1780 - The South Powerpoint - Mr. Cvelbar`s US History Page

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1780
Britain Moves South
Loyalists in arms
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As early as the end of 1778, Britain began turning its
attention South
Southern states were much more loyal to the crown
than their northern counterparts
Many loyalists in the south took up arms to fight
against the patriots
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Formed Loyalist militias
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Some joined British units, others waged their own attacks
In many cases, civil war in the south
War moves South
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On Dec. 29th 1778, British
forces took control of
Savannah, GA
Major port city
 Began fortifying city
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Siege of Savannah
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Almost a year later, on Sept. 16,
1779 American and French
forces would lay siege to
Savannah and try to reclaim city
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Over 500 Haitians fought for
French
On October 9th, a major American
assault failed
Approx. 2,000 American casualties,
including 800 dead
Siege was given up on Oct. 18
Britain begins to tighten grip on
the South
Casimir Pulaski
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Among the casualties
was Polish general and
volunteer Casimir Pulaski
Known as the “Father of
the American Cavalry”
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Extensive training of
American cavalry
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Casimir Pulaski
Began in Valley Forge
War in the South
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General Henry Clinton
began fortifying strategic
port cities and moving
north throughout the
Carolinas
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First Stop - Charleston
Siege of Charleston
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March 29-May 12, 1780
Gen. Henry Clinton and 14,000
redcoats lay siege to Charleston, SC
Benjamin Lincoln held the city
with 5,000 Americans
British captured Fort Moultrie
which guarded the city
After a long siege, Americans
surrendered their entire Southern
Army
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The worst American defeat of the
war
Clinton left city under control of
General Charles Cornwallis and
returned to NY
Battle of Camden
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Aug. 16th 1780
Camden, SC
3,000 American forces under
Horatio Gates had marched
south
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Replacing surrendered
American forces
2,000 British under Charles
Cornwallis marched inland to
block the advance of this new
army
British quickly broke the
American lines and easily routed
the inexperienced troops
Gates led the retreat, arriving
well ahead of his army in
Charlotte, NC
Baron Von Kalb and his more
experienced troops refused to
retreat
Camden
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2100 American
Casualties
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Including
Patriot General
Baron Von Kalb
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Bayoneted
several times
while down
400 British
casualties
Death of Baron Von Kalb at the Battle of Camden
Nathanael Greene
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Gates’ cowardly retreat led
to his replacement as the
head of the American
Southern Army
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Nathanael Greene would
take over
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Gritty, determined
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"We fight, get beat, rise,
and fight again."
A soldier’s soldier
Began the war as a lowly
private, and ended as
Washington’s most trusted
General
Nathanael Greene
Battle of Kings Mountain
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Oct 7, 1780
Kings Mountain, NC
1000 Loyalist militia under Patrick
Ferguson had fortified hill
1000 Patriot militia
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Patriots quietly surrounded hill,
before unleashing deadly rifle fire
Multiple Patriot charges up the hill
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No real patriot command structure
“Partisans”- guerilla fighters
Americans repulsed, regrouped, and
charged again
Killed British General Ferguson
after several hours
Kings Mountain
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American – 100 casualties
British – Entire loyalist army (1000) either killed,
wounded, or surrendered
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9 hanged who had defected to the British
Demonstrated the effectiveness of partisan (guerilla) warfare
Benedict Arnold
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Given command of
Philadelphia after British
evacuated
Accused of profiteering from
the war
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Using army carts for business
use
Closing some local business
Acquitted of most charges
Letter of reprimand from
Washington
Married Peggy Shippen
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18 years old (20 yrs. younger)
British sympathizer, ties with
leading Tories
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John André
Benedict Arnold
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Felt betrayed by America
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Not recognized for
accomplishments
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Gates took glory for Saratoga
Passed over on promotions
Wounded in service
Never repaid for his financial
contributions to Continental
Army
Taken to trial for profiteering
The Deal Goes Down
In 1779 Benedict Arnold used his loyalist ties to
begin negotiating with British General Henry
Clinton via John André
 Arnold was given command of West Point on
the Hudson River,
and agreed to surrender
it to the British for
20,000 pounds
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Teamed with Peggy’s ex redcoat John André
Treason
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Andre acted as courier
between Clinton and Arnold
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While Andre was carrying
documents from Arnold to
Clinton, he was robbed by
local thieves
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Found incriminating
documents in his boot
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Turned him into
Continental Army
Arnold heard of Andre’s
capture and fled to British in
New York
Andre was hanged as a spy
Afterwards
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Arnold was paid for his service, given land in
Canada, pensions for himself and his wife and
children, and a military commission as a British
Provincial brigadier general
Arnold would successfully lead British forces to
victories at Richmond, Virginia and New London,
Connecticut before the end of the war
 British never fully trusted Arnold
 Moved to London and died in 1801
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