Music & Technology

Report
Nia Hall, William Hand, Keyachtta Hawkins, Matt Ross
CBS News
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Electroacoustic
 Amplification of acoustic sound
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Electronic Instruments
 Synthesizer
 Drum Machine
 Laptops
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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The Denis d’or was invented by a Bohemian
priest in 1753
Clavecin Lectrique in 1761
 Used static electricity as basis for sound
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Synthesizers
 Electronic Sackbut
 Development started in the 1950s
▪ Mostly used in the studio
 Moog Synthesizer in 1964
 Digital Synthesis
▪ Result of microprocessors
▪ Polyphonic
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
Moog Synthesizer
Electronic Sackbut
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
Turntables
Drum Machine
Guitar Effects
Electric
guitar pedals
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Techno/Electro
 “Percussion-based electronic dance music”
 Influenced by Moog Synthesizer
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9lDCYjb8RHk
 Coined in 1988
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omfiVkkJ1OU
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Electronica
 Characterized by electronic instruments, synthesizers,
drum machines and digital audio workstations
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House Music
 Tiesto
 Swedish House Mafia
▪ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PkQ5rEJaTmk
 Avicii
▪ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQ2-e9s2YBI
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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STS9, Pretty Lights, Bassnectar, Daft Punk
 STS9 are: Hunter Brown (guitar/laptop/midi
keyboard), Jeffree Lerner
(percussion/laptop/handsonic), David Murphy
(bass/laptop/midi keyboard), David Phipps
(keyboards/laptop), and Zach Velmer (drums).
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5L9KSLDr69g
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Mg3jqgenNk
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Do you think these artist should be held in the
same esteem as traditional bands?
Do you consider the light effects part of the
music?
Is this the future of music?
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Please go to http://www.virtualdj.com/ and
download the free version
Play around with the features for 5min and
read the bolded terms
If you manipulate a song, is it your artistic
work?
How does one enforce these term?
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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1998, Cher “Believe”
 Cher "Believe"
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Antares Audio Tech
Phase Vocoder
Plug In
Microsoft Windows
Mac OS X
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Is it ok for people to pose as real singers?
Auto-Tune removes the emotion that the
roots of music originated from.
Auto-Tune has a pervasive negative effect on
society's perception and consumption of
music
Has made many artists famous and rich- “T
Pain”
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Is it ok for people to pose as real singers?
Auto-Tune removes the emotion that the roots of music
originated from.
Auto-Tune has a pervasive negative effect on society's
perception and consumption of music
Has made many artists famous and rich- “T-Pain”
 YouTube: T-Pain
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
Jay Z- Jigga rails against artists who use the ubiquitous
pitch-correction software in their songs through his song
D.O.A
 Ne-Yo disses artists that use auto-tune
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 “Auto-tune was meant to be a safety net, right[...]It was not
supposed to be wings. You’re not supposed to strap it on your back
and jump off the building. That’s not what auto-tune was meant
to be. If you’re using it for what it’s meant for, cool, fine, and
good[...]not, “I can’t sing at all, so let’s turn auto-tune all the way
up so I just sound like Willy the Robot.[...]That’s wack! That’s
terrible! It takes all the character out of your voice and you
become a robot[...]Take the damn training wheels off. That’s how I
feel about it.”
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
What’s your Opinion on Auto Tune????
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6fTh0WR
JoX4&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzvFsykQ
f2Q
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oh9XgGG
h4L4
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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What’s your Opinion NOW on Auto Tune????
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
Copyright Act of 1976
The following factors constitute fair use:
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The nature of the copyrighted work (its purpose)
The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to
the copyrighted work as a whole (how much is used)
The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of
the copyrighted work (doesn’t hurt original’s value/market)
The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a
finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration
of all the above factors.
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
Bridgeport Music vs. Dimension Films (2005)
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Federal judge originally ruled it was NOT a copyright
violation, Appeals Court reverses decision – “Get a license
or don’t sample.”
Reversed because NWA’s work was commercial in nature –
didn’t satisfy all parts of fair use.
NWA
Funkadelic
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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How the work is being used
The portion of the song used
Its impact on the value and market of the
original
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Entirely new context – transformative
New context offers new perspectives on the
original song
Can provide critical commentary
Girl Talk
White Panda
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Pays homage to the artists he uses.
“All Day” had over 350 unlicensed samples, all
100% copyrighted.
Girl Talk's Disclaimer
1976 Copyright Act
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Under fair use in the U.S. copyright law, you
don’t need the artist’s permission to record a
parody.
Weird Al – Master of Comedic Parodies
 Amish Paradise / Gangstas Paradise
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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“Go Girl” - Pitbull
“All About It” – Milkman
How is the meaning changed by the new
context of Milkman’s song?
Is this a violation of fair use?
Does the Bridgeport decision go too far?
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Nature of song is transformed
“If you use the copied work in a way that
substitutes for the original in the market, it’s
unlikely to be a fair use; uses that serve a
different audience or purpose are more likely
fair.”
Two Ways to View This
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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http://blog.soundcloud.com/2008/10/17/cc/
 All Rights Reserved
 Some Rights Reserved
 No Rights Reserved
 Has option to report copyright infringement.
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Radio
Television
 MTV, BET, CMT
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Online
Live Performances
Public
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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What are PROs?
 Intermediary
 Collection agencies
 Distribute fees as royalties
 ASCAP, SECAC, BMI
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Criticisms
 Expanding the meaning of “public performance”
 Demanding payment for iTunes and Amazon samples
 Eliminating free publicity
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Performance rights royalties
 Songwriter/Composer & Publisher
 How are royalties divided
▪ 200% split
 Sampling, medleys, and parodies
▪ Agreement among writers and publisher
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Introduced in 2009
Reintroduced in 2011
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Issues:
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 Broadcasters to pay more royalties
▪ Publicity
 Public Radio
▪ Pandora & XM
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Winners:
 Recording companies
▪ Generate $18.7 mill in revenue
 Performers
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Losers:
 Public radio
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
Technology &
Sound
Auto-Tune
Derivative
Works
Broadcasting
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Should Amazon and iTunes be required to
pay royalties for their 30 second samples?
Should the Performance Rights Act of 2011
pass?

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