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敬拜
Remembering . . .
The Words of Worship
The Nature of Worship
不停的敬拜
聚集敬拜
It’s unique when compared to one’s personal worship
because . . .
與一個人的敬拜比較是獨特的,因為…
敬拜
Remembering . . .
Biblical Patterns of Worship
敬拜
Remembering . . .
Broader Biblical Concepts that
Help Shape Worship
廣泛的聖經概念幫助規劃敬拜
敬拜
A History of Worship
敬拜的歷史
在會幕和聖殿中敬拜
 15th century BC
主前15世紀
 Ritual as proclamation
作宣告的儀式
 God’s message in sight, sound,
and symbol
用看、聽和象徵中看上帝的信息
 Theology and psychology
神學和心理學
在會幕/聖殿中敬拜
 Proclaimed the coming
Christ in symbols
宣告基督來臨的象徵
Sabbath 安息日
Sacrifices 獻祭
Festivals 節日
Priesthood 祭司
 The shadow of things to
come
是將要發生的事的影兒
會堂中敬拜
 5th century BC
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主前5世紀
A ritual for the Word
聖道的儀式
Lessons from the Law and the
Prophets
律法和先知的教導
Interludes from the Psalms
插入詩篇
They testify about me
它們為我作見證
會堂的程序
 Thanksgivings/Blessings, and the SchMA (‫ שְׁ ַ֖מע‬Deut
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6:4)
感恩/祝福, 和SchMA (聽,申6:4)
Prayers 禱告
Temple Psalms 聖殿詩篇
Lesson from the Law 律法的教導
Temple Psalms 聖殿詩篇
Lesson from the Prophets 先知的教導
Commentary 解經
Benediction or Closing Prayer 默禱或結束禱告
耶路撒冷的敬拜
 After Pentecost
聖靈降臨期後
 Worship order 敬拜程序
The believers devoted
themselves to the apostles’
teaching, and to the
fellowship, and to the
breaking of bread and to
prayer.
都恆心遵守使徒的教訓,彼此交
接,擘餅,祈禱。
Acts 徒 2:42
在聖殿庭院和會堂
They demonstrated how
Jesus fulfilled what was
written in the law, the
prophets, and the psalms
by his words and works.
他們說明耶穌如何成就在
律法書、先知書和詩篇所
記有關他的話語及工作。
They witnessed to Christ in
Old Testament Word.
他們見證舊約記載的基督
基督徒在會堂的敬拜
 Greeting
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問安
Prayer
禱告
Lesson from the Law of Moses
摩西律法的教導
Psalms 詩篇
Lesson from the Prophets
先知的教導
Psalms 詩篇
Commentary: Jesus fulfilled the
Old Testament Word
解經: 耶穌成就舊約的話語
歷史教導
 Think about the history of worship that we have
discussed so far.
思考我們所學習的敬拜歷史
 What sorts of things did believers who worshipped
during the Old Testament period focus on?
在舊約時期的信徒他們敬拜的焦點是什麼?
 What sorts of things did early Christians focus on in
their worship?
早期基督徒他們的敬拜焦點是什麼?
歷史教導
 Think about the history of worship that we have
discussed so far.
思考我們所學習的敬拜歷史
 Explain the reason for these emphases in the worship
lives of believers long ago.
解釋之前這些信徒將敬拜聚焦在這些重點的原因
使徒和宣道者的著作
 The biographies of Jesus by Matthew, Mark, and Luke (synoptic
Gospels)
由馬太、馬可和路德加所記載的耶穌生平 (符類福音)
 The overview of Jesus’ life by John
由約翰所寫的耶穌生平概覽
 The letters to the churches from Paul, Peter, James, John, and by
someone who wrote to Hebrew Christians
由保羅、彼得、雅各、約翰寫給教會
的信, 以及寫給希伯來基督徒的信
 The Revelation of Jesus to John
約翰有關耶穌的啟示錄
 2nd century AD
2世紀
 Ritual for the Word and the Sacrament
聖道和聖禮的儀或
 Church year
教會年
 The words and works of Jesus
耶穌的話語和工作
彌撒正典
 9th century
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9世紀
Sacrament as sacrifice
聖禮成為祭物
The mass and transubstantiation
彌撒和聖體變質說
Tyranny of the clergy
教職人員的專制
Servitude of the laity
俗人的束縛
路德的禮儀改革
 16th century
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16世紀
Reaffirmation of the Christian Liturgy
基督教禮儀的再確認
Formula Missae彌撒規則
Deutsche Messe德文彌撤
Lutheran hymnody 路德讚美詩
The work of the people 工作
路德宗敬虔主義
 18th century
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18世紀
Reaction to excesses during the age of Orthodoxy
對東正教時期對過度的回應
The feelings of faith instead of faith’s focus
信心的感受而不是焦點於信心
Abandons the liturgy
丟棄禮儀
Loss of Lutheran confessionalism
失去路德宗認信主義
The Lutheran Problem
路德宗的問題
 Pastors were too “doctrinal” and
were not disciplining members
牧師太 “教義” 和不是紀律會友
 People were not living a
Christian life
人沒有基督徒的生活
 The gospel was not having an
effect on people
福音沒有影響到人
 The Lutheran Liturgy and its
Church Year were not changing
people‘s lives
路德宗的禮儀和教會年沒有改變
人的生命
The Pietists’ Solution
敬虔主義者的解決方法
 Abolish a trained clergy; stress
lay leadership
廢除已訓練的教職人員; 著重平
信徒領袖
 Talk more about what the
Christian life is
更常提及基督徒生活
 Preach the law more often than
the gospel
宣講律法多於福音
 Abolish the Liturgy and the
Church Year
廢除禮儀和教會年
歷史教導
 Select one of the “Lutheran Problem/Pietists’
Solution” pairs. Explain what was wrong with the
Pietists’ solution. Then describe the proper
response to the Lutheran problem.
選擇一組 “路德宗問題/敬虔主義者的解決方法” 的
配對。解釋敬虔主義者的解決方法有何錯誤。然
後試描述一個對路德宗問題適當的回應。
The Lutheran Problem
The Pietists’ Solution
路德宗的問題
敬虔主義者的解決方法
 People came to Holy
Communion without repentance
人在沒有悔改的情況下領聖餐
 People thought they were
Christians simply because they
had been baptized
認為自己是基督徒, 因為已經受
洗
 Doctrinal controversies
separated Christians
教義的爭議分烈基督徒
 Have Holy Communion less
often and stress repentance
when you do have it
較少舉行聖餐禮, 和當要行聖餐
時, 強調悔改
 Place a strong emphasis on
personal emotion so that people
can feel as though they are saved
強調個人的情緒, 要人感覺到自
己已得救
 Avoid an emphasis on doctrine
避免強調教義
歷史教導
 Select one of the “Lutheran Problem/Pietists’
Solution” pairs. Explain what was wrong with the
Pietists’ solution. Then describe the proper
response to the Lutheran problem.
選擇一組 “路德宗問題/敬虔主義者的解決方法” 的
配對。解釋敬虔主義者的解決方法有何錯誤。然
後試描述一個對路德宗問題適當的回應。
美國的宗教復興運動
 19th century
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19世界
Arminian and Pietistic theology
阿米紐主義和敬虔主義的神學
Public worship to convince and assure the human will
公開的敬拜, 使確信和保證人的意願
Influence on American Lutheranism
影響美國的路德宗
The perfect religion for America: self-determination
美國的完美宗教 : 自己決定
認信主義的醒悟
 19th century Germany
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19世紀德國
Return to the teachings of Luther
回到路德的教導
C.F.W. Walther and the LCMS
華特和密蘇里路德會
Liturgical worship and the Lutheran chorale
敬拜儀式和路德宗詩歌
The Liturgy in WELS: 1941 – TLH
威斯康辛州路德會的禮儀
C.F.W. Walther
禮儀運動
 20th century
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20世紀
Return to the Fathers
回歸到教父
Anglican influences at Cambridge and Oxford
聖公會在劍橋和牛津的影響
Roman Catholic influences through the Second Vatican Council
羅馬天主教藉第二次梵蒂岡大會影響
Lutheran adaptation
路德宗改編
敬拜的爭戰
 21st century
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21世紀
Traditional and contemporary worship forms in conflict
傳統和當代敬拜形式的衝突
The Liturgy: to be or not to be?
禮儀: 是或不是?
Reaction against Lutheran formalism or adaptation of
Evangelical successes?
對路德宗形式主義的回應或適應傳道的成功?
At issue: the role of the means of grace in conversion and
nurture
事件: 施恩具在回轉和教養的角色
歷史教導
 We have looked at the history of worship over the
centuries. Now consider your own experiences of
and thoughts about worship. How is
understanding the history of worship helpful for
you today?
我們已經回顧了數個世紀的敬拜歷史。現在思想
你自己對敬拜的經驗與想法。理解敬拜的歷史如
何幫助你?
不同的敬拜慣例
Founded on Theology
基於神學
在香港的宗教
 90% practice a mix of local religions, Buddhism and Taoism, with a
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common background of Confucian theory
90%是混合式的本地宗教, 佛教和道教, 以及一些儒學的理論
The Christian community 基督教社區
 240,000 Roman Catholics (plus over 100,000 Filipino Catholics)
240,000 羅馬天主教徒( 加100,000 菲律賓人天主教徒)
 320,000 Protestants 新教徒
320,000 新教徒
Muslims 回教徒(90,000)
Mormons 摩門教教徒(22,000)
Jehovah’s Witnesses 耶和華見證人(5,000)
Jews 猶太人(4,000)
2008 Religious Freedom Report,
U.S. Department of State
東正教
 GOAL: to raise people to the level of the divine
目的: 提升人神性的水平
 Mysticism 神秘主義
 Introspection, contemplation, and solitude are
prerequisites for development of an inner religious
experience; direct experience with God
內省, 沉思和獨處, 是發展內在宗教體驗的先決條件; 直
接與上帝的經驗
 Total depravity not a reality for humans by nature.
完全敗壞不是人的本性的現實
 Human will to do what is God-pleasing is impaired, not
destroyed; retain free will in spiritual matters
人去做蒙上帝喜悅的事的意旨受損, 不是毀壞了, 在屬靈
的層面上保留屬靈的自由意志
 Synergism 神人合作說
建基於神學
 What different things would you expect to find in
an Orthodox worship service?
你期待在東正教的敬拜中會發現哪些不同的事?
 GOAL: to effect the sacrifice of the mass
目標: 影響撒的祭物
 Authority of Scripture
聖經的權威
 How are our sins forgiven
我們的罪如何得赦
 Sacraments—ex opere operato
聖禮
 Praying to Mary and saints
向馬利亞及聖人禱告
Holy Redeemer Catholic Church, Tuen Mun
建基於神學
 What different things would you expect to find in a
Roman Catholic worship service?
期待在羅馬天主教的敬拜中會發現哪些不同的事?
 Some are very similar to Roman Catholics in belief
與羅馬天主教非常相似
 Reformed sacramentally
改革了聖禮
 Apostolic succession
使徒承傳
St. Mary’s Anglican Church
St. John’s Cathedral
 GOAL: to instruct in moral living
目標: 指導道德的生活
 Historically strict Calvinists
歷史上是嚴格的加爾文派
 Non-sacramental
不相信聖禮有赦罪的作用
Cumberland Presbyterian Church/Yao Dao Secondary School
 Congregational (Calvinist, but then more Arminian;
Unitarian?) & Presbyterian
 公理會派(加爾文派,但當時有更多的阿米紐派;神體一
位論派?)和長老會派
in Sheung Wan
建基於神學
 What different things would you expect to find in a
Calvinist worship service?
你期待在加爾文派的敬拜中會發現哪些不同的事?
 Arminian – Free will
阿米紐- 自由意志
 GOAL: to arouse a
decision for Christ
(Arminian/Revivalism)
目標: 引起為基督作決
定
(阿米紐/復興主義)
Methodist Church, Wanchai
 Decision theology決定神學
 Non-sacramental不相信聖禮有赦罪作用
 Some “once saved, always saved”有些人 “一次得救, 永
遠得救”
建基於神學
 What different things would you expect to find in
an Arminian worship service?
你期待在阿米紐派的敬拜中會發現哪些不同的事?
 GOAL: The objective melds Calvinism and Revivalism;
they seek a decision but with other means than
emotion (apologetics and success theology among
them) and also instruct in moral living as that which
leads to success in life
 目的: 目的是螎合加爾文主義和復興主義,他們尋求一
個決定是用其他方法多過感情上,(他們當中有護教學
和成功神學)也指示一個道德的生活,乃是導向生命的
成功
 Decision theology決定神學
 Spirit-baptism 靈的洗禮
 Non-sacramental
非聖禮派
First Assembly of God Church – Mong Kok
 GOAL: To proclaim the gospel to summarize and
solidify truth
目標: 宣講福音來總結及堅固真理
建基於神學
 Agree or Disagree and Explain. There is only one
right way to worship.
這只有一種正確的敬拜方法。同意與否? 試解釋你
的看法
敬拜
A History of Worship

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