3 machine based on
electromagnetic relays, binary
arithmetic
• Work lost in the war.
• Howard Aiken (1944)
• Built a relay-based machine with 72 words of 23 decimal
digits, and an instruction time of 6 sec.
• His work was based on Babbage's work he found in the
library.
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes
(1945–1955)
• British intelligence (1944)
• Built COLOSSUS the world first electronic digital computer
• Alan Turing helped in the design
• Designed to decode German messages
• Jon Mauchley and Presper Eckert (1946)
• Built ENIAC with 18.000 tubes, 1.500 relays. It weighed 30
tons and consumed 140 kilowatt.
• Decimal arithmetic, each digit represented by 10 tubes
• Grant by the army.
• Maurice Wilkes (1946)
• EDSAC, binary arithmetic
• First stored program computer
• Developed in UK
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes
(1945–1955)
• John von Neumann
• Designed the von Neumann Architecture in 1945 for EDVAC
• Built 1952 the IAS machine where program and data were in
the same memory.
• Parallel addition
• It used binary arithmetic.
The Second Generation – Transistors
(1955–1965)
• Transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1948
• Within 10 years vacuum tube computers were obsolete
• The first minicomputer PDP1 was built by DEC in
1961.
• It cost $120.000 compared to millions for the twice as fast
transistorized computer of IBM, the IBM 7090.
• CDC introduced CDC 6600
• It was 10 times faster than IBM 7090.
• The CPU had multiple functional units that could run in
parallel.
• It also had smaller computers inside to do IO etc.
• The designer was Seymour Cray
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits
(1965–1980)
• Integrated circuits were co-invented by
Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce in 1958
• Jack Kilby demonstrated it half a year
before Noyce on September 12th
•
•
•
•
@ Texas Instruments
Got Nobel Prize in physics in 2000
Germanium based
Demonstrated continuous sine wave
• Rober Noyce
• @ Fairchild Seminconductors (Co-Founder)
• Silicon based
• 1968 he and Gordon Moore founded Intel
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits
(1965–1980)
• IBM build the System/360
• It was the first machine with
multiprogramming for better CPU
utilization.
• It could emulate other machines,
e.g., the IBM 7094, via special microcode.
• It had a huge address space of 224 bytes (16 MB) which was
sufficient until mid 1980s
• Key features of lasting impact: 8bit byte, byte addressable
memory, 32 bit word, two’s complement, EBCDIC character
set
• DEC developed the PDP-11
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits
(1965–1980)
• Xerox designed the Alto I
• 1973
• Palo Alto Research Center
• First computer with a
graphical interface.
• Birth of
– the mouse
– WYSIWYG printing
– cut-and-paste
– Ethernet
The Fourth Generation – Very Large Scale
Integration (1980-?)
• Personal computer started due to price drop
• Apple, Commodore, Atari
• IBM PC in 1981 based on Intel CPU
• In 1984 the Apple Macintosh was the first personal
computer with a Graphical User Interface.
• Mid 1980s RISC was born
• 1992 DEC produced the first 64-bit RISC processor,
the Alpha processor.
The Fifth Generation – Invisible Computers
• In 1993 the Apple Newton was the first PDA
• Small embedded processors are changing the world
• Going towards ubiquitous computing or pervasive
computing
Milestones in Computer Architecture
Jahr
Bezeichnung
Hersteller
Anmerkungen
1834
Analytical Engine Babbage
Erster Versuch, einen digitalen Computer zu bauen
1941
Z3
Zuse
Erste funktionierende Relais-Rechenmaschine
1943
COLOSSUS
Britische Regierung
Erster elektronischer Computer
1944
Mark I
Aiken
Erster amerikanischer Universalcomputer
1946
ENIAC I
Eckert/Mauchley
Beginn der modernen Computergeschichte
1949
EDSAC
Wilkes
Erster speicherprogrammierter Computer
1951
Whirlwind I
M.I.T.
Erster Echtzeitcomputer
1952
IAS
Von Neumann
Die meisten heutigen Maschinen weisen dieses
Design auf
1960
PDP-1
DEC
Erster Minicomputer (50 Stück verkauft)
1961
1401
IBM
Sehr beliebter Rechner bei kleinen Firmen
1962
7094
IBM
Beherrschte
Anfang
der
wissenschaftliche Rechenwelt
1963
B5000
Burroughs
Erste für eine Hochsprache entwickelte Maschine
1964
360
IBM
Erste als Familie ausgelegte Produktlinie
1964
6600
CDC
Erster wissenschaftlicher Supercomputer
60er
Jahre
die
Milestones in Computer Architecture
1965
PDP-8
DEC
Erster Minicomputer für den Massenmarkt (50.000
Stück verkauft)
1970
PDP-11
DEC
Vorherrschender Minicomputer der 70er Jahre
1974
8080
Intel
Erster 8-Bit-Universalcomputer auf einem Chip
1974
CRAY-1
Cray
Erster Vektor-Supercomputer
1978
VAX
DEC
Erster 32-Bit-Superminicomputer
1981
IBM PC
IBM
Beginn der modernen Personalcomputer-Ära
1981
Osborne-1
Osborne
Erster portabler Computer
1983
Lisa
Apple
Erster
Personalcomputer
Benutzeroberfläche (GUI)
1985
386
Intel
Erster 32-Bit-Vorgänger der Pentium-Linie
1985
MIPS
MIPS
Erster kommerzielle RISC-Rechner
1987
SPARC
Sun
Erste SPARC-basierte RISC-Workstation
1990
RS6000
IBM
Erste superskalare Maschine
1992
Alpha
DEC
Erster 64-Bit-Personalcomputer
1993
Newton
Apple
Erster Palmtop-Computer
mit
grafischer
Von Neumann Architecture(1946)
1. Computer consists of 4 units
•
•
•
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Memory (programs and data)
Control unit (interprets the program)
Arithmetic unit
I/O unit
2. The structure is indepent of the problem
(programmable)
3. Program and data are in the same memory
4. The memory is structured into cells of a fixed length
5. The program consists of instructions that are executed
sequentially.
6. There can be (conditional) jumps.
7. The machine is based on binary representation.
Predecessors
Von-Neumann Computer
Mechanical Computer
Without
compute unit
With compute
unit
Program control
Predecessor of the von Neumann Architecture
1500
- v. Chr
1100
Suan Pan (Ostasien) Soroban (Japan)
Abakus
0
1623
1645
1674
1805
1823
Schickard: Mechanical ADD/SUB Machine
Pascal:
“
“
Leibniz: Four operations machine
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Jaquard: Punched card loom
Babbage: Analytical Enginge (punched card, programmable system)
Decimal representation, never built
Punched Cards
Computer Exhibition at Deutsches Museum

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