Haiti - Ayiti 2012 Working for Peace and Justice CRS Conferen General Information • • • • • • • • • • • • Superficie 27.750 km² (like Belgium) Population near to 10.000.000 Population growth 2,5 % per year Urban / city population 40,8 % / 59,2 % Income under 1 $ (US) a day 55 % Avarage children per mother 4,1 Single parent (women) families 38,5 % of households Mothers dying while giving birth per 100.000 births 523 Life expectation men / women 52,7 year / 56,8 year Women (15-49 ans) victims of physical violence 35 % en 2000 Literacy rate men / women 63,1 % / 54,9 % Children at school 49 % Historical Data – – – – – Before 1492 Decembre 5, 1492 1697 1791 January 1, 1804 – 1825 – 1860 – 1915 - 1934 – 1957 - 1986 – – – – – – – – – – – February 7, 1986 March 1987 November 29, 1987 February 7, 1991 September 30, 1991 October 1994 February 7, 1996 February 7, 2001 February 29, 2004 February 7, 2006 May 14, 2011 Habitants are Arawaks et Tainos Colombus arrival Traite de Ryswick: Haïti becomes French colony Cérémoniel of Bois Caïman The french part of the island becomes independent as Haiti France recognizes the independence but requires indemnity for the loss of the colony (the famous independence debt) Concordat with the Vatican American (US) Occupation Dictatorship of Duvalier: François and son Jean-Claude End of the dictatureship Referendum on the still actual Constitution First (aborted) democratic election First election of Aristide (December 16, 1990) Coup d’État by Gen. Cédras Return of Aristide by US troops First election of Pres. Préval Second (contested) election of Aristide Departure of Aristide and transitional Government Second election of Préval Martelly becomes President Actual Context (2012) A legitime Government Martelly / A electoral process of 2010 marked by fraud led to a Government without support of Congres. Source of corruption. Multiple tensions between Executive and Legislative. Subdued Judiciary Presence of UN Peace keepers Some major challenges Violence, issue of disarmament Struggle against impunity and corruption Social justice and national reconciliation Justice reform and construction of a State of Law Economic development and struggle against unemployment Ecological crisis The National Episcopal Commission on Justice et Paix Its identity Institution of the Catholic Church in Haiti Present in all 10 dioceses of the country And in 300 parishes or local communities. Coordination on level of the dioceses, and nationwide. Mandate: Defense of human dignity and its rights, starting from a lived faith as related to the social realities as expressed in the Social teachings of the Church. Priority in Haiti: defense of human rights. The Commission’s unique character is its nationwide network. <www.forumcitoyen.org.ht/jilap> The involvement of the Commission Programs that are coordinated on national level Observation (monitoring) of major injustice, human rights violations and violence Violence in the metropolitan area and in the country. With attention to question of : gender, conflict on land issues and ecology Special moments: election process; Special places: prison. Training of members Training on Human rights Training on Peace Training on technical skills (monitoring, administration) The training on Human rights is the basic training of all members: 6 seminars of 3 days each The basis of Human rights Human rights and Society Human rights and Economy in Haiti Human rights and Politics in Haiti Human rights and Haitian Culture Human rights: Specific Rights Peace Building Bati Lape. Conflict management without violence A 4 day seminar Accompaniment of victims through Conflict resolution Peace training Juridical assistance (administrative accompaniment) Justice Reform through the Citizen Forum Accompany and strengthen the local groupings and commissions The Commission is a member organization of POHDH, GARR and Citizen Forum for Justice Reform occasional coalitions like Moratorium on free market with EEC. The Commission is Associated Member of Pax Christi International Related to the IANSA Network Member of CO-HE (Coordination Haiti-Europe). The GRR of the Commission gathers members of Pax Christi Haiti / ATD Quart Monde / CHR (Religious Conference) / JOC / Scout / Kiwo Ayiti / Caritas Its seminars reaches several thousands of local organizations Difficulties and Challenges The Haitian context Deep social conflicts make peace building urgent Poverty and economic crisis Cultural remnants (as authoritarianism, marronnage) Paralysis of political situation and the Justice system Violence and impunity rooted in politics Neglect of the natural environment and ecology since many years Magic-religious worldview refuses own responsibility Related to the Commission itself To be a Church Institution offers unique possibilities and imposes limits Some activities and programs address the Church community As the Reflexions for Lent Our stress on human dignity, even over human rights offers a particular accent; effectiveness of some interventions Local commissions need an ongoing accompaniment to remain dynamic Pastoral activity in prison Situation of detention: 14 prisons / more or less 6500 people detained / infrahuman physical conditions / prolonged illegal detention / difficult working conditions of APENA agents Prison pastoral activity means: to make effective and to coordinate the work done by the chaplains / charity interventions / defense of HR of the detainees. The J&P Commission accompanies in an administrative way more than 250 detainees in 2011 / the Commission visits the prisons / and makes public statements. The Commission fosters a better coordination of the Church’s interventions in prison. Solidarity with work for Peace and Justice in Haiti Keep in mind • Peace and Justice has local implications, but contains larger (even international) roots. • Peace means harmony in relations. It is fruit of justice, development, respect for HR, participation and the valorization of one’s own capacities. • Justice is related to Charity as its first step; Justice seeks to understand the deeper causes of human problems and to act on them. Sustaining peace and justice work in Haiti As related to Jilap: • Up to 300 parishes in Haiti have a local J&P Commission. While visiting, be interested in what they are doing. • They are integrated in the J&P work nationwide through the diocesan coordination. • Let them explain how they work, their difficulties and achievements. Particular Justice issues in Haiti • Need for building up of a State that is concerned with people’s living conditions; • Local production and economy; • Issue of dependence: distinguish solidarity from dependence; • Haiti feels occupied and not taken seriously by the international community; • Solutions are imposed. To work for Haiti from the United States Be aware of the longstanding historical relationships between both Nations: Haiti supported the abolition of slavery in the US, it was a place of welcome for black US citizens (Mgr Jolly), today US is the home of a numerous Haitian Diaspora. Be aware of how others look upon you: A country of lots of possibilities? Generous? Dominating? Exploiting? Pursuing its own (political and economic) agenda? Not all people/peoples applaud US policies and interventions; How do we look upon ourselves? Be aware of what relation between countries mean. At the moment: HOPE and maquiladora approach of the Martelly Government is questioned by some. What can be done in the US • Seek just relationships: trade, politics, respect for autonomy and self-determination of others. • See to influence issues of international justice as related to other countries. Encourage trade instead of dumping. • Be aware: our lifestyles impact on others, as is obvious in international trade / international work division / ecology and pollution. Encourage trade from others and just working conditions. • Support issues as international peace, arms trade and disarmament issues (the US does as a rule not sign international commitments), just migration policies, the question of returning deportees (see Central America questions), etc. Attitudes • Not compassion, but solidarity and mutual sharing; • Admire, sustain and encourage; • Be aware and foster awareness in others. • We can learn from one another and make a difference.