FBA AND PSBP PLANS

Report
Jennifer Briggs-Russell, LMSW, ASD/Behavior Consultant
Stacie Hopkins-Schrumpf, LMSW, Behavior Consultant
Muskegon Area Intermediate School District
August 12, 2014


Summer 2013 – MAISD Consultants research &
develop new FBA & PBSP Forms
Fall 2013
 present new forms to local directors
 establish pilot group, prior to “forms training”
 attend Illinois PBIS Conference, attend breakout with
Horner, Loman et. al.
 present changes to training component
to local directors

Scheduled Four, ½ Day Training Series

Functionality

Reliance on checkboxes

Systematic process to tie the FBA to the PBSP

Place for a summary (day to day operations)

Action plan and clear assignment of roles &
responsibilities

Place to document data review meetings,
changes and next steps

“Developing Effective Behavior Intervention Plans:
Suggestions for School Personnel,” Killu, K., Intervention in
School and Clinic, Vol. 43 No.3, 1/08

Michigan Department of Education School-wide Positive
Behavioral Interventions & Supports Implementation
Guide, 2010

Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in Schools:
Functional Behavioral Assessment, Crone, D. & Horner, R.,
2003
Interventions based on an FBA
result in significant change
in student behavior.
(CARR et al., 1999, INGRAM, LEWIS-PALMER, & SUGAI, 2005)

FBA is a systematic, evidence based process for
assessing the relationship between a behavior
and the context in which that behavior occurs.
(BLAIR, UBRIET, & BOS, 1999; CARR et. al., 1999)

FBA is a proactive response that can be used at
the first signs of difficulty. (SCOTT et al., 2003; SUGAI et al., 2000)
Sheldon Loman, Ph.D.; M. Kathleen StricklandCohen, Ph.D.; Chris Borgmeier, Ph. D., Robert
Horner, Ph.D.
 www.pbis.org
▪ www.basicfba2.bsp.pbworks.com
▪ www.basicfba.pbworks.com
 Loman, S., Strickland-Cohen, M.K., Borgmeier, C.,
& Horner, R. (2014) Examining the Efficacy of a Basic
Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Package
for School Personnel, Journal of Positive Behavior
Interventions.

The Basic FBA to PBSP Process
1. Define the Problem Behavior
2. Conduct assessment for behavior support planning
a. Functional Behavioral Assessment
• Defining behavior in observable & measureable terms
• Ask staff and student about where, when, & why behavior occurs
• See the behavior during specified routines
• Hypothesize a final summary of where, when, & why behavior occurs
3. Design an individualized behavior support plan (BSP)
• Ensure technical adequacy
• Ensure contextual fit
4. Ensure Fidelity of Implementation
5. Monitor Plan Impact on Student Behavior
Adapt BSP and
implementation as needed
based on on-going
monitoring
Adapted from Horner, Albin, Todd, Newton & Sprague, 2011
Basic vs. Complex FBA/PBSP
Basic
Complex
For:
Students with mild to
moderate problem behaviors
(behaviors that are NOT
dangerous or occurring in
many settings)
Students with moderate to severe
behavioral problems; may be
dangerous and/or occurring in
many settings
What:
Relatively Simple and
Efficient process for
behavior support planning
based on “practical” FBA
data
Time-intensive process that
involves emergency planning, familycentered planning, and collaboration
with outside agencies
Developed
by whom:
Team of school-based
professionals (e.g., PBS team
members whose job
responsibilities include FBA
and behavior support
planning)
School-based team including
professionals trained to develop and
implement intensive interventions for
students with severe problem
behaviors (e.g., behavior
specialist)
9

Module 1- Defining & Understanding Behavior

Module 2- Interviewing

Module 3- Observing

Module 4- Critical Features

Module 5- Selecting Function-Based Interventions

Module 6- Implementation & Evaluation

Module 7- Leading a PBSP Team
Comprehensive Training

7 Modules –1.5 hours per module
 2 full days
 4 half days
 7 staff meetings
 Identify staff who should attend based on role
Building-Wide Professional Development

All Staff - Modules 1 & 4
Observable/Measurable Definition
Non-observable/measurable Definition
Talks when teacher is lecturing, calling out in a
loud voice, singing
Disruptive behaviors
Draws pictures during group work time
Off-task behaviors
Throwing objects, Kicking over chairs
Physical aggression
Calls peers names
Inappropriate language
Tapping/ drumming on desk, looking around
the classroom
Attention problems
Refuses to do work by putting head down
Non-compliance
Yells “No” or “You can’t make me” when given
direction
Defiance
12
To obtain information to make a hypothesis/summary
statement you need to ASK & SEE.
 Interview teachers, staff, and student to narrow focus of
student’s problem behavior
 ABC Observations

 Used to confirm accuracy of information
 Provides observational data summary

Create Hypothesis: Final summary of where when &
why behaviors occur.
Basic FBA process
D.A.S.H.
Define behavior in observable & measurable terms
Ask about behavior by interviewing staff & student
-specify routines where & when behaviors occur
-summarize where, when, & why behaviors occur
See the behavior
-observe the behavior during routines specified
-observe to verify summary from interviews
Hypothesize: a final summary of where, when &
why behaviors occur
14
Problem
Behavior
Escape/
Avoid
Something
Obtain/Get
Something
Stimulation/
Sensory
Tangible/
Activity
Social
Adult
Peer
15
Setting Events/
“Set ups”
Antecedent/
Trigger
Infrequent
events that
affect value
of outcome
Preceding
events that
trigger
Problem
Behavior
Observable
behaviors of
concern
Consequence/
Outcome
Following
events that
maintain
behaviors of
concern
16
1)
Competing Behavior Pathway
2)
Function-Based Behavior Support
3)
Implementation Plan
4)
Evaluation Plan
Use a Competing Behavior Pathway to Identify
Function-based behavior supports that:
 Use strategies to prevent problem behavior
& prompt positive behaviors
 Teach positive behaviors to replace
problem behavior
 Reinforce replacement & desired behaviors
 Effectively respond to problem behaviors
by redirecting & minimizing their pay-off
Long Term/Final Outcome
Hypothesis Statement
Short Term/Acceptable for now
1. Serve same function?
2. Is it easier?
3. Is it socially acceptable?
ALL BEHAVIOR PLANS MUST…
 Begin with a complete and accurate FBA
Summary Statement
 Include replacement behaviors that
 Serve the same function
 Are easy to do
 Are socially appropriate

Contain Preventative, Teaching & Consequence
strategies
When generating interventions we use
FUNCTION to develop ideas to change A, B & C
Antecedent
Problem
Behavior
Maintaining
Consequence
& Function
FUNCTION
Function
should guide
selection of
prevention
strategies
Function
should guide
selection of
alternative/
replacement
behaviors
Function
should guide
selection of
consequences:
(+) and (-)
If the student is currently out of seat and off task for the
most of the class period and is not turning in any
completed assignments.
 Probably NOT reasonable to expect:
▪ To earn reinforcer, student will be on task for entire class
period, and complete all assignments for one week.
 More reasonable INITIAL goal:
▪ Student will: a) be in seat and on task for at least 20
minutes of the class period, and b) turn in assignments that
are at least 30% completed for 2 consecutive days.

During writing class, Leroy is currently engages
in problem behavior - throwing materials and
cursing - to escape difficult tasks in Math
approximately 4 days per week. On average, he
is completing only 25-30% of his work in class.

Leroy will complete at least 80% of his assigned
work in his math class with no more than 3
incidences of problem behavior (throwing
materials, cursing) for one month.
Intermediate Goals: Approximations
Leroy’s Long-Term Goal
Leroy will complete at least 80% of his assigned work in his math class
with no more than 3 incidences of problem behavior (throwing
materials, cursing) for one month.
Leroy will ask appropriately to cross off up to 60% of difficult math
problems and will have no more than 3 problem behavior incidents for
2 consecutive weeks.
Leroy will ask appropriately for an easier task or for a “break” no more
than 3 times during Math block with no more than 2 problem behavior
incidents for 4 consecutive days .
Leroy’s Short-Term Goal
Leroy will ask appropriately for an easier task or for a “break” from
difficult tasks without throwing materials or cursing at least 75% of the
time as measured by a daily point card for 2 consecutive weeks.
Dexter
Desired Behavior: Complete MultiDigit Math Problems independently
Antecedent:
Task too
difficult
Approximation Step #3: Ask for
teacher help
Asked to do
multi-digit
multiplication
or division
math
worksheets
Approximation Step #2:
With permission student can cross off
60% of difficult items
Approximation Step #1: Ask for break
using only 3 break tokens per period
Replacement Behavior: Ask for Break
from Difficult Double Digit Tasks
Natural
Consequence:
Success on
problems, more
math tasks
Function:
Escape Difficult
Math Tasks





PREVENT problem behaviors by directly addressing
triggers & prompting replacement behavior based on
function of behavior
REPLACE problem behavior by TEACHING a socially
acceptable, efficient behavior that allows student to
obtain the function (pay-off)
REDIRECT problem behaviors by quickly & effectively
redirecting student to replacement behavior & function
REINFORCE replacement & desired behaviors based on
function (pay-off) for student
Minimize reinforcement by ensuring that problem
behavior does NOT pay off for the student (does NOT
result in function)

Function-based strategies are most likely to be
implemented if they have CONTEXTUAL “fit.”
 Skills of the plan implementers
 Values of the plan implementers
 Resources available to the plan implementers


ACTION PLAN (Implementation Plan) specifying Who
will do What by When
DATA COLLECTION (Evaluation Plan) for determining
 if the plan is being implemented
 if the plan is making a difference in student behavior
 when team members will meet again to discuss progress

Do the function-based strategies “fit” with:
 The skills and values of the implementers
 The available resources
 Administrative structure/support

Strategies with good “fit” are more likely to be
implemented accurately and consistently
FBA to PBSP Training Series
Pre & Post Test Data
2013-2014
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
Pre Test Mean
50%
Post Test Mean
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
MAISD
Loman & Horner
MAISD 2013-2014Test Score Comparison
120
100
80
Pre-test
60
Post-test
40
20
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29

One Day Teacher & Administrator Training
 Modules 1 & 4
 Staff frequently involved in PBSP

Two Day FBA to PBSP Training
 Modules 1-7
 New Schedule
 New Staff

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