Chapter 15 Section 5 Roots of the Revolution

By: Carly N.
Lesson Questions
• How did China’s relations with the West
change in the 1800’s?
• Why were European nations able to gain
influence in China?
• What were the causes and effects of the
“revolution” of 1911?
• Kowtow- to bow low
• Extraterritoriality-principle allowing
westerners accused of a crime in China to be
tried in special, western-run courts instead of
in Chinese courts
• Sphere of influence- an area in which a foreign
nation has special economic privileges
A Position of Strength
By 1500’s Portuguese reached India and Southeast Asia hoping to expand their
trading empire
In China the Ming emperors placed strict limits on foreign traders
China allowed foreign ships to unload cargoes only at the ports of Macao and
Traders could only sell their goods to certain Chinese merchants
By 1700’s two developments were underway that would effect China’s relations
with the West
Qing dynasty entered a long period of decline because of the high taxes, limited
land, and increasing peasant population
Qing dynasty could not grow enough food to survive
Floods and drought caused famine, peasant revolts broke out
The second development was the Industrial Revolution in western Europe
The Industrial Revolution increased military power of European nations
British used their military strength to back their demands for expanded trading
rights with China
European Imperialism
1700’s Europeans refused to kowtow, or bow down to the Chinese emperors
Europeans resented being restricted to Macao and Guangzhou
Europeans wanted to be accepted as equal partners in trade
Europeans demanded the right to trade at other Chinese ports
• Opium War
British diplomacy failed to bring change
In 1700’s the British sold opium that was grown in India to China
Other nations also entered the opium trade
1800’s many Chinese had become addicted to the drug
The opium trade drained China’s supply of silver
China tried to stop drug trade by harsh laws
Users then used smugglers
Smugglers who were caught faced death
In 1839, the Chinese destroyed a British shipment of opium, and war broke
– In the war the Chinese were no match for the British
European Imperialism
• The unequal treaties
– The Treaty of Nanjing ended the opium war (first unequal treaty)
• China had to accept British terms for peace, agreed to pay for opium that had been
destroyed, gave Britain the island of Hong Kong, and had to open other ports to British
– Chinese could no longer set the terms of trade
– France, Russia, Germany, and the United states made similar treaties with
Qing emperor
– Westerners won the right to extraterritoriality
– Westerners accused of crime in China could be tried in their own courts
• Increased foreign influence
By 1800’s western powers carved China into spheres of influence
The economic rights gave westerners political influence
Japan expanded into China
In 1800’s Japan adopted western technology and modernized its industries
In 1895 Japan defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War
Japan won Taiwan and extended its influence over Korea
European Imperialism
• Open Door policy
– The United States feared that European Nations
might set up colonies in China
– Under this policy, all nations were supposed to
have equal access to trade with China
– The policy failed but the United States used it to
protect its own trade with China
Unrest and Revolution
– Loss of territory for foreigners was one sign of China’s weakness in the Qing
dynasty along with peasant revolts
– in 1851 the Taiping Rebellion was the most serious peasant revolt which lasted
for fourteen years
– More than twenty million people were killed
• Efforts at reform
The Taiping Rebellion marked the beginning of a long revolution in China
Called for reforms in government and society
Reforms wanted to introduce modern technology to China
Reforms wanted to preserve Confucian culture
Set up factories to and dockyards to produce modern weapons and ships
In 1898, emperor Guang Xi supported the Hundred Days of Reforms
Emperor Guang Xi issued laws to update the civil service exam, organize
western-style schools, and promote economic changes
– Led by Ci Xi, conservatives opposed the reforms
– In 1898, Ci Xi seized power as empress and ended the influence of the
moderate reformers
Unrest and Revolution
Boxer Rebellion
– While reform efforts were underway, a growing number of foreign missionaries and business
people were settling in China
– Chinese hostility increased
– Anti-foreign Chinese took strong action
– Formed the Fists of Righteous Harmony, called the Boxers by Westerners, to expel all
– In 1900, the Boxers attacked and killed many Chinese Christians and foreigners
– Western powers organized an international army, which crushed the Boxers
– China was forced to allow foreign troops on Chinese soil and foreign warships in Chinese
Revolution of 1911
Qing dynasty collapsed after Ci Xi’s death
In 1911, China declared itself a republic, ending the ancient system of imperial rule
From 1911-1928 the country of China seemed ready to break into many pieces
Civil War raged, with many people claiming the right to rule China
Struggles of the Republic
– In 1911, Dr. Sun Yatsen served as president of the new
– Sun helped organize the Guomindang, or Nationalist party
– Sun set out goals for China in “Three Principles of the
• First goal was calling for nationalism
• Second goal was supporting democracy
• Third goal was ensuring a decent living for all Chinese (livelihood)
– Sun had little chance to achieve his goals
– General Yuan Shikai forced Sun out of office in 1912
– War lords, or regional leaders with their own army, were
fighting for power of China
Nationalists and Communists
– Dr. Sun Yatsen rallied followers to his three principles during his years of
– Organized an army to restore unity
– Sun appointed officer Chiang Kai-shek to command the nationalist army
– In 1928 when Sun died Chiang took over the leadership of the Nationalist
– By 1928, China was under Chiang’s control
• Attack on the Communists
– Nationalists faced challenges to their authority
– The nations economy was badly depressed
– The nationalists teamed up with the Chinese Communist Party to expel
foreigners and fight the warlords
– The CCP hoped to gain control of nationalist party from within
– In 1927, Chiang moved against the communists by expelling them from
Guomindang and killed thousands of their supporters
Nationalists and Communists
Long March
In the late 1920’s early 1930’s, Mao Zedong emerged as the leader of the Chinese Communists
Mao thought communists would only survive in China with peasants support
Communists paid the peasants for the food they required unlike the other Chinese armies
Chiang launched a fierce campaign against the communists
In 1934, communists fled from Chiang’s armies
Mao led the communists 6000 miles to Shaanxi
90000 communists set out on the dangerous “Long March”
It was a symbol of the bitter hardships the communists endured before gaining power in 1949
Japanese Invasion
In 1931, the Japanese seized Manchuria
In 1937, the Japanese launched an all-out war against China
Japan’s armies overran the most heavily populated regions of China
During WWII, Nationalists and Communists joined together to battle the Japanese
In 1945, with the defeat of Japan Mao’s forces held much of northern China

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