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Lloyd’s Register Energy - Drilling
Safety Driven Performance 2013
Alan Turner
Systems & Controls Technical Specialist
October 2013
Integrating ModuSpec and WEST Engineering Services
to advance excellence in drilling safety, integrity and performance
Lloyd’s Register Energy - Drilling
Agenda
•
Introduction
•
Fiber Bragg Gratings Explained
•
Examples of Asset Integrity Monitoring in the Nuclear and
Wind Energy Sectors
•
Discussion of a Riser Tensioner Monitoring System Installed
on the Discovery Luanda
•
Discussion of an Instrumented BOP at the West Tech
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Introduction
•
•
Fiber Optic Sensors have been widely utilized in Structural
Health Monitoring (SHM) for more than 10 years now.
Main applications include:
• Civil Structures
• Trains
• Marine – LNG Ships, Composite Hulls
• Energy – Wind, Nuclear, Hydroelectric, Oil and Gas.
• Aerospace
• Geotechnical
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Fiber Bragg Gratings Explained
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Fiber Bragg Gratings Explained
A Fiber Bragg Grating is a periodic change of the refractive
index in the core region of an optical fiber.
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Fiber Bragg Gratings Explained
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Fiber Bragg Gratings Explained
Each grating sensor is at a different fiber location and allocated a separate
central wavelength and spectral operating window band.
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Advantages of Fiber Bragg Gratings
•
Immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electrical discharge (lightning).
•
Passive operation, intrinsically safe.
•
Water and corrosion resistant.
•
Excellent resolution and range.
•
Rugged, small size and light weight.
•
Small size allows for insitu measurements.
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Multiple sensors per channel.
•
Absolute measurement.
•
Low signal loss, sensors may be interrogated for many kilometers.
•
Signal conditioning equipment has a much smaller foot print.
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Micron Optic Sensor Types
os3110 Metallic Weldable Strain
Gage
os3200 Non-Metallic Flexible Strain
Gage
os4100 Temperature
Compensation Gage
os4200 Single Ended Calibrated
Temperature Gage
os4310 Double Ended Calibrated
Temperature Gage
os3155 Metallic Weldable Strain Gage
os4350 Double Ended Calibrated
Temperature Gage
os1100 Single FBG in polyimide
coated fiber
os7100 Accelerometer
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Micron Optic Interrogators and Controller
•
4 channels with a spectral width of 1510 to 1590 nm. Available from 1410 to 1590 nm
•
1 hz to 2 khz scanning frequency
•
Wavelength repeatability 1 [email protected], 0.05 pm with 1,000 averages
•
Power consumption 25 watts, 50 watts max
•
Operating temperature 0 to 50 degrees C
•
Available from 1 to 16 channels
•
1.4 GHz Pentium, 512 MB DDR, a 32 GB Solid State HD and Windows XP operating system
•
Peripheral interfaces include USB, Ethernet, RS232/422/485 and a user configurable digital I/O
•
Provides power management through wake-on-LAN and wake-on-clock functions. Small foot print,
mounts directly on the interrogator
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Examples of Asset Integrity Monitoring
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Examples of Asset Integrity Monitoring
Pipeline Monitoring Williams North West Pipeline
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Examples of Asset Integrity Monitoring
Gold Star Bridge
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Examples of Asset Integrity Monitoring
3.5 MW Clipper Liberty Wind Turbine
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Installation of Robert E Ginna Nuclear Plant
NEMA 4 Enclosure
with splice tray.
Instrumented Tendon
Os3600 surface mount concrete
strain gage and instrumented
rebar, located on containment
structure just below roof line
Roof penetration to
instrumentation rack
located in room below
the roof.
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Installation of Robert E Ginna Nuclear Plant
Rebar and Concrete Strain Monitoring
•
A fiber optic strain gage was applied to a currently
exposed hoop direction rebar.
•
A fiber optic concrete strain gage was installed 6”
(15 cm) below the rebar excavation in the hoop
direction.
•
These gages are monitored in the same DAS as
the tendon monitoring system
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Installation at Robert E Ginna Nuclear Plant
Shim and tendon with sensors installed
for a total of 20 instrumented tendons.
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Installation of Robert E Ginna Nuclear Plant
Rebar Strain
Concrete Strain
Containment
Press
Rebar and Concrete Monitoring Pre/During/Post
Integrated Leak Rate Test
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Discussion of A Riser Tensioner Monitoring System
Installed on the Discovery Luanda
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Overview
•
Meet API 16Q requirements for a more accurate determination of
the reduction factor.
•
Need to measure full system load, current system measurements
based on hydraulic pressure.
•
Long term
•
Reliable
•
Intrinsically safe operation.
•
Quick implementation and ease of installation.
•
Provides for remote monitoring and maintenance capability.
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Top View of Tensioner Layout Under
Drill Floor
1 2
3
66 5 4
Functional Description of The Riser Tensioners
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Tensioners of the DSL
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Sensor layout for two tensioners
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Protection wrapping of sensor
locations for transportation to the
DSL.
Surface preparations and sensor
installation.
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• Sensor locations after
tensioner installation on
the DSL.
• Each tensioner has 3
os3155s 120 degrees
apart in the axial
direction.
• Each tensioner has 1
os3200 in the hoop
direction to measure
pressure.
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Equipment Rack
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•
Acquisition rate is 10 Hz
•
X Axis represents approximately 2.41 minutes of data
•
Y Axis = Strain
•
Waveforms confirm a swell period of ~ 12.5 seconds correlating to
ships weather
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Conclusion/Discussion
•
Sensors were installed in the Bosch Rexroth facility in Uden
Netherlands in September 2012.
•
System was commissioned in May 2013.
•
Sensors were damaged during transport and installation.
•
Sensor protection not robust enough.
•
Despite damage, enough survived to acquire loads on each
tensioner.
•
Redundancy in built-in system installation allows for sensor
recovery.
•
Real time calculations and display are within 5% of modeled loads.
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Discussion of an Instrumented BOP at West Tech
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Overview
•
LRDIS has instrumented a BOP on site.
•
We are able to detect the pressure inside the BOP bonnet from a hoop oriented strain
sensor.
•
Also detect dimensional changes in the bonnet due from an axial mounted strain
sensor.
•
Allows us to infer correctly, pressure and operation –
•
The position of the RAMS,
•
Fluid flow
•
Solenoid operation
•
Regulator operation
•
Choke and Kill Lines
•
Fail-safe Valves
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Pre-charge on Subsea Accumulators
•
Etc.
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BOP Pipe Ram Located at West Tech
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Gage Locations
Hoop Gage
Pressure
Axial Gage
Pressure
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Software Has Been Developed to Replay Data for
BOP Operational Demonstration
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Hoop gage responds
During cylinder
pressurization.
Axial gage responds
after rams engage.
• Acquisition rate is 100 Hz
• X Axis = Time
• Y Axis = Strain
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Expanded plot reveals a
signature related to a clicking
sound, from the bonnet, heard
before rams engaged. More
testing and analysis to determine
source of signal response. This
response appears to respond to
the MPLs.
• Acquisition rate is 1000 Hz
• Waveforms could confirm bad bearing, MLPs, etc.?
• Possible to count the threads in the piston rod?
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Ideal System
•
Independent of the OEM equipment
•
Never needs calibration
•
Doesn’t require local power
•
Today subsea engineers rely on:
•
•
Gallon count
•
Pressure feedback
•
Solenoid diagnostics
Tells us strain, temperature, and pressure
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Conclusion/Discussion
•
Sensors were installed in the West Tech facility on a Hydril Pipe
Ram.
•
Testing revealed pressure and mechanical elongation of the
bonnet.
•
Operational information of the BOP was realized.
•
Software has been developed to replay data acquired during
operation to demonstrate operation of the BOP.
•
More testing needed to baseline the BOP.
•
This includes installing more sensors on valves, solenoids,
accumulators and hydraulic lines.
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Conclusion/Discussion
•
Future integration of the monitoring systems, with asset
management systems currently deployed or in development.
These are:
•
LRED BOP RiskWatcher and RiskSpectrum software
for real time BOP risk assessment.
•
LRED RIGSIGHT software for asset integrity monitoring
and Integrated Operations Management (IOM).
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Acknowledgments
•
Williams (End customer)
•
•
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Micron Optics, Inc
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Tel: 404-325-0005, email: [email protected], web: www.micronoptics.com
Jeff Marr Tel (612) 624-4427, email: [email protected]
Jonathan White Tel (505) 284-5400, email: [email protected]
Transocean
•
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Tel: 800-837-0864, email: [email protected], web: www.durhamgeo.com
Sandia National Laboratories
•
•
•
University Of Minnesota
•
•
Durham Geo Slope Indicator (DGSI)
Aaron Barr Tel (713-232-7959), email: [email protected]
WEST Drilling Equipment Center
•
(T) 281 375 5515

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