Coaching Issues (Cont`d.).

Introduction to Physical
Education, Fitness, and Sport
Chapter 6
Problems and Issues in Sport
Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.)
 Sport Injuries
 Difficult to determine trends.
 Acute injuries (e.g., sprains contusions) result
in approx. 4,00,000 ER visits per year.
 Overuse injuries are seen more in younger
children (early age specialization likely
 New trend: Extreme sport injuries
(i.e., higher risks >> increased risk of injury).
Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.)
 Sport Injuries (cont’d.)
 Duquin (1988): Sado-asceticism . . . . Trend
by adults and coaches to redefine pain as
discomfort, and pushing kids to work
“through the pain.”
Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.)
 Youth Sport Coaching
 Major dilemma: Attracting sufficient
numbers of volunteer coaches, but not
being able to require much in the form
of certification.
 Improvement is occurring in terms of
requiring background checks, providing
volunteer workshops, and Code of Ethics.
Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.)
 Youth Sport Coaching (Cont’d.)
 What little is known empirically, shows that
youth sport coaches offer too much criticism,
and little positive support.
 This produced the “Coaching Effectiveness
Training” program (Smoll, 1986).
Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.)
 Youth Sport Coaching (Cont’d.)
 “Coaching Effectiveness Training” program
 Winning is an appropriate goal, but not the
only one.
 Losing does not imply failure.
 Success comes in multiple forms.
 Success is related to effort as much as it
is to outcome.
Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.)
 Impact of Sport on Family Life
 Sport directly alters family life patterns
 Transport kids to games and practices.
 Fewer, if any, family dinners at home.
 Increased expenditures on Sport (e.g., camps,
club fees, gas, hotels etc.).
Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.)
 Impact of Sport on Family Life
 Parents can get quite overzealous. . .
 Examples of inappropriate parent behavior?
 What about the children’s view of their parents?
(see also boxes 6.4 & 6.5)
Would you want your parents to behave like that?
Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.)
 Unequal Access (SES)
 Opportunity & access to sport is skewed
toward middle and upper-middle class
children and youth (i.e., programs, facilities,
equipment, coaching, etc.).
 Those most in need, are least likely to have
 What will you do to “level this playing field?”
Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.)
 Trends in Child & Youth Sport (Cont’d.)
 . . . BUT, much remains to be done:
 Declines in public funding.
 Increase in private/commercial programs.
 Programs segregated by SES, race,
and/or ethnicity.
 Less access and opportunity for lowerSES children.
 Children exploring other (less adultdominated) activities.
Interscholastic Sport
 Unique to U.S. society.
 Scope of programs depends on school
size and funding.
 Often a strong binding force in
especially smaller rural communities
(See also Box 6.6)
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 It does carry its own problem . . .
Exclusion in the varsity model.
Youth & interscholastic sport injuries.
Eligibility and pass-to-play rules.
Performance enhancing supplements.
Coaching issues.
Funding: Pay-to-play / Booster clubs.
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 Varsity model: Exclusion.
 Little to no access or opportunity for the
lesser skilled adolescents.
 “Where do I go if I still want
to play competitively?
 Internationally, the focus is on
broad-based programming for
anyone . . . . (See Box 6.7)
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 Injuries.
 Centers for Disease Control (2006) study:
(Across 9 sports & 425 High Schools)
2,000.000 injuries.
500.000 doctor visits.
300.000 hospitalizations.
Injury rate higher during games.
Sprains, contusions, fractures,
concussion are most common.
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 Injuries.
 Centers for Disease Control (2006) study:
(Across 9 sports & 425 High Schools)
 Highest rate of injuries: Football, Wrestling,
Soccer, & Girls’ Basketball.
 Sprains, contusions, fractures,
concussion are most common.
 Lower number of injuries likely a result
of better equipment and conditioning.
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 Eligibility & pass-to-play rules.
 Students must meet eligibility standards to play,
incl. pass-to-play criterion.
Is Sport an extra-curricular activity, a
privilege? . . .
Or is it of basic educational importance for
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 Performance enhancing supplements.
 Increased media attention to use of dietary
supplements and steroids in professional sport
and High Schools.
 Their health risks are documented for both
adolescents and adults.
 Random drug testing is now
more common in High schools.
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 Performance enhancing supplements
What the ethical obligations of
those overseeing the sport and
its athletes (i.e., coaches,
athletic trainers, & parents)
relative to such supplements?
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 Coaching Issues.
 Teacher-Coach role conflict: Balancing the
demands of both, each with different rewards.
 With schools being the venue, it follows that
coaches would be teachers at the school . . .
 Not so . . . Many are not directly
affiliated with the school, and not
required to be certified teachers.
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 Coaching Issues (Cont’d.).
 Coaches are paid using supplementary
contracts, that reflect a very low
“hourly wage.”
 Never-ending dilemma in hiring:
Are you hired to teach first and also
coach or vice versa?
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 Funding: Pay-to-play / Booster Clubs.
 Pressures placed on HS athletes (and
coaches!) by parents, school
administrators, and booster club
members can be enormous (see Box 6.8).
 If funding for HS athletics is dependent on
fundraising by booster clubs, it adds
additional pressure.
Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.)
 Pay-to-play ($2P) Plans
 Though ruled as discriminatory) against
those who can least afford it, $2P plans
are more common than ever.
 If not managed by the school district, it is the
Booster club that oversees this program.
 It goes against court efforts to equalize funding
for education.
Intercollegiate Sport
Has become BIG
Universities (notably
in Division I)
Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.)
 Problems may differ between Division
I and III schools.
 Main problems:
 Recruiting violations and pressures.
 Drugs used to enhance performance.
 Economic disparities among top powers.
 Economic pressures to win.
 Treatment of athletes at the University.
Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.)
 Recruiting violations and pressures.
 Competition for talented athletes among
Universities is not always fair.
 Violations often occur by way of alumni and
“friends” exerting influence on athletes,
coaches, and the University (e.g., gifts, cash, cars).
Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.)
 Drugs used to enhance performance.
 Increased size, weight, and speed among
athletes is the result of:
 Improved training and conditioning . . . &
 Performance enhancing drug use
Intercollegiate Sport
 Drugs that enhance performance.
 Drug testing among Univ. athletes is a complex
issue relative to the “right to privacy”, and its
constitutionality (i.e., 4th Amendment).
 At what point is it considered a “reasonable
 What if your belongings were searched?
 Blood doping
 Steroids
 Diuretics
 Stimulants
Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.)
 $$$ flows disproportionately to a select
few programs.
 Main problems:
 “The rich get richer.”
 Aids in recruitment of new athletes.
 May lead to cheating in less-established
programs (absence of an equalizing draft
Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.)
 Economic pressures to win.
 Main problems:
 Large investments in facilities often
produce large deficits.
 Donors & alumni contributions.
 Also will encourage
Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.)
 Treatment of athletes at the University.
 Main problems:
 Exploiting of athletes.
 Poor “quality of life” (e.g., chronic fatigue, poor
academic performance, low graduation rates, injuries).
Equity Issues in Sport
 Women’s issues
 Inequity still lingers, but progress has been
 Title IX >> increased
participation among
females, across all levels.
 Overt vs. subtle
discrimination . . . ?
Equity Issues in Sport (Cont’d.)
 Women’s issues (cont’d.)
 Coaching and leadership positions still
mostly filled by males today.
 Supreme court decisions have suppressed
upward mobility of females in
College sport.
 Females coaches, AD’s,
and officials remain a
minority (e.g. Motley & Lavine, 2001; Pastore, 1994).
Equity Issues in Sport (Cont’d.)
 Women’s issues (cont’d.)
 Breaking the stereotypes:
Increased participation by girls in contact
& strength sports.
Equity Issues in Sport (Cont’d.)
 Women’s issues (cont’d.)
 Further advancing the status of women will
require constant advocacy by all professionals
in Physical Education and Sport . . .
. . . as 19th Century views still
Equity Issues in Sport (Cont’d.)
 Minority issues:
 1947: Jackie Robinson drafted by the
Brooklyn Dodgers (MLB).
 Full racial integration for athletes only
occurred after court rulings (60s – 70s).
Which Sports still have few
minority participants?
Minority Issues (Cont’d.)
 Minority issues (cont’d.)
 Hires in leadership positions in both
collegiate and pro Sport
remain sparse (e.g., Lapchick, 2007).
Minority Issues (Cont’d.)
 Minority issues (cont’d.)
 Those in economically disadvantaged
communities have less access and
fewer opportunities for PA
(. . . Despite evidence of its benefits!).
How are problems of inequity in
Sport intertwined with society’s
structural inequities?
Sport Systems
How would you describe the
structure of the U.S. Sport
 Levels of participation?
 Government involvement/regulation?
 Funding?
 Prevalence of Club Sport?
 Certification of Sport coaches?
Alternative Goals for Sport Systems
What are (or should be) the
goals of a Sport System?
 Direction of funding?
 Government funding of Olympic-caliber
 Increase opportunities, better coaching for
ALL non-elite participants?
 Role of the private sector?
Sport in Perspective
Despite its many problems . . .
Sport has enormous potential to
influence youth and adults
 An experience to be enjoyed . . .
 Sport is not a cure-all . . .
 Many organizations work hard to make it
a positive, educational and fun experience.
Discussion Questions
4. Do eligibility rules for sport participation
in schools discriminate against less
talented students?
Discussion Questions
5. How early should athletes specialize?
What are the benefits and problems of
specialization at the high-school levels?
Discussion Questions
6. If you were making policy for the NCAA,
what policies would you suggest for a) drug
abuse, b) recruiting violations, and c)
academic progress of athletes?

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