GEO BON - GEPW

Report
GEO BON: European contributions to
global biodiversity tasks
Rob Jongman, Alterra Wageningen UR
What does GEO BON aim for?
GEO BON adds value to on-going biodiversity
observation by:
 Providing a global, scientifically robust framework for
observations on the detection of biodiversity change
 Coordinating the data gathering and the delivery of
information through establishing standards and
interoperability
 Providing a set of innovative and relevant global
products
 Advocating long term continuity of data supply
(moving observations from the experimental to
operational spheres) and data sharing
Clients for GEO BON: Global conventions,
(CBD, CMS, Ramsar), EU, countries
 The CBD has defined 20 ‘Aichi’ targets structured
around 5 major strategic goals including underlying
drivers of change, direct pressures, (change in) state,
benefits, and responses
 Countries have to monitor progress (status and
trends) towards CBD targets (and art 17, Habitats Dir)
● Many countries are starting up or revising their
biodiversity observation programs
● Countries and organizations often need guidance
for setting up biodiversity observation programs
● For international comparison biodiversity data the
scientific community and data users need to
agree on what variables should be monitored
4
GEO relations of AICHI Targets and EBVs
Gaps in biodiversity status monitoring
Living Planet Index Populations
Pereira et al 2012. Annual Review of the
Environment and Resources.
6
What is done to develop information
 GEO BON initiatives to enhance global biodiversity
observations for monitoring progress towards the Aichi
Biodiversity Targets (through e.g. FP7, GEF, NASA, GIO,
Horizon 2020 and other sources)
 Development of Essential Biodiversity Variables
 Finished and ongoing FP7 projects, such as:
● EBONE (European Monitoring Network)
● BIO SOS, MS MONINA (GMES services for
Biodiversity)
● EU BON (integration of biodiversity information
systems)
The need for Essential Biodiversity
Variables (EBVs)
 Can the observations needed to derive the >100
indicators be organized into a relatively small number
of Essential Biodiversity Variables?
● Where each essential variable talks to multiple
indicators and targets and indicators and targets
are informed by multiple essential variables
 These variables should be consistently monitored and
reported at the national scale by the parties, and
contribute towards assessing both national targets
and global targets
The questions EBVs must help to answer:
1.
What is the magnitude of extinction and biodiversity
change in time and space?
2.
How does biodiversity respond to the change in the major
drivers (land use change, climate change, etc.)?
3.
What are the consequences of changes in biodiversity for
humans, and are there levels of change beyond which the
consequences abruptly increase?
4.
Are the collective actions we take to protect and restore
biodiversity effective?
Pereira et al 2013 Essential Biodiversity Variables Science 339: 277-278
Scenarios for biodiversity
& ecosystem services (e.g. IPBES)
High-level indicators of biodiversity &
ecosystem services (e.g. CBD)
Observations of
drivers &
pressures
Ancillary (slow
changing) attributes
& relationships
Ecosystem-service
valuation & related
observations
Essential Biodiversity
Variables
Species ranges &
populations
Species traits
Community composition
processing
Genetic composition
Observations of
policy &
management
responses
Ecosystem extent &
structure
Ecosystem function &
processes
Primary observations of
change in state of biodiversity
In-situ
Remote
monitoring
sensing
Global stratification scheme
(1km2 grid)
a) Based on Temp., Prec.
and seasonality
b) Area-weighted
aggregation of squares
c) Permits gap
identification and filling
d) Consistent with the GEO
global ecosystem task
Metzger et al, 2013, A high resolution bioclimate map of the world: a unifying framework for global
biodiversity research. Global Ecology and Biogeography, DOI: 10.1111/geb.12022
Linking regions (1)
J4 (cool temperate and moist)
Links Bretagne, Cornwall and
western Ireland
G8 (cold mesic)
Links Apennines with
other Mountains regions
L6 (warm temperate and xeric)
Links the hottest parts of Europe
with Africa
Linking regions (2)
R9 (extremely hot and moist)
Links Australian tropics to SE Asia
and beyond
P2 (extremely hot and arid)
Links the Gibson with the deserts of
Arabia, the Sahel and the Thar desert.
K10 (warm temperate and mesic)
Links Mediterranean regions in
Australia with those in Chile, South
Africa, California and Europe.
General Habitat Categories (GHC)
a) Life form based
terrestrial ecosystem
classification
b) Link of in-situ data
with remotely sensed
data, GMES and LCCS
c) Allows conversion
between national
systems
d) Links with species
data
B28 Natural waterbodies, snow and ice
A1 Natural waterbodies
A2 Natural snow
A3 Natural ice
SPV/ICE
A4 Flowing
A5 Standing
SPV/SEA
or
SPV/AQU
SPV/AQU
A6 Moving
A7 Stationary
SPV/ICE
SPV/ICE
Bunce et al 2008, Landscape Ecology; Tomaselli et al 2013, Landscape ecology; Kosmidou et
al, Ecological Indicators, submitted;
http://www.ebone.wur.nl
In situ Habitat mapping in Austria
Downloadable from: http://ebone.wur.nl
Calculating European level indicators
Average Habitat Richness Density
per country and per EnZ for three
levels of precision of habitat
typology.
Level 1 is related to the diversity
of all sampled categories of
habitats and a high value
indicates a diverse landscape in
habitat and management type.
The levels 2 and 3 are related to
structural variability of habitat
types
Roche and Geijzendorffer 2013, Integrated figures of
Habitat and biodiversity indicators Alterra report 2392
EBONE: Sampling strategy and design
a)
b)
c)
Proportion
km squares
where
habitat is
present
Stock
Change
(two
cycles)
1 km square, 400 m2 MME
The power of appropriate stratification and location
Structure and Costs of a European sampling design
Autocorrelation
European level
(n = 10000)
Level biogeographical
zone
(n = 850)
Quality
objectives
met?
Quality objectives
met?
0.05
(Yes)
No
0.5
Yes
(Yes)
0.7
No
No
0.99
Yes
No
0.7
Yes
No
0.05
0.5
Yes
Yes
Time per cycle (person days)
0.99
80000 - 110000
6800 - 9350
Time per year (person days)
16000 - 22000
1360 - 1870
Full time equivalents (FTE) per year
80 - 110
6.8 - 9.35
The EBONE sampling design is
effective and efficient for relatively
common/widespread habitat.
For many Annex I habitat types
tailor made monitoring designs
remain necessary.
Precision and power calculations
are important but not more than
the institutional, data management
and other factors.
The Swedish Sampling design (NILS)
De Blust et al 2013, Design of a monitoring system and its cost effectiveness Alterra report 2393,
Stahl et al 2011, Env Monitoring and Assessment
Remote sensing space and
airborne
a)
b)
c)
LiDAR for ecosystem
(life form) structure
Phenology and
spectral features for
function (biomass)
Connectivity and
fragmentation
measures
Further RS service
development is done within
on-going projects MS.Monina
and BIO SOS
Estreguil et al 2012, Habitat landscape pattern and
connectivity indices, Alterra report 2297
Clerici et al 2012, Phenology and related measures and
indicators at varying spatial scales, Alterra report 2259
Sharing knowledge with others: VitalSigns
project
 What: combined monitoring
of agriculture and
biodiversity using RS
(LCCS), field data on habitat
(GHC) and species and
panel interviews;
 Where: bread basket areas
of sub-Saharan Africa;
 Who: CSIR, CI, Columbia
University and local groups;
 Funding: Bill and Melinda
Gates Foundation
See http://vitalsigns.org/
What is on-going at present in GEO BON?
 GEO BON is developing global cooperation (from 2008
on)
 Servicing the CBD by assessment of the Aichi targets
(Wageningen workshop 2011);
 At present development of the Essential Biodiversity
Variables (Wageningen workshop 2011 and Frascati
workshop 2012 and ongoing)
 Work programme renewal (All hands meeting Asilomar
(CA) 2012);
 Development of the GEO BON Handbook (on-going tobe
finished this year)
Take home messages for GEO work
 Be aware of the need and trend outside of Europe;
 Make your results compatible with the things others do;
 Build your network globally and be involved: include
partners and related projects outside Europe if possible;
 If possible, use open source software for sharing with
others, especially in developing countries;
 If possible, publish free downloadable reports and
papers;
 Show and share your models and approaches;
 Your result should include capacity building issues if you
want a global and long lasting impact.
Thank you for your
attention
http://www.earthobservations.org/geobon.shtml

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