wind_overview

Report
Wind Turbines:
Power for a House or City
*many slides from L. Sankar
Ready to Become a
Significant Power Source
coal
coal
petroleum
petroleum
natural gas
natural gas
nuclear
nuclear
hydro
hydro
other renewables
other renewables
wind
wind
Installed capacity = 35,000 MW
as of Dec 2009 (<1% national
electricity).
Source: Energy Information Agency
With annual
growth
rates of
~30%, wind
could
generate
20% of
nation’s
electricity
by 2020.
Wind is Growing Worldwide
end 2007
total
new 2008
MW
MW
25000
20000
Rest of World
15000
Europe
10000
United States
5000
00
20
97
19
94
19
91
19
88
19
85
19
19
82
0
Source: AWEA’s Global Market Report
Global Electricity Consumption:
5,000 GW
U.S. Wind Power Capacity Growth:
is the rollercoaster over?
Advantages of Wind Power
•
•
•
•
Clean
Flexible
Large Potential for Growth
Economically Viable (most of the time – peak
opportunity)
Benefits of Wind Power
Environmental
•
•
•
•
No air pollution
No greenhouse gasses
Does not pollute water with mercury
No water needed for operations
Benefits of Wind Power
Economic Development
• Expanding Wind Power development
brings jobs to rural communities
• Increased tax revenue
• Purchase of goods & services
Benefits of Wind Power
Fuel Diversity
• Domestic energy source
• Inexhaustible supply
• Small, dispersed design reduces supply risk
Benefits of Wind Power
Cost Stability
• Flat-rate pricing can offer hedge against
fuel price volatility risk (fuel is “free”!)
• Electricity is inflation-proof
Wind Power Economics
Wind Power Cost of Energy
Components
Cost (¢/kWh) = (Capital Recovery Cost + O&M) /
kWh/year
– Capital Recovery = Debt and Equity Cost
– O&M Cost = Turbine design, operating
environment
– kWh/year = Wind Resource
Construction Cost Elements
Financing & Legal
Fees
3%
Development
Activity
4%
Interconnect/
Subsation
4%
Interest During
Construction
4%
Towers
(tubular steel)
10%
Construction
22%
Design &
Engineering
2%
Land
Transportation
2%
Turbines, FOB
USA
49%
Cost Nosedive Driving Wind’s
Success
Turbine Technology
Constantly Improving
•
•
•
•
Larger turbines
Specialized blade design
Power electronics
Computer modeling produces
more efficient design
• Manufacturing improvements
How big is a
2.0 MW wind
turbine?
This picture shows a
Vestas V-80 2.0-MW
wind turbine
superimposed on a
Boeing 747 JUMBO JET
Improved Capacity Factor
• Capacity Factors Above
35% at Good Wind
Sites
– Performance
Improvements due to:
– Better siting
– Larger turbines/energy
capture
– Technology Advances
– Higher reliability
Examples: Project
Performance (Year 2000)
Big Spring, Texas
•37% CF in first 9 months
Springview, Nebraska
•36% CF in first 9 months
Offshore wind: a controversial
gold mine of energy
“CAPE WIND”: stay tuned…
All offshore wind farms plagued by NIMBY concerns

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