Chp 1-32

Report
Chapters 1-3
GEOGRAPHY
C.F.A. # 1
1. Geography is the study of
a)
b)
c)
d)
Transportation systems throughout history.
The land, its environment, resources and its peoples.
Precipitation, wind and drought over a period of time.
Migration patterns in rural areas.
2. What are the names of the four natural regions of
Texas?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Panhandle, Gulf Coast, East Texas, West Texas
Mountains and Valleys, Great Plains, North Plains, Gulf
Coast
Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains,
Coastal Plains
Mountains and Basins, Valleys, North Central Plains,
Coastal Plains
C.F.A. # 1
3. A key that explains symbols or colors on a map is a
_____________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Legend
Grid
Compass
Scale
4. This forms the boundary between Texas and
Louisiana
a)
b)
c)
d)
Gulf of Mexico
Red River
Sabine River
Rio Grande
C.F.A. # 1
5. How does elevation affect climate in the Mountains
and Basins region?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Higher elevations have cooler temperatures.
Lower elevations have cooler temperatures
Higher elevations have strong hurricane force winds.
Higher elevations have lots of humidity and rain.
climate
drought
Definition
Draw a
Picture
Examples
1.
2.
precipitation
landform
region
latitude
Definition
Draw a
Picture
Examples
1.
2.
longitude
plains
Vocabulary
Define & Draw a picture
Census
Trend
Migrate
Climate
drought
precipitation
landform
region
latitude
longitude
plains
TEXAS HISTORY
belongs to:___________
class period:__________
Fall 2013
1
GEOGRAPHY:
• The study of the land, its environment &
resources, and the people who live in it.
– Physical Geography: features such as
landforms, elevation, water, climate & vegetation
– Human Geography: How people change their
environment. Ex: farming, mining, transportation,
jobs
Knowing What
to Expect
• The world is constantly changing. Knowing
something about the past can make it easier to
predict which trends will continue in the future.
– A trend is a general movement toward change
over the course of time.
– A census is a periodic count of the population.
•
•
Geographers use a variety of tools to
organize & analyze information.
Tools such as graphs, charts and tables
help geographers organize data.
A Line graph can show two things on a
graph. This graph shows an amount
and a span of time.
What is a century?
What trend does this line graph show?
Pie Charts are used to compare
parts of a whole.
Immigrants to Texas, 2001
Bar graphs use bars of different lengths to
show & compare the relationship between
two or more kinds of information.
Four Largest Cities in Texas
and the Population Density, 2000
100
90
80
70
60
Hispanic
Asian
European
50
40
30
20
10
0
Austin
Dallas Houston
San
Antonio
Tables are used to compare several
facts about many items. A table is like
a grid which helps geographers
organize many facts and numbers.
Top 4 U. S. Cities by Population
U.S. Cities
2009 Census Population
New York, NY
8,391,881
Los Angeles, CA
3,831,868
Chicago, IL
2,851,288
Houston, TX
2,257,926
A timeline shows the sequence of events.
Timelines are useful for studying how one event
may have led to or caused later events.
Five Themes of Geography
– Location: Position on the Earth’s Surface
• Relative Location (buildings / landmarks)
• Absolute Location (map location / coordinates)
– Place: Physical environment
– Human/ Environment Relationships:
• Shaping the Land (hills, bodies of water, leveling land etc)
– Movement: Migration
• Migrate is to move from one place to another.
– Regions:
• Geographers divide the world into geographic regions by
areas that have certain features in common
How might you
describe the relative
location of the school
in this illustration?
Human activities can have a significant impact on the
environment. A lignite (coal) mine such as the one
below can transform a landscape.
What is one way humans are trying to limit the
damage they do to the environment?
110 N
100 N
90 N
80 N
70 N
60 N
50 N
40 N
30 N
20 N
10 N
0
10 S
20 S
30 S
40 S
50 S
60 S
70 S
80 S
90 S
100 S
110 S
130 E
120 E
110 E
100 E
90 E
70 E
80 E
60 E
50 E
40 E
30 E
20 E
10 E
O
10 W
20 W
30 W
40 W
60 W
50 W
70 W
80 W
90 W
100 W
110 W
120 W
130 W
5 Parts of a Map
Flip Chart
►Title
►Legend
►Grid
System
►Direction
►Scale
Map Legends:
►A
legend is an explanation of a maps
colors & scales.
Legend
Grid System:
Latitude & Longitude Lines Make
up a Grid System.
► Longitude
lines run north and south.
► Latitude lines run east and west.
► These lines measure distances in
degrees.
Pg 31
Equator & Prime Meridian
►Equator:
an imaginary
line at 0° latitude
►Prime
Meridian: an
imaginary line at 0°
longitude
Directions:
Directions describe the location of places
in relation to other places.
►Cardinal
directions
►north, south, east, west
►Intermediate
directions
►northeast, southeast,
southwest and northwest
Scale
►The
relationship between a distance on a
map and the actual distance it
represents.
Warm-up
Copy question and answer in 3-5 complete sentences.
Why would you want to live
near a River?
Activity 1:
Create an acronym to help
you locate major Texas
rivers on a map.
Activity 2:
Label the Major Texas Rivers (Text. Pg.50)
Rio Grande
Pecos
Nueces
San Antonio
Guadalupe
Lavaca
Colorado
Brazos
San Jacinto
Trinity
Neches
Sabine
Red
Canadian
Real people never say good luck charlie
because sometimes they need some real
cheese.
Major Texas Rivers
4 Regions of Texas Flipchart
1. Outside:
• Color & label 4 regions
• Label major cities
2. Inside:
• Climate
• Landforms
• Crops / Vegetation
• Businesses / Industry
Great Plains
Mountains &
Basins
North Central
Plains
Coastal
Plains
Texas Bus Tour
Welcome!
Texas Bus Tour
• Our tour guide today is
Tumbleweed Tonya
• Fasten your seatbelts
• Enter and Exit through the aisle
• Take notes in your Texas Travel
Guide as we make four stops, so
hold on tight!
• By the way, tips for the tour guide
are encouraged.
FIRST STOP
Mountain and Basin Region
Our first stop is the Mountains and Basins region!
The Mountains and Basins region is the most
western region of Texas. It has many mountain
ranges and is very dry.
Mountains and
Basins Region
Mountains and Basins Region
A basin is a low, bowl-shaped land with higher
ground all around it. The basins in this Texas
region are deserts.
There are three mountain ranges in this
part of Texas.
The mountains in Texas are part of the Rocky Mountains
which stretch through the western United States from
Mexico to Canada. The Texas Rocky Mountains are made
up of many small mountain ranges.
Mountains
and Basins
Region of
Texas
The Davis Mountains are in the center of the
Mountains and Basins region.
The Chisos Mountains are located in the Big Bend
National Park.
The Guadalupe Mountains border Texas and New Mexico.
Guadalupe Peak is the highest point in Texas
at 8,749 feet above sea level.
The Chihuahuan Desert is located in this
region. Prickly pear cactus grows here.
Big Bend National Park is located in a gigantic bend in
the Rio Grande River. 99% of the park is desert!
Did you know the largest pterodactyl bone ever
discovered was found right here in Big Bend National
Park? It had a wingspan of 51 feet and was found by
Douglas A. Lawson in 1971.
This is the city of El Paso. The name is
Spanish for “The Pass”. El Paso is the
largest city in this region of Texas.
Mountains and Basins Notes
Landforms
• Desert-like to mountainous to forests
Climate
• Higher elevation – cool
• Lower elevation – dry
• Extreme temperatures
• Little rainfall
Vegetation and Crops
• Cactus and other desert plants
• Forests on mountains
• Cotton crops
Mountains and Basins Notes
Businesses & Industry
• Oil & Gas
• Copper mining
• Salt mining
• International trade
Major City
• El Paso
SECOND STOP!
Coastal Plains Region
Our second stop is the Coastal Plains region!
The Coast Plains are mostly flat land that lies
alongside an ocean. Coast Plains cover near one
third of the state of Texas!
Coastal Plains
Region
This the Piney Woods of East Texas. It was once the home
of the Caddo Indians.
Our state bird, the Mockingbird, lives here. They got
their name from their unique ability to copy or “mock”
other birds. Another state symbol is found in abundance
here. The pecan tree is the state tree of Texas.
Pecan tree
Mocking bird
Weather in the Coastal Plains region is usually mild. That
means that winters are short and warm compared to other
parts of the country. Summers are long, hot, and humid.
There are lots of rivers and lakes in this region.
Perfect for fishing and water sports.
Fishing in Texas
The Coastal Plains of Texas lie alongside an ocean. All
rivers that flow west drain into the Gulf of Mexico.
Many people visit the beaches that lie along Texas.
Shipping is a huge industry in this region. Corpus
Christi and Houston have huge ports where ships from
all over the world visit to load and unload goods.
A cargo ship
Corpus Christi
Houston
Farming and ranching are important industries in the
Coastal Plains region.
In Kingsville, you will find King
Ranch. It was started in the late
1800s by Captain Richard King
and his wife Henrietta. It is still
one of the largest cattle ranches
in Texas today.
In the southern most area of Texas
known as “The Valley”, some
crops are grown all year due to
the warm weather. Crops include
cotton, sugar cane, citric fruits,
soybeans, and corn.
Oil is found in the Coastal Plains region. These tall
structures are oil derricks. Many people call the oil
found in Texas “Black Texas Tea”.
Many large cities are located in the Coast Plains
including Dallas, Austin, and Houston. Although Austin is
our state’s capital, Houston is the state’s largest city.
Houston is also the fourth largest city in the U.S.!
Houston
Austin
Dallas
Coastal Plains Notes
Landforms
• Land varies from sea level to very hilly, small
mountains to flat dry plains
Climate
• Warm
• Mild Winters
• Humid
• Plentiful Rain
Vegetation and Crops
• Prairie in the northeast
• Pine/Oak forests in Northwest
• Excellent ranch land in Coastal Prairie
• Long growing seasons
• Fruits, vegetables, corn, grain, cotton, rice
Coastal Plains Notes
Businesses & Industry (variety)
• Lumber
• Oil & Gas
• NASA – space
• Fishing, Farming & Livestock
• Tourism
• Technology
• Government
Major Cities
• Dallas
• Houston
• San Antonio
THIRD STOP!
North Central Plains Region
Our third stop is the Central Plains Region! The
Central Plains region is in the center of Texas. It
has a little higher elevation than the Coastal Plains
and is covered with rolling prairies.
North Central
Plains Region
The Central Plains Region is a rural area. This means a
small population and a lot of open country. It has warm
summers and cool winters. There are many cattle
ranches and farms here.
This region does have some wild weather. During the
spring there is a chance of tornados. These are
funnel-shaped storms with swirling winds that do a lot
of a damage to a community.
Fort Worth is one of the larger cities in the Central
Plains region. It is known for its stockyards and
cowboys.
Fort Worth was one of many stops along the famous
cattle drive trail known as the Chisholm Trail. The
Chisholm Trail was started by a Cherokee trader.
Cowboys and cowgirls in this region still work on cattle
ranches. Many compete in rodeos around the country.
Did you know that after the Civil War, about one third
of the Texas cowboys were African-American or
Mexican-American? And several were women!
North Central Plains Notes
Landforms
• Flat to gentle rolling land
Climate
• Cool summers
• Cold winters
• Windy
• Good rainfall
Vegetation & Crops
• Prairie in east and west separated by forests
• Rich soil
• Wheat, cotton, pecans , peanuts, corn, fruits and
vegetables
North Central Plains Notes
Businesses & Industry
• Agriculture
• Dairy farms
• Beef cattle
• Horses
• Sheep
• Goats
• Oil Manufacturing
Major Cities
• Fort Worth
• Abilene
LAST STOP!
Great Plains Region
Our last stop is the Great Plains Region! Most of
the Texas Panhandle is located here.
Great Plains
Region
Land in the Great Plains region very high in elevation,
but is still very flat.
In the southern part of the Great Plains is a landform
called the Edwards Plateau. It’s very high and flat, like a
table. The southern and eastern parts have hills though.
This area of Texas is often called the “Hill Country”.
The Cap Rock Escarpment is in the Texas Panhandle.
This is where the rolling Central Plains meet the high,
flat land of the Great Plains.
In the southern part of the Great Plains is another
escarpment called the Balcones Escarpment. Spanish
explorers called it that because it looked like “balconies”
Palo Duro Canyon is the second largest canyon in the
U.S. It is sometimes called the “Grand Canyon of
Texas”.
Palo Duro Canyon is located just
south of Amarillo.
The Great Plains region is very dry and few water
sources. Early settlers faced many droughts and
sandstorms. However in the winter, the Panhandle will
often get blizzards which are very harsh snow storm.
Blizzard in the
Panhandle
Sandstorm in the
Panhandle
Ranching is very popular in the Great Plains. Flat
grassy land is perfect for raising cattle. What you
don’t see are armadillos. It’s much too cold here!
Not up in the panhandle!
Longhorn cattle
Wheat and cotton are important crops in the Great
Plains. Wheat can grow in areas with little water.
Two major cities in the Great Plains are Lubbock and
Amarillo. Both cities grew after railroads were built in
Texas. Railroads carried the cattle to markets back
east.
Today, both Lubbock and Amarillo are home to many
different industries, including farming, cattle
ranching, gas, oil, health care, and tourism.
Great Plains Notes
Landforms
• High flat land
Climate
• Cool summers, cold winters
• Dry, but adequate rainfall
Vegetation & Crops
• Grassland with few trees
• Wheat and cotton crops
Great Plains Notes
Businesses & Industry
• Tourism
• Hunting
• Cattle
• Pecans
• Sheep, goats
• Farming
• Oil
• Cottonseed
• Helium
Major Cities
• Amarillo, Lubbock, Midland
Texas Bus Tour
Postcard Home
• Choose a region we just
visited.
• Write to someone and tell
them all about it.
Choose a region we just visited. Draw a picture to
represent that region. You may use your notes. Make sure
to include pictures of specific details we discussed.
Now, write a note to someone and tell him or her about your trip to
one of the regions. Be sure to include the name of your region
and two facts about the region (things you might see, etc.)
TO:
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
Regional Tourism Guide
Imagine that you work for the Tourism Division of the Texas Department of
Commerce. Create a tourism guide for a Texas region of your choice. Be sure to
include the following in your tri-fold brochure:
• Front of Brochure:
• A title and a slogan for the region
• Illustration representing the environment or attractions in the region
• Inside Pages:
1. An introductory paragraph (4-5 sentences) that highlight why the particular
region is a good tourist location
2. A calendar that shows significant events in the region (festivals, fairs, or
other local events)
3. A description with illustrations of state and national parks in the region
4. A table that shows the average monthly temperatures and rainfall for the
major cities in the region

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