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The Judgments of the Torah
Towards an Understanding of the
Authority Yeshua Gave Peter to Bind
and to Loose
18
Then Yeshua came to them and said, "All
authority in heaven and on earth has been
given to me.
19 Therefore go and make disciples of all
nations, baptizing them in the name of the
Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
20 and teaching them to obey everything I
have commanded you. And surely I am with
you always, to the very end of the age.“
Matthew 28
4th Gospel (John) 5
Moreover, the Father judges no one, but
has entrusted all judgment to the Son,
23 that all may honor the Son just as they
honor the Father. He who does not
honor the Son does not honor the
Father, who sent him.
24 "I tell you the truth, whoever hears my
word and believes him who sent me has
eternal life and will not be condemned;
he has crossed over from death to life.
25
I tell you the truth, a time is coming
and has now come when the dead
will hear the voice of the Son of
Elohim and those who hear will live.
26 For as the Father has life in himself,
so he has granted the Son to have life
in himself.
27 And he has given him authority to
judge because he is the Son of Man.
Matthew 16:19
I will give you the keys of the
kingdom of heaven; whatever you
bind on earth will be bound in heaven,
and whatever you loose on earth will
be loosed in heaven."
Yehovah commanded us to obey all
these decrees and to fear Yehovah our
Elohim, so that we might always
prosper and be kept alive, as is the
case today. And it will be
righteousness for us when we guard to
obey all this commandment before
Yehovah our Elohim, as he has
commanded us." (Deuteronomy 6:2425)
5
See, I have taught you decrees and laws as
Yehovah my Elohim commanded me, so that
you may follow them in the land you are
entering to take possession of it.
6 Observe them carefully, for this will show
your wisdom and understanding to the nations,
who will hear about all these decrees and say,
"Surely this great nation is a wise and
understanding people."
Deuteronomy 4
7
What other nation is so great as to have their
gods near them the way Yehovah our Elohim is
near us whenever we pray to him?
8 And what other nation is so great as to have
such righteous decrees and laws as this body of
laws I am setting before you today?
Deuteronomy 4
28
Be careful to obey all these
regulations I am giving you, so that
it may always go well with you and
your children after you, because you
will be doing what is good and right
in the eyes of Yehovah your Elohim.
(Deuteronomy 12)
Outline
Study
The Torah of Mosheh
A Study of the Words
Torah
Mitzvah
Chukah
Mishpat
Mishmeret
Edah
Piqud
Imrah
Why Should We Study This?
English Bible translators have made very
little effort in distinguishing the Hebrew
words in their rendering of the terms.
In fact, English Bibles confuse rather than
clarify meaning of these terms.
These Hebrew words have nuance which
significantly impacts our understanding of
the Scriptures.
Christian theologians have suggested a false
understanding of the “Law” which needs
to be clarified and corrected by the truth.
Examples
KJV - Deuteronomy 6:1 Now these are the
commandments, the statutes, and the
judgments, which the LORD your God
commanded to teach you…
NIV - These are the commands, decrees and laws
the LORD your God directed me to teach you to
observe…
NJB - Such, then, are the commandments, the laws
and the customs which Yahweh your God…
New Living B - "These are all the commands, laws,
and regulations that the LORD your God…
TNK - And this is the Instruction -- the laws and the
rules -- that the LORD your God…
Overview
Torah = Instruction, Covenant
Mitzvah = A commandment, Covenant
Torah = Mitzvah (sometimes used synonymously)
Chukim are the prescriptions or direct (nonnegotiable) orders, edicts, rules
Mishpatim are the “righteous applications” of the
chukim in some given situation, “decisions”,
rulings, judgments, settlements (of a dispute)
Torah
(tôrâ) law, direction, instruction, rule, teaching
The basic idea of the root yarâ is "to throw" or "to cast."
The three most frequent uses of this root deal with
shooting arrows, sending rain and teaching.
Specifically torah refers to any set of regulations; e.g.,
Exo 12 contains the torah in regard to observing the
Passover, Some other specific instructions include
those for the various offerings (Lev 7:37), for leprosy
(Lev 14:57) and for jealousy (Num 5:29). In this light
torah is often considered to consist of statutes,
ordinances, precepts, commandments, and
testimonies.
Devarim shows that the torah has a broad meaning to
encompass history, promises, regulations and their
interpretation, and exhortations. It is not merely the
listing of rote requirements.
Torah in Tanak
Gen. 26:5;
Exod. 12:49; 13:9; 16:4, 28; 18:16, 20; 24:12;
Lev. 6:2, 7, 9, 18; 7:1, 7, 11, 37; 11:46; 12:7; 13:59; 14:2, 32, 54, 57; 15:32; 26:46;
Num. 5:29f; 6:13, 21; 15:16, 29; 19:2, 14; 31:21;
Deut. 1:5; 4:8, 44; 17:11, 18f; 27:3, 8, 26; 28:58, 61; 29:20, 28; 30:10; 31:9, 11f, 24, 26;
32:46; 33:4, 10;
Jos. 1:7f; 8:31f, 34; 22:5; 23:6; 24:26;
2 Sam. 7:19; 1 Ki. 2:3; 2 Ki. 10:31; 14:6; 17:13, 34, 37; 21:8; 22:8, 11; 23:24f;
1 Chr. 16:40; 22:12; 2 Chr. 6:16; 12:1; 14:3; 15:3; 17:9; 19:10; 23:18; 25:4; 30:16; 31:3f, 21;
33:8; 34:14f, 19; 35:26;
Ezr. 3:2; 7:6, 10; 10:3;
Neh. 8:1ff, 7ff, 13f, 18; 9:3, 13f, 26, 29, 34; 10:29f, 35, 37; 12:44; 13:3;
Job 22:22;
Ps. 1:2; 19:8; 37:31; 40:9; 78:1, 5, 10; 89:31; 94:12; 105:45; 119:1, 18, 29, 34, 44, 51, 53,
55, 61, 70, 72, 77, 85, 92, 97, 109, 113, 126, 136, 142, 150, 153, 163, 165, 174;
Prov. 1:8; 3:1; 4:2; 6:20, 23; 7:2; 13:14; 28:4, 7, 9; 29:18; 31:26;
Isa. 1:10; 2:3; 5:24; 8:16, 20; 24:5; 30:9; 42:4, 21, 24; 51:4, 7;
Jer. 2:8; 6:19; 8:8; 9:12; 16:11; 18:18; 26:4; 31:33; 32:23; 44:10, 23; Lam. 2:9;
Ezek. 7:26; 22:26; 43:11f; 44:5, 24;
Dan. 9:10f, 13; Hos. 4:6; 8:1, 12; Amos 2:4; Mic. 4:2; Hab. 1:4; Zeph. 3:4; Hag. 2:11; Zech.
7:12; Mal. 2:6ff; 3:22
Use of Torah
Ber 26:4 "I will multiply your descendants as the
stars of heaven, and will give your descendants
all these lands; and by your descendants all the
nations of the earth shall be blessed; (5)
because Avraham obeyed Me and kept My
guardians (mishmeret), My commandments
(mitzvot), My orders (chukot) and My
instructions (torot).“
Shemot 12:49 "The same law (torah) shall apply to
the native as to the stranger who sojourns
among you."
Shemot 13
Context: Keeping the Feast of Matzot
9 "And it shall serve as a sign to you on
your hand, and as a reminder on your
forehead, that the Torah of YHWH may be
in your mouth; for with a powerful hand
YHWH brought you out of Mitzraim.
10 "Therefore, you shall keep this ordinance
(chukah) at its appointed time from year
to year.
Shmot 18
16 "When they have a dispute, it comes to
me, and I judge between a man and his
neighbor and make known the statutes
(chukim) of Elohim and His laws (torot).“
20 then teach them the statutes (chukim)
and the laws (torot), and make known to
them the way in which they are to walk
and the work they are to do.
Shmot 24
12 Now YHWH said to Moshe, "Come up to
Me on the mountain and remain there,
and I will give you the stone tablets with
the law (torah) and the commandment
(mitzvah) which I have written for their
instruction."
Vayikra 6
9 "Command Aharon and his sons, saying,
'This is the law (torah) for the burnt
offering: the burnt offering itself shall
remain on the hearth on the altar all night
until the morning, and the fire on the altar
is to be kept burning on it.
Vayiqra 11:46-47
This is the law (torah) regarding the animal
and the bird, and every living thing that
moves in the waters and everything that
swarms on the earth, to make a distinction
between the unclean and the clean, and
between the edible creature and the
creature which is not to be eaten.
Vayiqra 13:59
This is the law (torah) for the mark of
leprosy in a garment of wool or linen,
whether in the warp or in the woof, or in
any article of leather, for pronouncing it
clean or unclean.
Mitzvah
(mitzvâ) commission, (individual)
commandment, (set of all the)
commandments, right
In a deed of purchase for a plot of land, mitzvah
refers to the terms of the contract (Jer 32:11).
It is also the word used by the wisdom school
for the instruction of a teacher to his pupil
(Prov 2:1; Prov 3:1).
More frequently the commandments (“mitzvot”)
are the particular conditions of the
covenant.
Mitzvah in Tanak
Gen. 26:5;
Exod. 15:26; 16:28; 20:6; 24:12;
Lev. 4:2, 13, 22, 27; 5:17; 22:31; 26:3, 14f; 27:34;
Num. 15:22, 31, 39f; 36:13;
Deut. 4:2, 40; 5:10, 29, 31; 6:1f, 17, 25; 7:9, 11; 8:1f, 6, 11;
10:13; 11:1, 8, 13, 22, 27f; 13:5, 19; 15:5; 17:20; 19:9; 26:13,
17f; 27:1, 10; 28:1, 9, 13, 15, 45; 30:8, 10f, 16; 31:5;
Jos. 22:3, 5; Jdg. 2:17; 3:4; 1 Sam. 13:13; 1 Ki. 2:3, 43; 3:14;
6:12; 8:58, 61; 9:6; 11:34, 38; 13:21; 14:8; 18:18; 2 Ki. 17:13,
16, 19, 34, 37; 18:6, 36; 23:3;
1 Chr. 28:7f; 29:19; 2 Chr. 7:19; 8:13ff; 14:3; 17:4; 19:10; 24:20f;
29:15, 25; 30:6, 12; 31:21; 34:31; 35:10, 15f; Ezr. 7:11; 9:10,
14; 10:3; Neh. 1:5, 7, 9; 9:13f, 16, 29, 34; 10:30, 33; 11:23;
12:24, 45; 13:5; Est. 3:3; Job 23:12;
Ps. 19:9; 78:7; 89:32; 112:1; 119:6, 10, 19, 21, 32, 35, 47f, 60,
66, 73, 86, 96, 98, 115, 127, 131, 143, 151, 166, 172, 176;
Prov. 2:1; 3:1; 4:4; 6:20, 23; 7:1f; 10:8; 13:13; 19:16; Eccl.
8:5; 12:13;
Isa. 29:13; 36:21; 48:18; Jer. 32:11; 35:14, 16, 18; Dan. 9:4f;
Mal. 2:1, 4
Devarim 6
1 Now this is the commandment (mitzvah, or
“covenant”), the statutes (chukim) and the
judgments (mishpatim) which YHWH your
Elohim has commanded me to teach you, that
you might do them in the land where you are
going over to possess it,
2 so that you and your son and your grandson
might fear YHWH your Elohim, to keep all His
statutes (chukim) and His commandments
(mitzvot) which I command you, all the days of
your life, and that your days may be prolonged.
Shemot 24
12 Now YHWH said to Moshe, "Come up to
Me on the mountain and remain there,
and I will give you the stone tablets with
the Torah and the Mitzvah (commandment
or covenant) which I have written for their
instruction."
Shmot 16
28 Then YHWH said to Moshe, "How long do
you refuse to keep My commandments
(mitzvot) and My instructions (torot)?
29 "See, YHWH has given you the sabbath;
therefore He gives you bread for two days
on the sixth day. Remain every man in his
place; let no man go out of his place on
the seventh day."
Chukah
“chukah” enactment, statute, order
“Chukak” has the primary meaning of cutting
in or engraving in stone as hewing a tomb
in the rock (Isa 22:16) and as drawing a
picture on a brick (Ezek 4:1) or a wall
(Ezek 23:14). It may also describe writing
on the palm of one's hand (Isa 49:16) or in
a book (Isa 30:8; Job 19:23).
Thus, “something prescribed, a statute, a
prescribed limit or boundary” “cut in stone”
Chok (masculine form) in Tanak
Gen. 47:22, 26;
Exod. 5:14; 12:24; 15:25f; 18:16, 20; 29:28; 30:21;
Lev. 6:11, 15; 7:34; 10:11, 13ff; 24:9; 26:46;
Num. 18:8, 11, 19; 30:17;
Deut. 4:1, 5f, 8, 14, 40, 45; 5:1, 31; 6:1, 17, 20, 24; 7:11; 11:32; 12:1;
16:12; 17:19; 26:16f; 27:10;
Jos. 24:25; Jdg. 5:15; 11:39; 1 Sam. 30:25; 1 Ki. 3:14; 8:58, 61; 9:4; 2
Ki. 17:15, 37; 1 Chr. 16:17; 22:13; 29:19; 2 Chr. 7:17; 19:10; 33:8;
34:31; 35:25; Ezr. 7:10f; Neh. 1:7; 9:13f; 10:30; Job 14:5, 13; 23:12,
14; 26:10; 28:26; 38:10;
Ps. 2:7; 50:16; 74:11; 81:5; 94:20; 99:7; 105:10, 45; 119:5, 8, 12, 23,
26, 33, 48, 54, 64, 68, 71, 80, 83, 112, 117f, 124, 135, 145, 155, 171;
147:19; 148:6; Prov. 8:29; 30:8; 31:15;
Isa. 5:14; 10:1; 24:5; Jer. 5:22; 31:36; 32:11; Ezek. 11:12; 16:27;
20:18, 25; 36:27; 45:14; Amos 2:4; Mic. 7:11; Zeph. 2:2; Zech. 1:6;
Mal. 3:7, 22
Chukah (fem form) in Tanak
Gen. 26:5;
Exod. 12:14, 17, 43; 13:10; 27:21; 28:43; 29:9;
Lev. 3:17; 7:36; 10:9; 16:29, 31, 34; 17:7; 18:3ff, 26, 30;
19:19, 37; 20:8, 22f; 23:14, 21, 31, 41; 24:3; 25:18;
26:3, 15, 43;
Num. 9:3, 12, 14; 10:8; 15:15; 18:23; 19:2, 10, 21;
27:11; 31:21; 35:29;
Deut. 6:2; 8:11; 10:13; 11:1; 28:15, 45; 30:10, 16;
2 Sam. 22:23; 1 Ki. 2:3; 3:3; 6:12, 35; 9:6; 11:11, 33f,
38; 2 Ki. 17:8, 13, 19, 34; 23:3; 2 Chr. 7:19; Job
13:27; 38:33;
Ps. 18:23; 89:32; 119:16;
Jer. 5:24; 10:3; 31:35; 33:25; 44:10, 23; Ezek. 5:6f;
8:10; 11:20; 18:9, 17, 19, 21; 20:11, 13, 16, 19, 21,
24; 23:14; 33:15; 37:24; 43:11, 18; 44:5, 24; 46:14;
Mic. 6:16
Shemot 12
14 'Now this day will be a memorial to you, and
you shall celebrate it as a feast to YHWH;
throughout your generations you are to
celebrate it as a permanent ordinance.
17 'You shall also observe the Feast of Unleavened
Bread, for on this very day I brought your hosts
out of the land of Mitzraim; therefore you shall
observe this day throughout your generations as
a permanent ordinance.
43 YHWH said to Moshe and Aharon, "This is the
ordinance of the Pesach: no foreigner is to eat
of it….
Shemot 27
20 "You shall charge the sons of Yisrael, that they
bring you clear oil of beaten olives for the light,
to make a lamp burn continually.
21 "In the tent of meeting, outside the veil which
is before the testimony, Aharon and his sons
shall keep it in order from evening to morning
before YHWH; it shall be a perpetual statute
throughout their generations for the sons of
Yisrael.
Devarim 4
"Now, O Yisrael, listen to the statutes (chukim)
and the judgments (mishpatim) which I am
teaching you to perform, so that you may live
and go in and take possession of the land which
YHWH, the Elohim of your fathers, is giving you.
2 "You shall not add to the word which I am
commanding (tzavah) you, nor take away from
it, that you may keep the commandments
(mitzvah) of YHWH your Elohim which I
command (tzavah) you.
Mishpat
(mishpat) justice, judgment, ordinance
The primary sense of “shaphat” is to exercise the
processes of government, to decide a case, to
arbitrate a righteous solution to a quarrel.
Thus, “judgment, justice, litigation, procedure,
sentence (verdict), ruling”
1.
To act as ruler
2.
to decide cases of controversy as judge in
civil, domestic, and religious cases
3.
such words as deliver, vindicate, condemn,
punish, and related words of judicial executive
import are justly used in the translations.
Justice
Mishpat in Tanak
Gen. 18:19, 25; 40:13; Exod. 15:25; 21:1, 9, 31; 23:6; 24:3; 26:30; 28:15, 29f;
Lev. 5:10; 9:16; 18:4f, 26; 19:15, 35, 37; 20:22; 24:22; 25:18; 26:15, 43, 46; Num. 9:3, 14;
15:16, 24; 27:5, 11, 21; 29:6, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 37; 35:12, 24, 29; 36:13;
Deut. 1:17; 4:1, 5, 8, 14, 45; 5:1, 31; 6:1, 20; 7:11f; 8:11; 10:18; 11:1, 32; 12:1; 16:18f;
17:8f, 11; 18:3; 19:6; 21:17, 22; 24:17; 25:1; 26:16f; 27:19; 30:16; 32:4, 41; 33:10, 21;
Jos. 6:15; 20:6; 24:25; Jdg. 4:5; 13:12; 18:7; 1 Sam. 2:13; 8:3, 9, 11; 10:25; 27:11; 30:25; 2
Sam. 8:15; 15:2, 4, 6; 22:23; 1 Ki. 2:3; 3:11, 28; 5:8; 6:12, 38; 7:7; 8:45, 49, 58f; 9:4;
10:9; 11:33; 18:28; 20:40; 2 Ki. 1:7; 11:14; 17:26f, 33f, 37, 40; 25:6; 1 Chr. 6:17; 15:13;
16:12, 14; 18:14; 22:13; 23:31; 24:19; 28:7; 2 Chr. 4:7, 20; 6:35, 39; 7:17; 8:14; 9:8;
19:6, 8, 10; 30:16; 33:8; 35:13; Ezr. 3:4; 7:10; Neh. 1:7; 8:18; 9:13, 29; 10:30; Job 8:3;
9:19, 32; 13:18; 14:3; 19:7; 22:4; 23:4; 27:2; 29:14; 31:13; 32:9; 34:4ff, 12, 17, 23; 35:2;
36:6, 17; 37:23; 40:8;
Ps. 1:5; 7:7; 9:5, 8, 17; 10:5; 17:2; 18:23; 19:10; 25:9; 33:5; 35:23; 36:7; 37:6, 28, 30;
48:12; 72:1f; 76:10; 81:5; 89:15, 31; 94:15; 97:2, 8; 99:4; 101:1; 103:6; 105:5, 7; 106:3;
111:7; 112:5; 119:7, 13, 20, 30, 39, 43, 52, 62, 75, 84, 91, 102, 106, 108, 120f, 132, 137,
149, 156, 160, 164, 175; 122:5; 140:13; 143:2; 146:7; 147:19f; 149:9; Prov. 1:3; 2:8f;
8:20; 12:5; 13:23; 16:8, 10f, 33; 17:23; 18:5; 19:28; 21:3, 7, 15; 24:23; 28:5; 29:4, 26;
Eccl. 3:16; 5:7; 8:5f; 11:9; 12:14;
Isa. 1:17, 21, 27; 3:14; 4:4; 5:7, 16; 9:6; 10:2; 16:5; 26:8f; 28:6, 17, 26; 30:18; 32:1, 7, 16;
33:5; 34:5; 40:14, 27; 41:1; 42:1, 3f; 49:4; 50:8; 51:4; 53:8; 54:17; 56:1; 58:2; 59:8f, 11,
14f; 61:8; Jer. 1:16; 4:2, 12; 5:1, 4f, 28; 7:5; 8:7; 9:23; 10:24; 12:1; 17:11; 21:12; 22:3,
13, 15; 23:5; 26:11, 16; 30:11, 18; 32:7f; 33:15; 39:5; 46:28; 48:21, 47; 49:12; 51:9;
52:9; Lam. 3:35, 59; Ezek. 5:6ff; 7:23, 27; 11:12, 20; 16:38; 18:5, 8f, 17, 19, 21, 27;
20:11, 13, 16, 18f, 21, 24f; 21:32; 22:29; 23:24, 45; 33:14, 16, 19; 34:16; 36:27; 37:24;
39:21; 42:11; 44:24; 45:9; Dan. 9:5; Hos. 2:21; 5:1, 11; 6:5; 10:4; 12:7; Amos 5:7, 15, 24;
6:12; Mic. 3:1, 8f; 6:8; 7:9; Hab. 1:4, 7, 12; Zeph. 2:3; 3:5, 8, 15; Zech. 7:9; 8:16; Mal.
2:17; 3:5, 22
Shemot 21:1-24
“Now these are the ordinances (mishpatim)
which you are to set before them”
The mishpatim are judgments or decisions
made – the application of the righteous
laws (chukim) of YHWH in common and
uncommon situations – “ruling”
Devarim 4
Now, O Yisrael, listen to the statutes (chukim) and
the judgments (mishpatim) which I am teaching
you to perform, so that you may live and go in
and take possession of the land which YHWH, the
Elohim of your fathers, is giving you.
2 "You shall not add to the word which I am
commanding you, nor take away from it, that you
may keep the commandments (mitzvah) of YHWH
your Elohim which I command you.
5 See, I have taught you statutes and judgments
just as YHWH my Elohim commanded me…
8 "Or what great nation is there that has statutes
and judgments as righteous as this whole law
(torah) which I am setting before you today?
Devarim 5
1 Hear, O Yisrael, the statutes (chukim) and the
judgments (mishpatim) which I am speaking
today in your hearing, that you may learn them
and observe them carefully.
2 "YHWH our Elohim made a covenant with us at
Horeb.
3 "YHWH did not make this covenant with our
fathers, but with us, with all those of us alive
here today.
4 "YHWH spoke to you face to face at the
mountain from the midst of the fire,
Devarim 6
20 "When your son asks you in time to
come, saying, 'What do the testimonies
(edot) and the statutes (chukim) and the
judgments (mishpatim) mean which
YHWH our Elohim commanded you?'
24 "So YHWH commanded us to observe all
these statutes (chukim), to fear YHWH our
Elohim for our good always and for our
survival, as it is today.
7 I will praise you with an upright heart as I
learn your righteous laws (mishpatim).
62 At midnight I rise to give you thanks for
your righteous laws (mishpatim).
75 I know, Yehovah, that your laws
(mishpatim) are righteous, and in
faithfulness you have afflicted me.
106 I have taken an oath and confirmed it,
that I will follow your righteous laws
(mishpatim).
137 Righteous are you, Yehovah, and your
laws (mishpatim) are right.
138 The statutes you have laid down are
righteous; they are fully trustworthy.
144 Your testimonies are forever right;
give me understanding that I may live.
160 All your words are true; all your
righteous laws (mishpatim) are eternal.
164 Seven times a day I praise you for
your righteous laws (mishpatim).
172 May my tongue sing of your word,
for all your commands are righteous.
Mishmeret
(mishmeret) obligation, service, guard
The basic idea of the root is "to exercise great care
over." This meaning can be seen to underlie the
various semantic modifications seen in the verb:
In combination with other verbs the meaning is
"do carefully or diligently".
Secondly it expresses the careful attention to be
paid to the obligations of a covenant, to laws,
statutes, etc. – and even the commandments of
the covenant as “guardians” or “things that
watch over” us.
Frequently the verb is used to speak of personal
discipline, the need to take heed in respect to
one's life and actions
Mishmeret in Tanak
Gen. 26:5; Exod. 12:6; 16:23, 32ff;
Lev. 8:35; 18:30; 22:9;
Num. 1:53; 3:7f, 25, 28, 31f, 36, 38; 4:27f, 31f;
8:26; 9:19, 23; 17:25; 18:3ff, 8; 19:9; 31:30, 47;
Deut. 11:1
Jos. 22:3; 1 Sam. 22:23; 2 Sam. 20:3; 1 Ki. 2:3; 2
Ki. 11:5ff; 1 Chr. 9:23, 27; 12:30; 23:32; 25:8;
26:12; 2 Chr. 7:6; 8:14; 13:11; 23:6; 31:16f;
35:2; Neh. 7:3; 12:9, 45; 13:30;
Isa. 21:8; Ezek. 40:45f; 44:8, 14ff; 48:11; Hab. 2:1;
Zech. 3:7; Mal. 3:14
Devarim 11:1
You shall therefore love YHWH your Elohim,
and always keep His guardians
(mishmeret), His orders (chukim), His
righteous applications (mishpatim), and
His commandments (mitzvot).
Edah
(edût) testimony, witness,
This word, derived from edûd "to repeat," "to do again,"
has the sense of repetition and permanence.
Most frequently this word has a temporal sense. It is
used to indicate the continuance of a past or present
event ("Abraham still stood before the Lord," Gen
18:22), of a custom ("people still sacrificed and
burned incense on the high places," 1Kings 22:44),
and of an attribute ("I am still as strong," Josh
14:11). Constancy can be expressed by this term.
d[e ed Witness. This word, appearing some sixty-seven
times in the OT, is also derived from the root edud
meaning "return" or "repeat, do again." The semantic
development apparently is that a witness is one, who
by reiteration, emphatically affirms his testimony
Witness
A witness was needed for various transactions
such as the sale of property (Jer 32:10, 12,
25, 44) and the act of redemption (Ruth 4:9,
10, 11).
Inanimate objects could be witnesses: stones
(Gen 31:48), altar (Josh 22:27, 28), moon
(Psa 89:37 [H 38]), and a poem (Deut 31:19,
21, 26).
The nation of Israel was viewed as God's
witness (Isa 43:9, 10; Isa 44:8, 9). In Gen
21:30 animals were symbolic witnesses in the
making of a treaty.
Edah in Tanak
Gen. 4:19f, 23; 21:30; 31:52; 36:2, 4, 10, 12, 16;
Exod. 12:3, 6, 19, 47; 16:1f, 9f, 22; 17:1; 34:31; 35:1, 4,
20; 38:25;
Lev. 4:13, 15; 8:3ff; 9:5; 10:6, 17; 16:5; 19:2; 24:14, 16;
Num. 1:2, 16, 18, 53; 3:7; 4:34; 8:9, 20; 10:2f; 13:26;
14:1f, 5, 7, 10, 27, 35f; 15:24ff, 33, 35f; 16:2f, 5f, 9, 11,
16, 19, 21f, 24, 26; 17:5ff, 10f; 19:9; 20:1f, 8, 11, 22, 27,
29; 25:6f; 26:2, 9f; 27:2f, 14, 16f, 19ff; 31:12f, 16, 26f,
43; 32:2, 4; 35:12, 24f;
Deut. 4:45; 6:17, 20; Jos. 9:15, 18f, 21, 27; 18:1; 20:6, 9;
22:12, 16ff, 20, 30; 24:27; Jdg. 14:8; 20:1; 21:10, 13, 16;
1 Ki. 8:5; 12:20; 2 Chr. 5:6; Job 15:34; 16:7; 28:8; 40:10;
Ps. 1:5; 7:8; 22:17; 25:10; 68:31; 74:2; 78:56; 82:1; 86:14;
93:5; 99:7; 106:17f; 111:1; 119:2, 22, 24, 46, 59, 79, 95,
119, 125, 138, 146, 152, 167f; 132:12; Prov. 5:14; 25:20;
Isa. 61:10; 64:5; Jer. 4:30; 6:18; 30:20; 31:4; Ezek. 16:11,
13; 23:40; Hos. 2:15; 7:12
Devarim 6
17 "You should diligently keep the
commandments of YHWH your Elohim,
and His testimonies (edot) and His
statutes (chukim) which He has
commanded you.
Piqud
instructions, procedures, precept (thing
appointed, charge). Instruction, procedure,
regulation, inspection (something watching
over you), custodian, supervisor
From dq;P' (paqad) number (census?),
reckon, visit, punish, appoint, attend to
with care or take note.
The basic meaning is to exercise oversight over
a subordinate, either in the form of inspecting
or of taking action to cause a considerable
change in the circumstances of the
subordinate
Piqud in Tanak
Ps. 19:9; 103:18; 111:7;
119:4, 15, 27, 40, 45, 56, 63, 69, 78, 87,
93f, 100, 104, 110, 128, 134, 141, 159,
168, 173
Imrah
utterance, speech, saying, word
From amar - say, speak, say to one
self (think), intend, command,
promise
Imrah in Tanak
Gen. 4:23; Deut. 32:2; 33:9; 2 Sam. 22:31;
Ps. 12:7; 17:6; 18:31; 105:19;
119:11, 38, 41, 50, 58, 67, 76, 82, 103,
116, 123, 133, 140, 148, 154, 158, 162,
170, 172;
138:2; 147:15;
Prov. 30:5;
Isa. 5:24; 28:23; 29:4; 32:9; Lam. 2:17
Yeshua Did Not Abolish the Torah
17 "Do not think that I have come to
abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have
not come to abolish them but to fulfill
them.
18 I tell you the truth, until heaven and
earth disappear, not the smallest letter,
not the least stroke of a pen, will by any
means disappear (Matthew 5)
Peter’s Confession
13 When Yeshua came to the region of
Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples,
"Who do people say the Son of Man is?"
14 They replied, "Some say Yochanan the
Immerser; others say Eliyahu; and still
others, Yeremiah or one of the prophets."
15 "But what about you?" he asked. "Who do
you say I am?"
16 Shimon Kepha answered, "You are the
Messiah, the Son of the living Elohim.“
(Matthew 16)
Though the Sanhedrin, made up of
primarily Pharisees and Sadducees,
were unable to correctly discern the
true identity of Yeshua, Peter had a
clear perception, because he was being
led by the Set-apart Spirit. The
Sanhedrin refused to comply with the
Torah of Mosheh and were
subsequently blinded to the truth of
Yeshua’s identity, but Kepha had an
open mind and heart and was ready to
receive the truth.
On this Rock I will Build My Assembly
17 Yeshua replied, "Blessed are you,
Shimon son of Yonah, for this was not
revealed to you by man, but by my
Father in heaven.
18 And I tell you that you are Kepha,
and on this rock I will build my
assembly, and the gates of Hades will
not overcome it.
The Word Play (in Greek)
Scholars have noticed in the Greek New
Testament manuscripts a probable
word play on the name Peter (in Greek,
"Petros") and the rock (Greek, "petra")
on which Messiah would build. Since
Peter is a "rock" and since Jesus would
build on a "rock," then clearly Peter is
the foundation of the church. Right?
The Word Play (in Hebrew)
There is a different word play in this passage
in the Hebrew text. The Hebrew word for
stone is even and the Hebrew word for "I
will build" is evneh. Thus, in the Hebrew
manuscripts of Matthew's gospel, Messiah
said to Peter, "You are a stone (even) and I
will build (evneh) on you my house of
prayer." The word play is not on "Peter"
and "rock" as some think. The name
"Peter" does not even occur in his
statement.
Peter Calls All Believers “Stones”
As you come to him, the living Stone-rejected by men but chosen by Elohim
and precious to him-- you also, like
living stones, are being built into a
spiritual house to be a holy priesthood,
offering spiritual sacrifices acceptable
to Elohim through Yeshua Messiah. (1
Peter 2:4-5)
What House is to be Built?
For, lo, I will command, and I will sift the
house of Israel among all nations, like as
corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the
least grain fall upon the earth. All the
sinners of my people shall die by the
sword, which say, The evil shall not
overtake nor prevent us. In that day will I
raise up the tabernacle of David that is
fallen, and close up the breaches thereof;
and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build
it as in the days of old (Amos 9:9-11 KJV).
James Explains What Peter Taught
Simeon has explained how Elohim first
concerned himself to select from among
the Gentiles a people for his name. The
words of the prophets agree with this, as it
is written, 'After this I will return, and I will
rebuild the fallen tent of David; I will
rebuild its ruins and restore it, so that the
rest of humanity may seek Yehovah,
namely, all the Gentiles I have called to be
my own,' says Yehovah, who makes these
things known from long ago (Acts 15:1418, citing Amos 9).
Peter Speaks on Shavuot
But this is what was spoken about
through the prophet Yoel: 'And in the
last days it will be,' Elohim says, 'that I
will pour out my Spirit on all people,
and your sons and your daughters will
prophesy, and your young men will see
visions, and your old men will dream
dreams. Even on my servants, both
men and women, I will pour out my
Spirit in those days, and they will
prophesy (Acts 2:16-18).
It will so happen that everyone who
calls on the name of Yehovah will be
delivered. For on Mount Zion and in
Yerushalayim there will be those
who survive, just as Yehovah has
promised; the remnant will be those
whom Yehovah will call. For look! In
those days and at that time I will
return the exiles to Yehudah and
Yerushalayim (Yoel 2:32-3:1).
The Keys of the Kingdom
19 I will give you the keys of the
kingdom of heaven; whatever you
bind on earth will be bound in
heaven, and whatever you loose on
earth will be loosed in heaven."
The Keys to the House of David
"At that time I will summon my servant
Eliakim, son of Hilkiah. I will put your
robe on him, tie your belt around him,
and transfer your authority to him. He
will become a protector of the
residents of Yerushalayim and of the
people of Yehudah. I will place the key
to the house of David on his shoulder.
When he opens the door, no one can
close it; when he closes the door, no
one can open it. (Yeshayahu 22:20-22)
To the angel of the congregation in
Philadelphia write the following:
"This is the solemn pronouncement
of the Set-apart One, the True One,
who holds the key of David, who
opens doors no one can shut, and
shuts doors no one can open"
(Revelation 3:7)
The “key” is the authority to rule
The "keys of the reign of the heavens"
about which Yeshua spoke to Peter is
the authority given to the disciples of
Yeshua to manage and reign over his
body by the use of the rules (Hebrew,
chukot) and right-rulings (Hebrew,
mishpatim) of the Torah. These tools
("keys") are the means by which to
instruct and manage the body of
Messiah. They are the laws and
judgments by which all of Israel is to
live.
The Laws of the Land
Now this is the commandment - the
rules and right-rulings that Yehovah
your Elohim instructed me to teach
you so that you may carry them out
in the land where you are headed....
(Devarim 6:1)
Is there any authority to change the
laws and rulings of the Torah?
All false religions take upon
themselves the authority to change
God’s Law or have as a leader one
who alone or a select group of
people who can properly interpret
the Law
Now, Yisrael, pay attention to the rules
and right-rulings I am about to teach
you, so that you might live and go on
to enter and take possession of the
land that Yehovah, the Elohim of your
ancestors, is giving you. Do not add a
thing to what I command you nor
subtract from it, so that you may keep
the commandments of Yehovah your
Elohim that I am delivering to you
(Devarim [Deuteronomy] 4:1,2).
You must be careful to do everything I
am commanding you. Do not add to it
or subtract from it! (Devarim 12:32).
Yehovah, your Instructions endure; they
stand secure in heaven. (Psalm 119:89)
Long ago I realized that you ordained
your rules to last. (Psalm 119:152)
Your justice endures, and your law is
reliable. (Psalm 119:142)
Binding and Loosing
“whatever you bind on earth shall be
having been bound in the heavens, and
whatever you loosen on earth shall be
having been loosened in the heavens”
The periphrastic future perfect tense of
the Greek text. It is constructed by
attaching the future tense of the "to
be" verb to the perfect participle of the
action verbs.
It essentially means, "when this
judgment is 'bound,' it shall already
have been bound in heaven" and
"when the judgment is 'loosed'
(released), it shall already have been
released in heaven." The action,
when declared by the disciples, will
at that point in time already have
been done by heaven. Why?
Does this authority enable Yeshua’s
disciples to decide on their own
how to judge the body of Messiah?
(This is Roman Catholic teaching)
Can a leader make his own decision
about how to judge someone?
Messiah Will Judge the Nations
...and many nations will come, saying,
"Come on! Let's go up to Yehovah's
mountain, to the temple of Ya'acov's
Elohim, so he can teach us his
commands, and we can live by his
laws." For Zion will be the source of
instruction, and Yehovah's teachings
will proceed from Yerushalayim. He
will arbitrate between many peoples,
and mediate for many distant nations.
(Micah 4:2,3)
Paul Exercises His Authority in Corinth
It is actually reported that there is sexual
immorality among you, and of a kind
that does not occur even among pagans:
A man has his father's wife.
And you are proud! Shouldn't you rather
have been filled with grief and have put
out of your fellowship the man who did
this? (1 Corinthians 5:1-2)
•
The Torah Judgment
"'Do not have sexual relations with
your father's wife; that would
dishonor your father.(Leviticus 18:8)
"'Everyone who does any of these
detestable things-- such persons
must be cut off from their people.
(Leviticus 18:29)
Paul’s Judgment of the Immoral One
3 Even though I am not physically present, I am
with you in spirit. And I have already passed
judgment on the one who did this, just as if I
were present.
4 When you are assembled in the name of our
Master Yeshua and I am with you in spirit, and
the power of our Master Yeshua is present,
5 hand this man over to Satan, so that the sinful
nature may be destroyed and his spirit saved on
the day of Yehovah. (1 Corinthians 5)
Redirect!
6 The punishment inflicted on him by
the majority is sufficient for him.
7 Now instead, you ought to forgive
and comfort him, so that he will not
be overwhelmed by excessive sorrow.
8 I urge you, therefore, to reaffirm
your love for him. (2 Corinthians 2)
If any of you has a dispute with another, dare he
take it before the ungodly for judgment instead
of before the saints?
2 Do you not know that the saints will judge the
world? And if you are to judge the world, are
you not competent to judge trivial cases?
3 Do you not know that we will judge angels?
How much more the things of this life!
4 Therefore, if you have disputes about such
matters, appoint as judges even men of little
account in the assembly!
1 Corinthians 6
Worship in Prayer

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