http://dickinsonn.ism-online.org/tag/health/ Option A: Human nutrition and health (15 hours) Topics covered • A1: Components of the human diet – – – – – Nutrients needed in the diet Deficiency diseases Fatty Acids Vitamins and minerals Fibre • A2: Energy in Human Diets – Sources of energy – Identifying eating disorders – obesity and anorexia • A3: Special issues in Human nutrition – – – – – Breast-feeding Diabetes Vegetarians / Vegans Low cholesterol diets Food miles 2 How to use this PowerPoint • The majority of this PowerPoint is aimed for you to complete the study on your own in your notebook. USE YOUR TEXT BOOKS! • Instructions that are in red refer to what I expect to see in your notebook. Any extra information is fantastic! 3 Nutrients A nutrient is a chemical substance found in foods that is used in the human body (it needs it for functioning). Given the right raw materials, the human body can manufacture many useful chemicals from breaking down and reassembling other chemicals. A.1.1 Define nutrient. Questions Research and answer these questions in full sentences: • What are essential nutrients? • Give 2 examples of essential amino acids • Give 2 examples of essential fatty acids • Give 2 examples of essential minerals • Give 2 examples of essential Vitamins • Why is water so important in the diet? • What are non-essential amino acids? • Give 2 examples of non-essential aminoacids. A.1.3 State that non-essential amino acids can A.1.2 List the type of nutrients that are be synthesized in the body from other essential in the human diet, including amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins and water. nutrients Malnutrition There are 3 main kinds of malnutrition: • Not enough food • Too much food • Not the right type of food All can lead to health problems. Kwashiorkor • These children are suffering from Kwashiorkor – protein deficiency. • Explain why they have swollen abdomens. A.1.4 Outline the consequences of protein deficiency malnutrition. PKU: Phenylketonuria Research and answer the following questions in detail and in full sentences: 1. What causes PKU? 2. What enzyme are sufferers of PKU unable to produce? What are the consequences of this (explain in full)? 3. How can PKU be controlled by early diagnosis? 4. How can PKU be controlled by diet? A.1.5 Explain the causes and consequences of phenylketonuria (PKU) and how early diagnosis and a special diet can reduce the consequences. Fatty Acids Copy and complete this table to outline the differences between the different structures of fatty acids (Include omega-3 fatty acids) Name Diagram of structure Description of Foods that structure contain them Health implications Saturated fatty acids Cis unsaturated fatty acids Trans unsaturated fatty acids Mono unsaturated fatty acids Poly unsaturated fatty acids A.1.6 Outline the variation in the molecular structure of fatty acids, including saturated fatty acids, cis and trans unsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.