Participative leadership and…..

Report
Chapter 5
Participative Leadership, Delegation, and
Empowerment
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership in Organizations
5-1
Learning Objectives
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Understand what research methods have been
used to study participative leadership
Understand the major findings in research on
consequences of participative leadership
Understand the situations in which participative
leadership is most likely to be effective
Understand the major findings in research on the
normative theory of leader decision making
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Leadership in Organizations
5-2
Learning Objectives (Cont.)
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Understand procedures for the effective use of
consultation
Understand the potential benefits and risks of
delegation
Understand when and how to use delegation
effectively
Understand why follower perceptions of
empowerment are important
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Leadership in Organizations
5-3
Varieties of Participation
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Autocratic Decision
Consultation
Joint Decision
Delegation
Continum of Decision Procedures
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Leadership in Organizations
5-4
Consequences of Participative Leadership
Causal Model of Participative Leadership
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Leadership in Organizations
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Consequences of Participative Leadership
(Cont.)
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Potential Benefits of Participation
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Decision quality
Decision acceptance
Satisfaction with the decision process
Development of participant skills
Objectives of Different Participants
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Leadership in Organizations
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Research on Effects of Participative
Leadership
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Example of Research on Participation – Bragg &
Andrews (1973)
Effects of Participation
Limitations of Participation Research
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Measurement problems with survey field research
Combining interventions
Short-term programs
Difficulty comparing results across studies
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Leadership in Organizations
5-7
Normative Decision Model
Vroom and Yetton Model
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Decision Procedures
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AI – Leader makes decision without any additional
information
AII – Leader seeks information and makes decision
alone
CI – Leader shares problem with others individually
and makes decision alone
CII – Leader shares problem with others collectively
and makes decision alone
GII – Group discusses problem collectively and the
group makes the decision
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Leadership in Organizations
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Normative Decision Model
Vroom and Yetton Model (Cont.)
Causal Relationship in the Normative Decision Model
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Leadership in Organizations
5-9
Normative Decision Model
Vroom and Yetton Model (Cont.)
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Situational Variables
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The amount of relevant information possessed by
leader and subordinates
The likelihood that subordinates will accept an
autocratic decision
The likelihood that subordinates will cooperate if
allowed to participate
The amount of disagreement among subordinates
with respect to preferred alternatives
The extent to which the decision is unstructured and
requires creative problem solving
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Leadership in Organizations
5-10
Normative Decision Model
Vroom and Yetton Model (Cont.)
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Decision Acceptance – Degree of commitment to
implement a decision effectively
Decision Quality – Objective aspects of the
decision that affect group performance aside from
any effects mediated by decision acceptance
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Leadership in Organizations
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Normative Decision Model
Vroom and Yetton Model (Cont.)
Decision Rules in Vroom-Yetton Decision Model
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Leadership in Organizations
5-12
Normative Decision Model
Vroom and Jago Model
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Incorporates additional aspects of the situation
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Incorporates additional outcome criteria
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Severe time constraints
Amount of subordinate information
Geographical dispersion of subordinates
Concern for subordinate development
Concern for decision time
Managers given more choices in setting priorities
for the criteria in the model
Allows managers to differentiate among five
choices in describing the situation
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Leadership in Organizations
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Normative Decision Model
Simplified Version
Simplified Version of the Normative Decision Model
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Leadership in Organizations
5-14
Normative Decision Model
Vroom and Yetton Model (Cont.)
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Research on the Model
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Some support but more research needed
Extended model needs to be tested
Conceptual Weaknesses
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Decision processes are treated as single, discrete
episodes
The model is too complicated
Leaders are assumed to have necessary skills to use
the various decision procedures
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Leadership in Organizations
5-15
Guidelines for Participative Leadership
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Diagnosing Decision Situations
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Evaluate how important the decision is
Identify people with relevant knowledge or expertise
Evaluate likely cooperation by participants
Evaluate likely acceptance without participation
Evaluate whether it is feasible to hold a meeting
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Leadership in Organizations
5-16
Guidelines for Participative Leadership
(Cont.)
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Encourage Participation
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Encourage people to express their concerns
Describe a proposal as tentative
Record ideas and suggestions
Look for ways to build on ideas and suggestions
Be tactful in expressing concerns about a suggestion
Listen to dissenting views without getting defensive
Try to utilize suggestions and deal with concerns
Show appreciation for suggestions
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Leadership in Organizations
5-17
Delegation
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Varieties of Delegation
Potential Advantages of Delegation
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Improvement in decision quality
Greater subordinate commitment
Making subordinates’ jobs more interesting,
challenging, and meaningful
Improved time management
Important form of management development
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Leadership in Organizations
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Potential Advantages of Delegation
Percentage of Managers Who Rated a Reason for Delegating as Moderately or Very Important
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Leadership in Organizations
5-19
Delegation (Cont.)
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Reasons for Lack of Delegation
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Aspects of the leader’s personality
Fear of subordinate making a mistake
High need for personal achievement
Characteristics of the subordinate
Nature of the work
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Leadership in Organizations
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Reasons for Lack of Delegation
Table: Percentage of Managers Who Rated a Reason for Not Delegating as Moderately
or Very Important
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Leadership in Organizations
5-21
Guidelines for Delegation
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What to Delegate
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Tasks that can be done better by a subordinate
Tasks that are urgent but not high priority
Tasks relevant to a subordinate’s career
Tasks of appropriate difficulty
Both pleasant and unpleasant tasks
Tasks not central to the manager’s role
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Leadership in Organizations
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Guidelines for Delegation (Cont.)
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How to Delegate
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Specify responsibilities clearly
Provide adequate authority and specify limits of
discretion
Specify reporting requirements
Ensure subordinate acceptance of responsibilities
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Leadership in Organizations
5-23
Delegation (Cont.)
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How to Manage Delegation
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Inform others who need to know
Monitor progress in appropriate ways
Arrange for the subordinate to receive necessary
information
Provide support and assistance, but avoid reverse
delegation
Make mistakes a learning experience
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Leadership in Organizations
5-24
Perceived Empowerment
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Nature of Psychological Empowerment
Empowerment Programs
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Leader Selection and Assessment
Democratic Decision Procedures
Shared Leadership Responsibilities
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Consequences of Empowerment
Benefits
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Stronger task commitment
Greater initiative in carrying out role responsibilities
Greater persistence in the face of obstacles and
temporary setbacks
More innovation and learning
Higher job satisfaction
Stronger organizational commitment
Less turnover
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Leadership in Organizations
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Consequences of Empowerment (Cont.)
Costs and Risks
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Higher costs for selection and training
Higher labor costs for skilled employees
Inconsistent service quality
Expensive giveaways and bad decisions by some
employees
Customer feeling's of inequity about unequal
treatment
Opposition by middle managers who feel threatened
Conflicts from raising employee expectations beyond
what top management is willing to concede
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Leadership in Organizations
5-27
Conditions Facilitating Psychological
Empowerment
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Leadership in Organizations
5-28
Guidelines for Empowerment
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Leadership in Organizations
5-29
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the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.
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Leadership in Organizations
5-30

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