课件六

Report
Sustainable Development
Practice in China
From Eco-City to Eco-Civilization
Content:
• Introduction and ecocity concept
• China: from eco-city to eco-civilization
– Overview
– Eco-demonstration under MoEP
– Ecocity building by local governments
• Shanghai case: Chongming Eco-Island development
– Calling for eco-civilization
Introduction and ecocity concept
• Ecocity, Ecological City or Ecopolis.
Urbanization: urban
sickness …
social/environ. ..
• Originated from the Man and Biosphere program (MAB)
by UNESCO in 1970s.
• Richard Register: “An Ecocity is a human settlement that
enables its residents to live a good quality of life while
using minimal natural resources. ”
What is an ecocity?
New Orleans
• Commercial and living;
• Stereo greening;
• Trams, rarely cars;
• Renewable energy (solar/wind);
• Biodiversity;
• Environment & 3Rs …
• Concentrated, not sprawling. …
Cited from Richard Register
San Francisco
Eco-Village by Richard Register
Ecocity World Summits 1990-2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Berkeley, California 1990, … basic ideas of ecocity design/planning
Adelaide, Australia,1992, … for cities for people instead of cars …
Yoff, Senegal, 1996, … for underdeveloped countries
Curitiba, Brazil, 2000, … discussion on Curitiba itself …
Shenzhen, China, 2002, … for fast developing countries, declaration
Bangalore, India, 2006. a window on the world like a magnifying glass …
San Francisco, USA, 2008. … a declaration that laid out five requirements and
ten actions for Ecocity development
Istanbul, Turkey, 2009. … Tianjin eco-city reported their progress but was
criticized about not enough ambitious on renewable energy portion (20%).
Istanbul argued about population growth…
Montreal, Canada, 2011, for the first time, it included a section on
ecocity economics. However, the discussion was not deep enough,
e.g., more input from revenue was suggested but no discussion on
how to collect revenue…
The San Francisco Ecocity Declaration
The 7th International Ecocity Conference
April 22-26, 2008
•
An ecocity is an ecologically healthy city. Into the deep future, the cities in which we live
must enable people to thrive in harmony with nature and achieve sustainable development.
People oriented, ecocity development requires the comprehensive understanding of
complex interactions between environmental, economic, political and socio-cultural factors
based on ecological principles. Cities, towns and villages should be designed to enhance the
health and quality of life of their inhabitants and maintain the ecosystems on which they
depend.
 Five requirements:
 Ecological security - clean air, and safe, reliable water supplies, food, healthy housing and
workplaces, municipal services and protection against disasters for all people.
 Ecological sanitation - efficient, cost-effective eco-engineering for treating and recycling
human excreta, gray water, and all wastes.
 Ecological industrial metabolism - resource conservation and environmental protection
through industrial transition, emphasizing materials re-use, life-cycle production, renewable
energy, efficient transportation, and meeting human needs.
 Ecoscape (ecological-landscape) integrity - arrange built structures, open spaces such as
parks and plazas, connectors such as streets and bridges, and natural features such as
waterways and ridgelines, to maximize biodiversity and maximize accessibility of the city for all
citizens while conserving energy and resources and alleviating such problems as automobile
accidents, air pollution, hydrological deterioration, heat island effects and global warming.
 Ecological awareness - help people understand their place in nature, cultural identity,
responsibility for the environment, and help them change their consumption behavior and
enhance their ability to contribute to maintaining high quality urban ecosystems.
Ten key actions needed:
1.
Provide safe shelter, water, sanitation, security of tenure and food security for all
citizens … priority to the poor …
2.
Build cities for people, not cars. …
3.
Identify ecologically sensitive areas, define the carrying capacity …
4.
Design cities for energy conservation, renewable energy uses and the reduction, re-use
and recycling of materials
5.
Build cities for safe pedestrian and non-motorized transport use with efficient,
convenient and low-cost public transportation. …
6.
Provide strong economic incentives to businesses for ecocity building and rebuilding …
7.
Provide … education and training programs, capacity building and local skills …
8.
Create a government agency at each level …
9.
.. to address global heating, the coming end of fossil fuels and global crisis of species
extinctions.
10.
… international, inter-city and community-to-community cooperation to share
experiences, lessons and resources ….
Ecocity 9, Montreal Canada, Aug 22-26, 2011
Interconnecting Themes
– Climate Change and Urban Planning
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–
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Ecomobility, Urban Planning, Public Space
Governance and Democracy in the Ecocity
Economics of the Ecocity
Health and the Built Environment
Biodiversity and Urban Agriculture
Youth Leadership and Engagement in the Arts, Culture and
Environment
– An Ecocity Project… on the Ground!
Ecological economy
• What is the purpose of the economy in an ecocity, and how do we define
terms like “sustainable development,” “prosperity,” “well-being,” and
“quality of life” in line with that purpose? Three key sub-themes build on
this foundational question. First, how can we favour local economies? (怎
样可以对当地经济发展有利?) Here, we will examine ways to keep
wealth and prosperity within an ecocity as we consider how its inhabitants
feed and entertain themselves. Important challenges must be addressed
in regard to financing the economy, confronting the trend toward
globalization, balancing public and private sector engagement and
managing relations between the ecocity and its surrounding regions. The
Transition Town and post-carbon city social movements may produce
instructive new approaches. Second, how can we encourage decent work
in an ecocity? (怎样增加就业机会?) Here, we will consider green jobs
and possible new modes of work, such as work sharing and shorter work
weeks, as well as sectors that are best suited to an ecocity. Third, how
should we manage energy and materials needs of an ecocity? (怎样管理
所需的能源和物料?)…How are economic and environmental prosperity
maintained in an ecocity? (怎样维护经济和环境财产?)
Insights from the History of the International Ecocity
Conferences (R. Register)
• When I convened the organizing of the First International Ecocity
Conference my notion was to try to accelerate the efforts and successes of
the previous 30 years of work on the idea of the ecologically healthy city.
That means today some of us have been working “in the field” for more
than 50 years.
• …
• Here at this conference you've seen some partial glimpses of what it can
be, but we will have to go much, much farther down the road toward the
ecocity if we are to rescue our descendants and most of the still remaining
other species from our past mistakes. We certainly have all the tools and
insights available to do it but we need to recognize that most people don't
even want to cast their eyes in that direction, rightly suspecting that the
obligation to do something difficult and different - the specter of
fundamental change and all the hard, eventually glorious work it entails lies down that road.
Remarks:
• Requirements
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–
–
–
–
Safe shelter, water, food, wealth …
Green, environment & diversity …
No cars; public transportation …
Renewable energy and 3Rs, low carbon ...
Governance …Education and training …
 Issues not resolved:
 How to achieve these requirements;
 Technical feasibility;
 Economic feasibility (input/output analysis)
 Local conditions: population & growth rate, built
environment…
China: from eco-city to ecocivilization
Overview
China is making a miracle, however along with rapid
economic development and urbanization:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Environmental pollution
Resource restriction
Social problems in urban areas
Biodiversity in urban areas
Climate change impacts
……
Eco-development programs in China
• Related programs
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Scenery city
山水城市
Green city
绿色城市
Garden city
花园城市
Eco – garden city
生态园林城市
Environmental model city
环境模范城市
Environmentally friendly city 环境友好城市
Eco – City
生态示范城市
Eco – civilization city
生态文明城市
The major programs
• Eco-Garden city program by MHURD
– From 1992, evaluation in every 2 years. Up to 2008, there were 10 batches of 125 cities
officially nominated with state-level “Eco-Garden Cities”
– In 2004, “resource saving” principle was included in this program. In 2006, it was further
emphasized for “Three-Savings: land, water, and funding”; Four-Reductions: urban heat
island, air and water pollutions, energy consumption of buildings and infrastructure, and
energy consumption in urban transportation.
– The objective is to develop green and economic societies
• Eco – demonstration program under MoEP
– 1995
– 1996~2004, SEPA approved 9 batches of cities as “Ecological Development
Demonstration pilot areas”
– Indicator system – version 1, 2003
– Indicator system – version 2, 2008
– To 2008, 6 cities, 3 counties, and 2 districts were officially nominated as “eco-” areas
– 2010-2011 28 more “Ecological Development Demonstration pilot areas”
• Eco – district building by local governments
– Beijing (Mengtougou), Tianjin(Binghaixinqu), Tangshan(Nanhu), …Shanghai(Chongming
Island) …
• Eco-Civilization was called for by the 17th National Congress of CC Party
(2007, 2008-)
Eco - demonstration program under MoEP
Objectives:
Sustainableand ecological
• Based on the principles of sustainable development
development
is of economy and
economy, to promote regional harmonic
development
society with environmental protection,emphasized
to establish appropriate cyclic
system for the development of economy, society and integrated natural
system, to ensure adequate utilization of natural resource and
improvement of ecological environment, while economic and social
development meet the demand by the people.
Eco-Province
Eco-Cities
Eco-Counties
Eco-Districts
Eco-Towns/Villages
Top down
promotion / Regional development / Bottom Up approach
Nomination procedure for eco-city/county/district
•
Step1: Apply to MoEP for an eco - demonstration unit
– To 2008, after the first screening, 389 out of 528 cities/counties/districts were
accepted as pilot/experimenting units
•
Step2: Conduct an ecocity plan, an outline
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•
Step3: Implement the ecocity plan
–
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–
•
Set up ecocity objectives
Survey on current situation
Comprehensive analysis on existing master plan and sectoral plans
Analysis and adjustment
Recommendations, with proposals for construction projects
Establishing administrative leading group
Assign tasks
Highlight projects (e.g., eco-community, eco-industrial park…)
All-round promotion, public participation
Legal actions
Step4: Official nomination
– Monitoring and self-evaluation
– Applying for reviewing from MoEP, from province to MoEP
– Nomination by MoEP as state-level Eco-district/county/city
•
Step5: Maintenance and management
– Management office
– Coordination timely among governmental departments
– Annual reports
The 6 cities, 3 counties and 2
urban districts, officially
nominated by MoEP as ecoObservation:
the 2008
location of the
areas, Aug
nominates eco-city/county/district
and the provinces aiming to ecoMiyun & Yanqing Counties of Beijing
development …
Rongcheng City
Jiangyin City
4 cities: Zhangjiagang, Changshu, Kunshan, and Taicang
under Suzhou
City
County
Urban
District
Zhangjiagang
Anji
(Zhejiang)
Minghang
(Shanghai)
Changshu
Miyun
(Beijing)
Yantian
(Shenzhen)
Kunshan
Yanqing
(Beijing)
Anji County of Zhejiang
Minghang District of Shanghai
Yantian District of Shenzhen
Taicang
Jiangyin
Rongcheng
Provinces for EBD
The 2003 evaluation 28 indices for ecocity
Per capita GDP
Per capita financial
income
Peasants income per
person
Urban citizen income
per person
Percentage of third
industry
Forest coverage
Proportion of
protected area
Drinking water
Sewage treatment
Industrial
wastewater reuse
Clean production
enterprises rate,
ISO14000
Urbanization level
Gas utilization rate
Noise level
Rate of centralized
heating
Engel coefficient
Air quality (S,N)
Solid waste Disposal
Industrial waste
reuse rate
Water quality: urban
& coastal
Urban green area per
capita
SO2, COD emission
Envir. Quality of
tourism areas
Degraded land
rehabilitation rate
Energy consump. per
unit GDP
Water consump. per
unit GDP
Urban lifeline system
Gini coefficient
Higher edu. rate
Envir. Edu. rate
Public satisfaction
rate to environment
Economic indices
Env & Resc. indices
Social indices
The 2008 evaluation 19 indices for ecocity
Rural per capita
income
Forest coverage
Drinking water
quality
Urbanization level
Percentage share
of third industry
Proportion of
protected area
Ratio of urban
sewage treatment
Coverage of
centralized heatsupply
Public satisfaction
rate to
environment
Energy
consumption per
unit GDP
Air quality
Noise level
Corporation qualified
in CPA
Water quality
Disposal rate of
Solid waste
Fresh water
consumption per
capita IAV
COD & SO2 emission
intensity
Urban green area
per capita
Investment ratio
for environment
CPA: cleaner production audit
IAV: industrial added value
Economic indices
Env & Resc. indices
Social indices
Ecocity planning procedure
Set up
office
Setting up
objectives
Master Plan
Management
is weak
Operational
Maintenance/
Monitoring
Existing Plan
Analysis
Sectoral Plans
Landuse
Industry
Energy
Transportation
Environmental
….
Implementation
Coordination
among sectors
Ecocity
Planning
Monitoring
Surveying
Legal action
publicize
Ecocity
Plan
Objectives/principles
Adjustment to existing plans
Constructional projects
Monitoring program
Eco-city management
• Approve the eco-plan and go through a legal procedure
• Establish an office to coordinate various sectors, functions:
– Under the municipal government or local EPB
– Edit and publish eco-development news bulletins
– Coordinate monitoring and feedbacks
– Timely meetings
– Report progresses to the municipal government and to the public
• Implement policies/measures/projects by corresponding departments, e.g.
“cell projects”
• Annual assessment and report to MoEP
• Problems:
– Local EPB or the coordinating office does not have the authority…
– Often lack of long-term functioning of the office
– If other activities seem more important …
EcoCity program is continuing..
14 were announced in Oct 2010;
14 were announced in April
2011.
Miyun & Yanqing Counties of Beijing
Rongcheng City
Jiangyin City
4 cities: Zhangjiagang, Changshu, Kunshan, and Taicang
under Suzhou
Anji County of Zhejiang
Minghang District of Shanghai
Yantian District of Shenzhen
Eco - district building by
local governments
Example eco-district building projects
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Beijing: Changxindian长辛店,Mentougou门头沟
Shanghai: Chongming Island 崇明岛,
Tianjin: Sino-Singapore Tianjin 天津滨海新区
Chongqing: in cooperation with UK
Hebei: Caofeidian曹妃甸, Wanzhuang万庄, Tangshan Nanhu唐山南湖, Shijiazhuang 石家庄,
Zhangjiakou张家口
Zhejiang: Hangzhou Baimahu杭州白马湖, Hushan虎山, Hongtang宁波洪塘
Yunnan: Kunming 昆明世博园, Yuxi玉溪
Shandong: Linyi临沂, Qingdao 青岛, Qixi栖霞, Junan莒南, Dongying东营, Zibo 淄博, Yantai烟台, Laiyang
莱阳, Qingzhou青州
Heilongjiang: Shuangyashan双鸭山, Harbin 哈尔滨, Daqing大庆
Jilin: Changchun 长春
Liaoning: Shenyang 沈阳, Fushun 抚顺
Sichuan: Zigong 自贡, Guang’an广安, Chengdu 成都
Jiangsu: Changshu常熟, Lianyungang连云港, Yangzhou 杨州, West TaihuLake 西太湖, Siyang泗阳
Guangdong: Shenzhen 深圳, Foshan佛山, Huizhou 惠州
Hubei: Xianning咸宁, Ezhou鄂州梁子湖南山 VTT involved
Henan: Zhengzhou 郑州, Yongcheng永城, Suiping遂平
Jiangxi: Nanchang 南昌, Gongqingcheng共青城, Yongfeng永丰
Hunan: Huaihua_ , Changsha长沙岳麓
Anhui: Hefei 合肥
Fujian: Fuzhou 福州, Changle长乐
According to media:
Guizhou: Guiyang 贵阳
Xinjiang: Changji昌吉, Habahe哈巴河
In 22 megacities/provinces, more
than 50 projects …as to 2008
Tangshan: Nan Hu
Hebei: Wan Zhuang
Shanghai case: Chongming EcoIsland Development
Chongming Island is part of Shanghai
The 3 islands, Chongming,
Changxing, and Hengsha
This is Dongtan
• Chongming eco-island
development is an
important part of Shanghai
sustainable development
strategy
Tunnel/bridge
• EXPO concept is to be
implemented in
Chongming
• Challenge: the impact of
the completion of cross
Yangtze tunnel/bridge
Events and progresses
•
•
•
•
•
2001, State Council approved “Shanghai City Development Master Plan (19992020)” which put forth Chongming eco-island development;
2005, Shanghai approved “Chongming Three-Island Development Master Plan
(2005-2020)” which design Chongming as a Comprehensive Eco-Island;
Jan 2010, Shanghai Municipal Government promulgated “Outline of Chongming
Eco-Island Development (2010-2020)”
Mar 2010, MoST approved Chongming as a national experimenting county for
sustainable development (In 2009, MoST initiated key projects for low carbon
development in Chongming and key technologies application and demonstration;
also other important technical projects)
July 2010, Shanghai Chongming Eco-Island International Forum
– International cooperation: UNEP, Hawaii State of US, Japan Association on
Environmental Art and Culture
– To build 5 demonstration zones: low carbon consumption, low carbon industry garden,
low carbon agricultural garden, natural carbon increasing, and low carbon ecological
tourism etc.
Chongming Global Level Eco-Island Planning
Chongming:
comprehensive eco-island
Changxing:
marine equip-island
Hengsha:
eco-leisure island
Chongming Eco-Island Development Outline (2010-2020),
Shanghai Municipal Development and Reform
Commission, Jan 20, 2010
Strategy:
• Combination of national strategy, Shanghai responsibility and Chongming
Island desire.
• Low carbon, ecological and modernized development
• Protect the Yangtze River mouth environment and ecology
• Focus:
– Promote harmonic development of resource, environment, industry,
infrastructure, and social service etc.
– Perfect functional allocation of the island
– Establish eco-island assessment indicator system
– Emphasize sustainability of natural resource, renewable energy, circular
economy; improve water and air quality, noise level, solid waste management;
promote energy saving and pollutant emission reduction; optimize industrial
structure; note social service and infrastructure; enhance public participation in
governance etc.
Chongming eco-island assessment main indicators
(2010)
No
Index
Unit
2020
1
Construction land use
%
13.1
2
Number of water bird species (≥ 1% of that in the
world)
-
≥10
3
Forestry coverage
%
28
4
Green field area per capita
m2
15
5
Eco-protection land area
%
83.1
6
Natural wetland
%
43
7
Domestic waste reuse
%
80
8
Livestock soil utilization
%
>95
9
Agricultural straw utilization
%
>95
10
Capacity of renewable power generation
104 kW
20~30
11
Energy consumption per unit GDP
ton coal /104RMB
0.6
Chongming eco-island assessment main indicators
(2010)
No
Index
Unit
2020
12
Core river water quality attains Category III standard
%
95
13
Centralized treatment of municipal wastewater
%
90
14
Days per year of air quality API attains excellent
day
>145
15
Attainment of regional ambient noise
%
100
16
Weight of environmental part in achievement evaluation
%
25
17
Public satisfaction on environment
%
>95
18
Harmless authentication of major agricultural products (green
food, organic food)
%
90 (30)
19
Chemical fertilizer application strength
kg/ha
250
20
Nemerow index of agricultural soil
-
≤0.7
21
Portion in GDP of tertiary industry added value
%
>60
22
Financial output per capita for social development
104RMB
1.5
Part of Chongming:
Dongtan ecoplanning 2005/2007
 Area: total 215 ha, urban 73 ha,
ecological park 142 ha;
 Green area per capita: 27 m2
 Housing: low rise & high density – 3 to 8
storey / 1.45 average plot ratio / 75
dwelling per ha / 80,000 people
 Transport accessibility: 3 minutes
walking, 240 m
Calling for eco-civilization
Call for eco-civilization
• The need:
– Unhealthy development still happens;
– Unlawful/unreasonable activities;
– Change in behavior, life style …
• Launched in Oct. 2007 at the 17th National Congress of
the Chinese Communist Party, written in the report; It
represents an ethical, cultural, and institutional
enhancement on ecological development
• More recently, at the 18th NC of CCP, a special chapter,
Importance of eco-civilization
• A high sense of responsibility to ecological development and global
ecologic system
• Long term importance of China’s development, also of the world’s
ecological security
• Great significance to develop eco-civilization in China:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Huge population
Large territory
Glorious history
Profound culture
Unique language
Special institutional system (strong and highly efficient governance)
Distinctive society, and
Rapid economic development
Importance of eco-civilization
• Eco-Civilization refers to the culture and ethics with which
human society development in harmony with nature and
the consideration of future generations.
• Eco-civilization emphasizes human consciousness and
self-regulation, mutual dependence, promotion, and
symbiosis with nature, and harmony among human.
• Eco-civilization is the result of the profound rethinking on
the traditional industrial civilization, so that an important
progress of the ethics, approach and mode of human
development.
Eco-Civilization
• Eco-civilization concept was put forth in the report of the
17th National Congress; In the 18th, it is a separate chapter
in parallel with the developments of economy, politics,
culture, and society.
• Concept, objectives, 虽然十七大报告就提出了生态文明的
理念,但在十八大报告中把生态文明独立成篇,作为单独
的一个部分,和经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建
设并列,这是一个亮点。这个亮点就体现在,它完整、系
统阐述了未来五年我们生态文明建设的理念是什么、方针
是什么、途径是什么、具体的目标是什么。
• 十八大报告提出‘努力建设美丽中国’
Eco-civilization at the 18th National Congress of CCP
• Challenges of resource restriction, heavy environmental
pollution, and ecological deterioration; respect nature, follow
nature, protect nature; integrate eco-civilization with all
aspects of economic, politic, cultural, and social development;
to build a beautiful China for sustainable development.
• Insist in “resource saving and environment protection” as a
basic state policy, resource saving, protection, remediation;
green/circular/low carbon development, …
Measures to take:
•
Optimize spatial development setup (planning); for a harmonic development
among population/resource/environment and economy/society/ecology …
•
Promote resource saving; energy, water, and land; reduce their consuming rate;
raise efficiency; support low carbon industry and renewable energy, …
•
Enhance protection for natural eco-system and environment; …water, air, and
land, … reduce GHG emissions, climate change response …
•
Strengthen institutional development; economic/social development evaluation
system, indicator systems, … 加强生态文明制度建设。保护生态环境必须依靠
制度。要把资源消耗、环境损害、生态效益纳入经济社会发展评价体系,建
立体现生态文明要求的目标体系、考核办法、奖惩机制。建立国土空间开发
保护制度,完善最严格的耕地保护制度、水资源管理制度、环境保护制度。
深化资源性产品价格和税费改革,建立反映市场供求和资源稀缺程度、体现
生态价值和代际补偿的资源有偿使用制度和生态补偿制度。积极开展节能量、
碳排放权、排污权、水权交易试点。加强环境监管,健全生态环境保护责任
追究制度和环境损害赔偿制度。加强生态文明宣传教育,增强全民节约意识、
环保意识、生态意识,形成合理消费的社会风尚,营造爱护生态环境的良好
风气。
Summary and Discussion
The characteristics of eco-development in China:
– Regional development is emphasized, with sustainable development as
the objective;
– Not only the harmonic relationship between human society and nature,
but also the relationship with economic development;
– Large population, severe pollution, restricted resource, large gaps
between poor/rich, urban/rural, eastern/western etc. ;
– Rapid economic development and urbanization (dynamic) …
– Powerful governance, numerous people (and officers) are involved, so
that with great significance.
– Although the management of the ecocity demonstration program is by
MoEP and local EPBs, and the management is relatively weak, the
ecocity concept is integrated with many aspects of governmental daily
work. For example, the compulsory requirement of “energy saving and
(key pollutants) emission reduction”.
Problems:
– MoEP is a sectoral ministry. …
– Current ecocity planning team is mostly of environmental and/or ecological
profession …
– Difficulties in planning and implementation because of growing urban population,
existing severe pollution, and cross-boundary pollutant transport …
– Eco-city management is rather weak. In most cases, there is an office at local EPB
for coordination and annual assessment and report;
– For projects of local governments, input/output analysis is not provided;
– The sustainability of eco-cities themselves is not sufficiently discussed.
Conclusion:
– Due to imbalance development, ecocity in China should have local
characteristics;
– Nation-wide programs are specifically important in the sense of ESD
and SD practice;
– Ecocity concept needs to be developed for self-sustainability;
– Eco-demonstration and eco-civilization development has long
term significance both to China and the world.
The “Xiaokang” society
“Xiao Kang” in Chinese culture
• The term “Xiao Kang” firstly appeared in Chinese literature
some 500 years BC
• “Xiao” means small or moderate, “Kang” means working
hard and living comfort in comparison to poverty, but not
rich;
• “Xiaokang Society” refers to moderate development, or the
midway of development destination;
• “Xiaokang” is important because it is of Chinese
characteristics of development, and it implies sustainable
development (behavior and life expectation) based on
China’s situation.
Example: the early understanding of “Xiao Kang” in
countryside
1 mu =666.7
m2, or 1 m2 =
0.0015 mu.
Here
“kang” is
a kind of
bed in
northern
China,
made of
soil with
ducts
connected
to stove /
furnace
“2 mus of land and a cow; wife, kids and a warm bed(kang)”
“Xiao Kang” in modern China
•
Officially appeared when DENG Xiaoping was meeting the then Japan Premier Mr.
Ohira Masayoshi on Dec. 6, 1979. “The Four Modernizations that we are aiming
for are of Chinese sense. Our concept of modernization is not the same as that of
you people, but ‘Xiao Kang’ family. To the end of this century, even if China
would have obtained some achievements in modernization, the GDP per capita
would still be fairly low. To reach a level that is relatively high in developing
countries, say GDP per capita as USD 1000, a lot of efforts must be made. And it
is still backward comparing with the developed world. Therefore, I would rather
say, China then would still be in a status of ‘Xiao Kang’.” Deng re-stated “Xiao
Kang” in 1980, 1982, 1984 and 1986 … Since then, “Xiao Kang Society” has been
referred to as the development target of China.
•
The China of 2020 envisioned by China's Communist leaders was first introduced
to the world as a "well-off society" in a Party report in 2002 at the Party's 16th
National Congress and changed to a "moderately prosperous society" in an
annual government work report two years later.
Example: the
modern
understanding of
“Xiao Kang
Society”.
Observation:
• China is a special country. Its development cannot be
thought to follow the experience of developed countries;
• “Xiao Kang” society is now the development target of China;
• There now appear a number of indicator systems to monitor
the development of “Xiao Kang”;
• However, there are also grass route understanding, such as:
“tall buildings and public parks instead of houses and private
gardens, orbital transportation and two-wheels instead of
driving cars…”. This idea matches the concept of sustainable
development;
• It is also a feature in Chinese culture.
Conclusion
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Many difficulties and opportunities
Population control
Economy restructuring
Alternative and renewable energies
Low carbon development
Living standard
Ecological civilization
Sustainable development
“XiaoKang” Society at the 18th National Congress of CCP
•
•
•
•
•
•
Objectives
Healthy economic development: 转变经济发展方式取得重大进展,在发展平衡性、协调
性、可持续性明显增强的基础上,实现国内生产总值和城乡居民人均收入比二0一0年
翻一番。科技进步对经济增长的贡献率大幅上升,进入创新型国家行列。工业化基本
实现,信息化水平大幅提升,城镇化质量明显提高,农业现代化和社会主义新农村建
设成效显著,区域协调发展机制基本形成。对外开放水平进一步提高,国际竞争力明
显增强。
Democracy
——人民民主不断扩大。民主制度更加完善,民主形式更加丰富,人民
积极性、主动性、创造性进一步发挥。依法治国基本方略全面落实,法治政府基本建
成,司法公信力不断提高,人权得到切实尊重和保障。
Cultural 文化软实力显著增强。社会主义核心价值体系深入人心,公民文明素质和社会
文明程度明显提高。文化产品更加丰富,公共文化服务体系基本建成,文化产业成为
国民经济支柱性产业,中华文化走出去迈出更大步伐,社会主义文化强国建设基础更
加坚实。
Living standard: 人民生活水平全面提高。基本公共服务均等化总体实现,全民受教育程
度和创新人才培养水平明显提高,进入人才强国和人力资源强国行列,教育现代化基
本实现。就业更加充分。收入分配差距缩小,中等收入群体持续扩大,扶贫对象大幅
减少。社会保障全民覆盖,人人享有基本医疗卫生服务,住房保障体系基本形成,社
会和谐稳定。
Resource saving and environmental friendly 资源节约型、环境友好型社会建设取得重大
进展。主体功能区布局基本形成,资源循环利用体系初步建立。单位国内生产总值能
源消耗和二氧化碳排放大幅下降,主要污染物排放总量显著减少。森林覆盖率提高,
生态系统稳定性增强,人居环境明显改善。

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