The Rise of Absolutism in Europe, 1500-1800

Report
EQ
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WHAT DOES THE WORD ABSOLUTE
MEAN?
WHERE DOES THE POWER TO RULE
COME FROM?
WHY IS THAT IMPORTANT?
WHAT IS THE WORST THAT A KING
CAN DO TO A PERSON? THE POPE?
The Rise of Absolutism in
Europe, 1500-1800
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Absolutism:
 The exercise of complete and
unrestricted power of
government
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Absolute Monarch –
 a king or queen who has unlimited
power and seeks to control all
aspects of society, economically,
socially and politically.
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Divine Right –
 The idea that the power to rule
comes from God. Monarchs are
answerable only to God. The
people cannot question the will of
the monarch.
Causes of Absolutism
1.
2.
3.
4.
Growth in trade
Feudalism declined
Rise of cities
Growth of national
kingdoms
5. Growth of middle class
6. Decline in Church power
7. Rise of colonial holdings
Effects of Absolutism
1. Power of nobles
reduced
2. Individual rights
limited
3. Abuse of power &
tyranny
4. A desire of the
people to be free!!
5. The Enlightenment
Regroup
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What were the years during which
absolutism was at its height?
What “ism” had to decline in order for
absolutism to rise?
How could a king protect a city?
Upon which group would taxes be
levied?
Examples of Absolute
Monarchs
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Philip II of Spain
Louis XIV of France
Peter the Great of Russia
Frederick the Great of Prussia
Maria Theresa of Austria
Charles I of England
Philip II of Spain
1527-1598
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In 1556 Philip II becomes king of
Spain, the wealthiest, most
powerful nation in Europe
Much wealth comes from American
colonies
339,000 lbs of gold in 1660
Philip II of Spain
1527-1598
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Created 50,000 man army
Philip defended Roman Catholicism
against Protestantism & Islam
Joined crusade against Ottomans in
1571
Philip II of Spain
1527-1598
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Attacked Protestant England under
Elizabeth I 1588 & lost
Loss severely weakened Spain
Spanish riches help stimulate a
golden age in the arts
Golden Age of Spanish Art
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16th & 17 century art
El Greco & Velazquez
Used warm, bright colors
Focused on religious themes & on
monarchy
Cervantes wrote Don Quixote
Philip II of Spain
The Decline of the Spanish Empire
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Such a thing as “too much money”
Increase in population led to increase
in demand for food & goods
Prices necessarily go up
Too much silver in circulation made
value drop
The Decline of the Spanish
Empire
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Inflation:
Value of money declines (too much of
an item lowers the value)
Prices of goods & services increases
The Decline of the Spanish
Empire
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To offset inflation taxes should be
raised
The less silver in circulation, the more
the value will rise
Spanish nobles did not pay taxes
Poor never could gain wealth
The Decline of the Spanish
Empire
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Without gaining wealth, the poor stay
poor
With just rich & poor, & no middle
class, there will be few businesses &
few chances to save the economy
Because of high prices, Spaniards
bought their goods abroad
The Decline of the Spanish
Empire
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Spanish money was flowing into
the hands of Spain’s enemies
Philip also spent too much trying to
control the Protestant Netherlands
Regroup
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What was one of the problems that led
to the decline of the Spanish Empire?
What is inflation?
What was one of the great
achievements of the Spanish Empire?
Louis XIV of France
The Thirty Years’ War
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Religious tension in Europe led to
creation of Protestant Union &
Catholic League in 1608-09
Spark of war came in 1618
Ferdinand of Austria tried to crush
Protestants in Bohemia
The Thirty Years’ War
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Protestants revolted & war began
Two parts or phases to war
Hapsburg Triumphs & Hapsburg
Defeats
The Thirty Years’ War
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Hapsburg Triumphs
1618 – 1630
Catholic Austrians & Spaniards crushed
all
Catholic army allowed to abuse
Germany as payment
The Thirty Years’ War
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Hapsburg Defeats
1630 - 1648
Protestant Swedes joined war in
1630 & tide started to turn
Catholic France joined on side of
Protestants!!
The Thirty Years’ War
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France feared Hapsburgs more
than Protestants
French Catholics sent to fight
Austrian & Spanish Catholics
Wanted a strong France above all
The Thirty Years’ War
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Results:
Germany wrecked after war
Population down
Economy destroyed
Thirty Years’ War
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Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Catholic Hapsburg states weakened
France gained German territory
New method of figuring out peace:
everyone sits down to negotiate (less
resentment)
Regroup
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What was the central issue of the Thirty
Years’ War?
Where was the war fought primarily?
Why would the Catholic Cardinal
Richelieu want to join with the
Protestants in the war against Catholic
Austria?
Central Vs. Western Europe
Frederick the Great
1712-86
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Known as “Great” because of the success
of his reforms
Reformed agriculture (brought in crop
rotation, the iron plough and crop
rotation) and justice system (court of
appeals & lessened bribing of judges)
Frederick the Great
1712-86
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Tolerated almost all religions
Personally directed the economy for the
benefit of the army
Maintained large army through heavy
taxes on the citizens
Peasant education only for reading &
writing– did not want them to know
they were in a bad position
Frederick the Great
Maria Theresa of Austria
(r.1740-80)
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Fought War of Austrian Succession
against Prussia
Increased taxes on nobility—why?
Strengthened central gov’t at expense
of the local gov’ts
Taxed church heavily and confiscated
church lands. Threw Jesuits out of
Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
(r.1740-80)
Peter The Great of Russia
(r. 1672-1725)

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