Relationship between CCP and KMT from 1921 to

By: Cheong Kai Lun (3), jason tan xin an (7),
Ong Yu Ze (15)
First united front
 Rid china of foreigners and militaries
 Full national independence and unification
 Russia
Reasons: Soviet Russia
 Soviet Russia saw china as a potential ally
 However they supported the KMT as they had bigger
membership and more influence over workers than CCP
Reasons: CCP
 Persuasion from Russian Comintern
 Both Russian Comintern and CCP wanted to use KMT
base to expand their influence and eventually break
away with it
 At this time CCP only had 432 members
 Not regarded by Russians as suitable instrument of
revolution in China
Reasons: KMT
 Achievement of national unification and full national
 Believed that all Chinese should participate in national
 Could use CCP ties with workers, peasants and Soviet
aid to reorganize KMT
 If CCP developed too fast it might undermine SYS’
cause of national revolution
Nature of First united Front
 CCP joined KMT
 CCP had to accept order and discipline from KMT
 CCP had to publicly accept KMT as leader and central
 Northern Expedition to conquer South China
 Expel the warlords
Northern Expedition
 [KMT aim] Destroy the power of northern warlords
 [CCP aim] Once warlords defeated, seize China
Northern Expedition
 SYS felt strong enough to negotiate with the Northern
 But he died
 CKS took over SYS as leader of KMT
What happened?
 Once force would attack Wuhan
 The other attacks Nanzhang, Nanjing and Shanghai
 At the same time KMT and CCP fought for peasant and
townspeople support
Northern Expedition
 KMT and CCP took over half of the warlord dominated
 Led to the breakdown of the First United Front
 Worsened relations between the CCP and KMT
 CCP gained support
The 分手
 Different political views on change: CCP -> Violent
Revolution; KMT -> Gradual Reform
CCP activities, aims, methods threatened middle
classes who supported KMT
SYS death (Helped keep alliance together)
Success of Northern Expedition, KMT feel no longer
need CCP support
Alliance not fully committed ( based on desire for
political power)
Elab on Reasons…
 CKS alarmed by growing support of CCP
 NE caused a rapid growth of support for CCP
 CCP encouraged workers to go on strike, resulting in
fear of revolution by middle-class
 However, CKS had moved closer to the right wingers,
forming personal and political ties with them
 Communist activities  EMBARRASMENT
 Since KMT conquered Southern China, no need CCP
help -> Breakdown of alliance
What Happened
 CCP instigated rebellion in Shanghai BEFORE KMT
 KMT came, rounded up communists and killed them
 Later, KMT executed more communists in Guangzhou,
forcing them to flee
 Communist retreated to countryside
 CKS wanted conquer all China
 Contributed to Shanghai Massacre
Shanghai Massacre
Head (:
 Reduce communist influence and power in China
 Uncomfertable alliance between the KMT and CCP
 Growing support of CCP -> CKS felt power of CCP had
to be cut back
What Happened?
 CKS wanted to seize Shanghai(which had a lot of
communists) during NE
General strike by communist broke out
Authorities decided to execute suspected communists
KMT took control of Shanghai
However, communist leadership had no idea what true
situation was as they forbid any opposition to KMT
 Thousands communist killed
 Communist cells raided
 Trade unions eliminateed
 Communist positions in United Front Dropped

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