Best Practices in Reading: A 3-Tiered, RtI Research-Based

Report
QUESTION…
NOW THAT I HAVE ALL THIS
BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON
READING AND READING
CURRICULA, NOW WHAT?
ANSWER...
SINCE YOU KNOW WHAT TO LOOK FOR
AND EVALUATE FOR,
YOU CAN NOW PROBLEM SOLVE
MY READING NEEDS
AT TIER 1.
Problem Solving Method
Problem Identification
Is there a problem? What is it?
Problem Analysis
Plan
Evaluation
Why is it happening?
Did our plan work?
Plan Development
What shall we do about it?
Three Tier Problem Solving System
Plan
Development
Tier 3
Special
Plan
Intensive
Education
Evaluation
Tier 2
General
Education
Supplemental
With Support
Tier 1
Core
General
Problem
Analysis
Education
Amount of
Resources
Needed
To Benefit
Severity of Educational Need or Problem
Problem
Identification
TIER 1. Problem Identification
Problem Identification
Is there a problem? A discrepancy? What is the problem?
Progress Monitoring
Did it work?
Problem Analysis
Why is it happening?
Intervention Planning
What should be done about it?
Identifying a Discrepancy…
Example of a Universal Problem
ACADEMIC Area
Definitional Component
Example
What Is Expected
All students reading at
a national proficient
benchmark
What Is Occurring
Only 60% of students
are reading at a
national proficient
benchmark
The Situation
End of Grade 3 & 5
FRAMEWORK FOR READING ASSESSMENT
TIER III
PROGRESS
MONITORING
(ROI)
SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING
PINPOINTING THE SPECIFIC
AREA OF DIFFICULTY,
DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION
EVERY WEEK OR 2
MONTHLY
TIER II
STRATEGIC MONITORING
(ROI)
TIER I
1. UNIVERSAL SCREENING
AND BENCHMARKING:
EARLY LITERACY MEASURES, AS
DIBELS OR AIMSWEB
CBM
(KEY CRITICAL INDICATORS)
3 X PER YEAR
Screening Detects a Problem
with Core Curriculum
•
•
•
•
Classwide Intervention
Large Group
Most students will respond
Typically this is a general education
responsibility
Joe Witt, www.isteep.com/compcenters
How Do you KNOW if Core Instruction is Working:
Screen-Many students not Learning at Tier 1
Grade Level
Standard
Kalisha in Red Seems
to be a Problem
Now does she look
like a problem?
Universal Screening Identified School
Wide Reading Deficits in Vail
Mastery
Instructional
At Risk
Reading data- 1st grade
At what tier should problem
solving occur?
After Grade Wide Intervention-No Systemic Problem
First Grade
Core Program
A Core Instructional Program of Validated
Efficacy Adopted and Implemented Schoolwide
A core program is the “base” reading
program designed to provide instruction on
the essential areas of reading for the
majority of students schoolwide. In general,
the core program should enable 80% or
more of students to attain schoolwide
reading goals.
Gap?
• A rate of 80% has been suggested by
many researchers and policy makers
nationally, as the rate needed for Core
Instruction
• Is there a discrepancy between what is
expected (~80) and what is occurring
(your school’s performance)
Intensive
5%
Targeted/
We want these percentages: Supplemental
15%
Tier 1.: 50% or
better on
Aimsweb norms.
Tier 3.: 25% or
lower on
Aimsweb norms.
Tier 2: Everyone
in between.
Universal
80%
5
100%
20
15
90%
80%
30
70%
60%
High Risk
Some Risk
Low Risk
50%
80
40%
30%
50
20%
10%
0%
Fall '05
National
At what tier should problem
solving occur?
Tier 1.Are the majority (80% or more) of
students responding to the curriculum at
each grade level and on each skill?
If “No”, then focus on Tier I
If “Yes”, consider Tier 2 interventions for
some students
Step 1. Determine your
Approach/Cut Score
1. Standards-Based Approaches
Illinois AIMSweb Standards (Cut Scores for ISAT
and Minnesota State Test)
Oregon DIBELS Standards (Cut Scores for Oregon
State Test)
2. Norm-Based Approaches
Percentile Rank Cut Scores
1. Standard-Based
Approaches
• Illinois AIMSweb Standards Tied to
ISAT and Minnesota State
• Oregon DIBELS Standards
With a Standards Based Approach, Use
Linkages to High Stakes Tests
The desired outcome is to have the
student meet standards on High Stakes
Tests.
Illinois
AIMSweb
Standards
(Cut
Scores
for ISAT)
Standards-Based Approaches and
Universal Screening
Red = Highly Unlikely to Pass the State Test
Green = Highly Likely to Pass
Yellow = Uncertain to Pass
Creating Triangles from Benchmark Data:
4th Grade R-CBM Scores Fall, 2005
4th Grade ISAT Correlate Cut Scores Fall
Low Risk/Highly Likely = 105
6
(Green)
High Risk/Highly Unlikely = 60
(Red)
# Low Risk = 10
%
Low Risk =
# Some Risk = 3
%
Some Risk = 15%
# High Risk =
%
High Risk = 35%
20 total
7
50%
STANDARDS BASED TRIANGLES USING ISAT CUT
SCORES
4th Grade Fall
Expectation
Tier 3
5%
35
Tier 2
15%
15
Tier 1
80%
50
Steps for determining percentages
of risk categories
Using a Standards-Based
approach
• Low risk: Count the number of students scoring at
the proficient no. or higher on ISAT correlates
Determine percentage. Is it 80% or higher?
• High risk: Count the number of students scoring at
the Below Basic on ISAT correlates.
Determine percentage. Is it 15% or higher?
• Some risk: Count the number of students between
the Proficient and Below Basic no on ISAT
correlates. Determine percentage. Is it 5% or
higher?
2. Norm-Based Approaches
Percentile Rank Cut Scores:
Percentile rank scores are derived scores that
indicate the percentage of people in the norming
sample that scored at or below a given raw score.
Percentile rank scores for at risk students typically
are derived from local norms, but Aimsweb national
norms can be used.
Examples of Percentile Rank Norms using
Aimsweb aggregates
Steps for determining
percentages of risk categories
• Low risk: Count the number of students
scoring at the 50%ile or higher.
Determine percentage. Is it 80% or higher?
• High risk: Count the number of students
scoring at the 25%ile or lower.
Determine percentage. Is it 15% or higher?
• Some risk: Count the number of students
between the 50th and 25thile. Determine
percentage. Is it 5% or higher?
5
100%
15
33.5
90%
80%
70%
26.5
60%
High Risk
Some Risk
Low Risk
50%
80
40%
30%
40
20%
10%
0%
Winter
National
Ideal Ave. Oral Reading Fluency Risk Categories-current 3rd graders
100%
5
17
13
17
23
90%
80%
14
48
15
45
21
37
70%
30
46
60%
P ercen tag e
34
High Risk (Below 25th %ile)
50%
Some Risk (25th-50th %ile)
23
40%
Low Risk (Above 50th %ile)
80
24
62
30%
50
20%
52
47
37
28
32
10%
0%
Spring '05
Fall '05
Winter '05
Spring '06
Fall '06
Winter '07
Spring '07
Goal
Making the triangles in excel
• See attached triangle template as reference. See datatemplate
• Enter percentages into cells
• Select all- including National and Grade cells
• Go to chart wizard
• For Chart Type, scroll to bottom and select pyramid
• Select the 3-tier pyramid- top right option
• NEXT>
Making triangles in excel
(cont.)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Series In: Select Rows
NEXT>
Title graph as you want
Go to data labels. Select Show Value
Select ‘New Sheet’
You can change color of tiers to clicking
on each tier and selecting new color
Aimsweb Feature!!
• See Aimsweb account
Activity #2.
Plan Analysis: Using
Self Study tool
What is your Core reading
program? What supplemental
programs do you have to
support the core? Estimate
percentage of students is
successful at Tier 1?
How well do these materials
integrate the basic
instructional content needed
(5 big areas of reading) and
basic design elements?
Practice making Risk Triangles
with sample data
_______
Problem
Analysis
Foundational
Concepts –
Tier 1
Tier 1. Problem Analysis
Problem Identification
What is the problem?
Progress Monitoring
Did it work?
Problem Analysis
Why is it happening?
Intervention Planning
What should be done about it?
If there is a Tier 1 concern…
There are generally 3 ways to address this
concern:
1. Explore and adopt a new Core curriculum
2. Implement your Tier 1 curriculum with
higher integrity (Use Instructional Planning
Form, treatment integrity forms, and
Principal Walk Throughs)
3. Supplement your Core curriculum with
robust, research-based interventions and
instructional enhancements
Potential Hypotheses
1. Core program is missing most
instructional elements necessary for our
students. (Adopt a new core.)
2. Core program is missing some
instructional elements necessary for our
students- more reinforcement and/or
practice is needed. (Supplement your
core.)
3. Core program is not implemented with
fidelity. (Implement with higher integrity.)
Pr oblem An aly sis T oo l for T ier 1/C ore Pr ogra m
III . Instr u ct io n al Pro g ram s an d M a te ria ls - T h e in stru c tion al pr o gra m s
a n d m a ter ial s h a v e d o cu m e n te d e ffic ac y , are d ra w n from res ear c hb a s ed find in g s an d p racti c e s , ali g n w ith s ta te s ta nd a rds an d
b e nc h m ar k s, a nd su p p ort the full ran ge o f le a rne rs.
1. A co m p re he nsi v e or c ore
re a di n g p rog ram w ith
do c um en te d res ear c h -bas e d
effi c ac y is a do pt ed fo r u se s ch ool
wid e (x 3).
2. T h e ins tru c tion al pr o gra m
a n d m a ter ial s p rovi d e e x plici t an d
sy s te m at ic ins truct ion o n criti c al
re a di n g prior itie s (i. e ., ph on emi c
a w ar e n e ss , p h o ni c s, fl u e n cy ,
vo ca bu lary, an d c o m pr e hen si o n)
(x 2).
3. T h e ins tru c tion al
ma teria ls a nd p rog ram al ig n wi th
a n d s upp ort s ta te
s ta nd ar d s/sc ie n tifi c ally b as e d
pr a cti c e s an d pr o vi d e su ffici e n t
in s truct io n in es se nt ial ele m e n ts
to allo w th e m ajorit y o f st u d en ts
to re a c h le arn in g g o a ls.
4. S u p p lem e n tal an d
in terv e nt ion pr o gra m s of
do c um en te d effi c a c y ar e in p la c e
to sup por t s tu d e n ts w h o d o n o t
b en efi t ad eq u a tel y fr o m th e c ore
pr o gra m (x 2).
5. Pr o gram s an d m a teria ls
are i m p lem e n te d w ith a h ig h le vel
of fid elity (x 3).
/2 2 T ot a l P o int s
%
Perce nt of Im p le m e n tation :
1 1 = 50 %
1 8 = 80 %
2 2 = 100 %
Characteristics of Scientifically
Based Reading Programs
★Instructional Content
★ Empirical Evidence
★Instructional Design
Are these present in your core
program
A Consumer’s
tor’s
Evaluating
a va
Core
Program
A CoGuide
nsu me
G u id e to E
lua tiReading
ng
Grades K-3: A Critical Elements Analysis
S u p p le me n ta l a n d In te rve n tio n Rea di ng P rogram s
G ra d es K -3: A Cr itic al El em en ts A n aly sis
Deborah
Simmons,
De bo rah C . S im m on
s, Ph . DC.., E
dwa rd J.Ph.D.
Ka m e’e nu i, P h. D.,
Edward J. Kame’enui, Ph.D.
C ar rie T ho m as B eck, P h.D ., N icol e S h erm an B re w er, an d Ha nk Fi en
Or eg on R ea di n g Fi rst C en ter, C o ll ege of E d uca ti o n, U n iv ersit y of O rego n
•Designed to assist states, districts, and schools in selecting
research-based instructional tools
•Documents and quantifies the content, design and delivery features
of core reading programs
REVIEW:Evaluating Core
Programs: Instructional
Content (ingredients)
• Essential elements of scientifically based
programs include:
– phonemic awareness instruction
– systematic, explicit phonics instruction
– fluency instruction
– vocabulary instruction
– comprehension instruction
REVIEW: Design and Delivery
(recipe)
• Features of well-designed programs include:
– Explicitness of instruction for teacher and student
• Making it obvious for the student
– Systematic & coordinated instruction
• Building and developing skills
– Opportunities for practice with Cumulative review
• Modeling and practicing the skill
• Revisiting and practicing skills to increase strength
– Aligned Student materials/Integration of Big Ideas
• Linking essential skills
Choose Hypotheses
1. Core program is missing most instructional
elements necessary for our students. (Adopt a
new core.)
2. Core program is missing some instructional
elements necessary for our students- more
reinforcement and/or practice is needed.
(Supplement your core.)
3. Core program is not implemented with fidelity.
(Implement with higher integrity.)
Intervention Planning
Problem Identification
What is the problem?
Progress Monitoring
Did it work?
Problem Analysis
Why is it happening?
Intervention Planning
What should be done about it?
Potential Hypotheses
1. Core program is missing most instructional
elements necessary for our students. (Adopt a
new core.)
2. Core program is missing some instructional elements
necessary for our students- more reinforcement
and/or practice is needed. (Supplement your core.)
3. Core program is not implemented with fidelity.
(Implement with higher integrity.)
4 Block/Guided
Reading/Balanced
Literacy/Leveled Book Rooms
WHICH OF THE FIVE BIG AREAS?
• PHONEMIC AWARENESS
• PHONICS
• FLUENCY
• VOCABULARY
• COMPREHENSION
Examples of TIER 1:
Benchmark/Core Reading Programs That
Meet NRP Standards*:
~5%
~15%
Trophies (Harcourt School Publishers, 2003)
The Nation’s Choice (Houghton Mifflin, 2003)
Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Reading (2003)
Open Court (SRA/McGraw-Hill, 2002)
Reading Mastery Plus (SRA/
McGraw-Hill, 2002)
Scott Foresman Reading (2004)
Success For All (1998-2003)
*Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First Review of
Comprehensive Reading Programs: Addressed
all 5 areas
and included at least Grades K-3
http://oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu/curriculum_r
eview.php
~80% of Students
Open Court
Reading and writing program that uses a balanced
approach of systematic direct instruction in phonemic
awareness and phonics, grade level decodable text,
and incorporation of language arts materials.
WHICH OF THE FIVE BIG AREAS?
• PHONEMIC AWARENESS
• PHONICS
• FLUENCY
• VOCABULARY
• COMPREHENSION
Scott Foresman
Reading Street
Designed to help teachers build readers through motivating
and engaging literature, scientifically research-based
instruction, and a wealth of reliable teaching tools for
instruction, pacing, assessments, and grouping
WHICH OF THE FIVE BIG AREAS?
• PHONEMIC AWARENESS
• PHONICS
• FLUENCY
• VOCABULARY
• COMPREHENSION
Houghton Mifflin
Grounded in scientific research and proven effective,
The Nation’s Choice meets the need of all learners in
today’s diverse classrooms.
WHICH OF THE FIVE BIG AREAS?
• PHONEMIC AWARENESS
• PHONICS
• FLUENCY
• VOCABULARY
• COMPREHENSION
Harcourt Trophies
WHICH OF THE FIVE BIG AREAS?
• PHONEMIC AWARENESS
• PHONICS
• FLUENCY
• VOCABULARY
• COMPREHENSION
Reading Mastery
Plus
WHICH OF THE FIVE BIG AREAS?
• PHONEMIC AWARENESS
• PHONICS
• FLUENCY
• VOCABULARY
• COMPREHENSION
Language!
WHICH OF THE FIVE BIG AREAS?
• PHONEMIC AWARENESS
• PHONICS
• FLUENCY
• VOCABULARY
• COMPREHENSION
Another way to organize
and implement interventions
• Take same or similar comprehensive
programs and use them at different tiers
depending on the district population.
High SES Example
T ier 3
Intensi v e
Inter v entions:
 Readi ng Master y
 Correcti ve
Readi ng (4 -12)
 La ng u ag e ! (3 -12)
T ier 2
T argeted
Inter v entions:
 Read W ell (1 -3)
 Hori zons
T ier 1
Uni v e rsal
Inter v entions:
 Four Block
Guiding Re adin g
 Hou g hto n Mi fflin
 Harcourt
T ier 3
%
T ier 2
_ ___ %
Tier 1
%
Middle SES Example
T ier 3
%
T ier 2
T ier 3
Intensi v e
Inter v entions:
 Correcti v e
Readi n g (4 -12)
 La n g u a g e ! (3 -12)
T ier 2
T argeted
Inter v entions:
 Hori zons
 Readi n g Master y
 La n g u a g e ! (3 -12)
T ier 1
Uni v e rsal
Inter v entions:




_ ___ %
Tier 1
%
Harcourt
Hou g h to n Mi fflin
Ope n Court
Read W ell (1 -3)
Low SES Example
T ier 3
%
T ier 2
T ier 3
Intensi v e
Inter v entions:
 La n g u a g e ! (3 -12)
T ier 2
T argeted
Inter v entions:
 Readi n g Master y
 Correcti ve
Readi n g (4 -12)
 La n g u a g e ! (3 -12)
T ier 1
Uni v e rsal
Inter v entions:




_ ___ %
Tier 1
__ ___%
 Correcti ve
Readi n g (4 -12)
Readi n g Master y
Hori zons
Read W ell (1 -3)
Ope n Court
What Criteria….
Differentiate High SES communities
from Low SES communities??
Educationally, the main criteria are
background knowledge and language
development. The lower the SES, the
MORE systematic and explicit
interventions need to be in all 5 big
areas of reading.
Oregon Reading First website:
• Professional Development link
http://oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu/pr
ofdev.php
• Scroll about half way down: Selecting a
Core Program
Potential Hypotheses
1. Core program is missing most instructional elements
necessary for our students. (Adopt a new core.)
2. Core program is missing some instructional
elements necessary for our students- more
reinforcement and/or practice is needed.
(Supplement your core.)
3. Core program is not implemented with fidelity.
(Implement with higher integrity.)
FRAMEWORK for READING INTERVENTIONS
TIER III.
Highly at-risk students
Intensive interventions
TIER II.
At-risk studentsSupplemental
interventions
TIER I.
SRA DI PROGRAMSREADING MASTERY
HORIZONS
CORRECTIVE READING
SOAR TO SUCCESS
GREAT LEAPS /SLANT
REWARDS, LIPS
6 MIN. SOLUTIONS
K PALS, 1st Gr. PALS
JOLLY PHONICS/GRAMMAR
M. HEGGERTY
EAROBICS
GREAT LEAPS/ SLANT
REWARDS, QUICK READS
6 MINUTE SOLUTIONS
BRINGING WORDS TO LIFE
ELEMENTS OF READING-VOCABULARY
METACOGNITIVE STRAT.COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING
SOAR TO SUCCESS
K PALS, 1st Gr. PALS, JOLLY PHONICS, JOLLY GRAMMAR
M. HEGGERTY PROGRAM
6 MINUTE SOLUTIONS, QUICK READS, BRINGING WORDS TO LIFE
ELEMENTS OF READING-VOCABULARY, SOAR TO SUCCESS
METACOGNITIVE STRAT., COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING,
FIVE BIG AREAS OF READING
EVIDENCE/RESEAR
C H -BASED INTERVENTIONS
- K -6
PHONEMIC A
W ARENE S S

KPALS

Mi c h ael Heggerty P hon e m i c A w are n ess C u rri c u lu m

G reat Lea p s - K - 2

Jolly Phonics

Earobics,
LI P S
PHONICS
st

KPALS, 1
G r . PALS

G reat Lea p s - G r. K -2; 3 -6

Jolly Phonic s, Jolly Gra mm ar

RE W ARDS -G r. 3 - 5, G r. 4 - 6

SLA NT, LI P S

S R A Readin g Mastery,
Horizons

S R A Correcti v e Readin g - Decodin
g strand
FLUENCY

6 Mi nu te S o lu ti on s 
G reat Lea p s - G r. K -2 , 3 - 6

RE W ARDS -G r. 3 - 5, G r. 4 - 6

Q u i ck Rea d s

Re p eate d P h rases

Re p eate d Rea d in gs
VOCABULARY

M u l ti Level V o ca bu l ary Pr o gra m

Bri n gi n g Wo r d s to Li f e -R obu st V o ca bu l ary I n str u cti on

Ele m ents of Readin g -Vocabulary

CORE V o ca bu l ary Ha ndbook
COMPREHENSION

Metac o g n i ti ve Strategies/T h in k Al oud s

C o l la bo rative Strategic Rea d in g

Early S uccess, S oar to S uccess

S R A Correcti v e Readin g - Co m prehension
str a nd
I nter v entions
Unbolded inter
trainin g .
in BOLD
v entions
are low cost/low trainin
g , hi g h im pact m aterials.
are hi g h im pact, but a re m ore expensi v e and require
m ore
M A TR IX O F E VI D EN C E /R ES EA R CH -BA SE D R EAD ING IN TE RV E NT ION S -
5 Big A rea s o f
Re ading :
Kin de rgar ten
st
1 G r ad e
Pho n em ic
Aw a ren ess
-K P AL S
-MHegg e rty
P rog ram
-Ea rob ics
-MHegg e rty
P rog ram
st
-1 Gr . P A LS
-Gr e at L eap s-K -2
-Ea rob ics
2
nd
G r ad e
-Gr e at L eap s- K-2
-MHegg e rty
P rog ram
3
rd
G r ad e
-Gr e at L eap s-K -2
4
th
G r ad e
P h oni cs
F lu en cy
-K P AL S
st
-MHegg e rty
P rog ram
st
-1 Gr . P A LS
-Gr e at L eap s-K -2
-SL AN T
-SR A R ead .
M a stery
-Gr e at L eap s-K -2
-SL AN T
-SR A R ead .
M a stery
-1 Gr . P A LS
-Gr e at L eap s-K -2
-SL AN T
-Gr e at L eap s,G r.3 -5
-R E WARD S, G r. 35
-SR A R ead .
M a stery
--6 M in.So luti on s
-Gr e at L eap s, Gr .35
R E WA R DS , G r. 35
-Repe a te d P hrase s
-Repe a te d R ead ings
-6 Mi n. S olution s
-R E WARD S
-Gr e at L eap s,G r.3 -5
-R E WARD S
-6 Mi n. S olution s
-Gr e at L eap s, K-2
-SL AN T
-Repe a te d P hrase s
-Repe a te d R ead ings
V ocabula ry
C omp re h en sion
-B ri nging Wo rds t o
L ife
-E lem en ts o f
R e ad ing-Vo c abu lary
-B ri nging Wo rds t o
L ife
-E lem en ts o f
R e ad ing-Vo c abu lary
-COR E Vocabu lary
Handbook
-Me tac ogni ti ve
St ra te gies
-B ri nging Wo rds t o
L ife
-E lem en ts o f
R e ad ing-Vo c abu lary
-COR E Vocabu lary
Handbook
-B ri nging Wo rds t o
L ife
-E lem en ts o f
R e ad ing-Vo c abu lary
-COR E Vocabu lary
Handbook
-Me tac ogni ti ve
St ra te gies
-B ri nging
L ife
-Me tac ogni ti ve
St ra te gies
Wo rds t o
-Me tac ogni ti ve
St ra te gies
-Me tac ogni ti ve
St ra te gies
-Co ll abo rati ve
St ra te gic R ead ing
-So a r to S ucc e ss
5
th
G r ad e
- Gr e a t
L eaps , G r .3 - 5
- R E WARD S
-SR A
Co rr ec ti ve
R e ad i ng
-6
M i n .S o l ut i on s
- R E WARD S
- Repe a te d
P hr a se s
- Repe a te d
R e ad i ngs
- B ri nging
Wo r ds t o Li fe
- COR E
Vocabu la ry
Handbook
Mu ltiL eve l
Vocab .
P rog r a m
6
th
G r ad e
- Gr e a t
L eaps , G r .3 - 5
- R E WARD S
-SR A
Co rr ec ti ve
R e ad i ng
-6
M i n .S o l ut i on s
- R E WARD S
- Repe a te d
P hr a se s
- Repe a te d
R e ad i ngs
- B ri nging
Wo r ds t o Li fe
- COR E
Vocabu la ry
Handbook
Mu ltiL eve l
Vocab .
P rog r a m
- Gr e a t
L eaps , G r .3 - 5
- R E WARD S
-SR A
Co rr ec ti ve
R e ad i ng
-6
M i n .S o l ut i on s
- R E WARD S
- Repe a te d
P hr a se s
- Repe a te d
R e ad i ngs
- B ri nging
Wo r ds t o Li fe
- COR E
Vocabu la ry
Handbook
Mu ltiL eve l
Vocab .
P rog r a m
7th Grade
8th Grade
- Me t a c ogni ti ve
St ra te g i es
- Co ll abo r a ti ve
St ra te g i c
R e ad i ng
- So a r t o S ucc e ss
-S RA
Co rr ec ti ve
R e ad. - Co m p .
s tr and
- Me t a c ogni ti ve
St ra te g i es
- Co ll abo r a ti ve
St ra te g i c
R e ad i ng
- So a r t o S ucc e ss
-SR A
Co rr ec ti ve
R e ad. - Co m p .
s tr and
- Me t a c ogni ti ve
St ra te g i es
- Co ll abo r a ti ve
St ra te g i c
R e ad i ng
- So a r t o S ucc e ss
-SR A
Co rr ec ti ve
R e ad. - Co m p .
s tr and
LET’S LOOK AT THAT MENU
OF IDEAS AGAIN FOR:
5 BIG AREAS OF READING:
• Phonemic Awareness
• Phonics
• Fluency
• Vocabulary
• Comprehension
PHONEMIC AWARENESS
 KPALS,
 1ST GR. PALS
 MICHAEL HEGGERTY
PROGRAM
PHONICS




KPALS
1st Gr. PALS
JOLLY PHONICS/GRAMMAR
REWARDS-Gr. 3-5, or Gr. 4-8
 SRA READING MASTERY, HORIZONS
 CORRECTIVE READING-Decoding
FLUENCY
1st Gr. PALS
 6 MINUTE SOLUTIONS
• VOCABULARY THROUGH
MORPHEMES
• QUICK READS
• READ NATURALLY
 REPEATED PHRASES

VOCABULARY
• BRINGING WORDS TO LIFE (resource)
• ELEMENTS OF READING-VOCABULARY
• VOCABULARY THROUGH MORPHEMES
• LANGUAGE FOR THINKING
• LANGUAGE FOR LEARNING
COMPREHENSION
• METACOGNITIVE
STRATEGIES/THINK
ALOUDS
• COLLABORATIVE
STRATEGIC READING (CSR)
• EARLY SUCCESS (Gr. K-2)
• SRA CORRECTIVE
READINGCOMPREHENSION STRAND
How to Use the Data…
Aimsweb literacy data can give us a lot of
information that can be used to help plan
instruction, which of 5 big areas of reading
is deficit, and determine which students to
put together in which intervention group.
Remember -- hypotheses can always be
confirmed with additional diagnostic
assessment data!
DATA
5 BIG IDEAS
INTERVENTION
INTERVENTION
LI N KI N G AS SE SS M E N T DA T A INF O R MI N G T HE 5 BI G
AR E A S O F R E AD IN G TO IN ST RU C T IO N A ND
IN TE RV E N T IO N S
M easures:
5 B ig A rea s:
In te rve n tion s:
L NF
P HO N EM IC AWARENE
SS
L SF
P HO N IC S
M H E G G ER T Y
P SF
F LUENC Y
G RE A T L E A PS
NWF
V O CABULAR Y
S L A N TPHONICS
JOLLY
O RF
C O M P RE H EN S ION
RE W AR DS
K PA L S
WR ITI N G
6 M IN . S O L UT IONS
S PE LL ING
ELEMENTS
RE
AD N A T UROF
A LREAD-VOCAB.
LY
COLLABORATIVE STRAT.
RE
AD 180
READ.
BIG IDEA
Use assessment data to determine
student need and link that to
research-based interventions that
match the need.
DATA
INFORMS NEED
INTERVENTION
Criteria for intervention
selection IN ONE DISTRICT
• They are inexpensive to purchase:
High Impact/Lower Cost/Effective//Easy to
Implement
• There is little training required for
implementation and high treatment integrity.
• There can be flexibility with implementation,
as
• Multiple implementers are possible:
reading specialists, resource specialists,
general education teachers,
paraprofessionals, and/or parents.
D122 FRAMEWORK for READING INTERVENTIONS
TIER III.
Wilson
Highly at-risk students
Intensive interventions
Reading Mastery
Corrective Reading
Language for Thinking/Language for Learning
Horizons
Great Leaps, REWARDS
Selected Interventions from Trophies
TIER II.
Vocabulary through Morphemes
At-risk studentsSupplemental interventions
Heggerty Phonemic Awareness Curriculum
The Six Minute Solution
Collaborative Strategic Reading
Laanguage for Thinking/Language for Learning
Selected Interventions from Trophies Series
TIER I.
Harcourt
TrophiesIncrease integrity
Of implementation
KPALS, 1st Gr. PAL, 6 Minute Solution
Vocabulary through Morphemes
Heggerety Phonemic Awareness Curriculum,
Collaborative Strategic Reading
Language for Thinking/ Language for Learning
FIVE BIG AREAS OF READING
EVIDENCE/RESEARCH
-BASED INTERVENTIONS
P HONE M IC AW A RENESS
 K P ALS
 M ic hael Heggerty P ho nemic A w are ness C urric ulu m
 Great Leaps - K -2
 Se lected in ter venti ons fro m Tr o phi es
PHONICS
 K P ALS
 Great Leaps - Gr. K -2; 3 -6
 REWARD S -Gr. 3 -5, Gr. 4 -6
 Se lected in ter venti ons fro m Tr o phi es
 W il so n
FLUENCY
 6 M inu te So lut ion s Great Leaps - Gr. K -2
 Q uic k Re a ds
 REWARD S -Gr. 3 -5, Gr. 4 -6
 Repeated P hrases
VOCABULARY
 Bri ngi ng W or ds to Li fe-R o bust V oca bul ary Instr ucti on
 L angu age fo r L ear ni n g/Langu age for T hinking
COMPR E HENSION
 M etac ogni tive St r ategies/T h ink Al o uds
 C ollab or ative S trategic Rea d ing
 Q uic k Re a ds

P RO G RESS M ONIT O RING is also co nsidered an in ter vention in itse lf as
we ll as an a venu e for m eas uring in ter vention e ff ect iv eness.
Mich a el He g g erty Pho ne mic Aw ar e n e s s Program (Pho n emic A wa re ne ss)
This
research -b a sed curriculum
is s uited for K -2 students and contains
d aily
phonemic
awareness l e sson pla n s developed
on a systematic
scope and sequence o f
skills with e x plicit modeling . T h is curricu lum is intended to be done with a whole c las s
group and should take between 12
-15 minutes a day. S
tudents who are struggling can
benefit from multiple, repeated exposur
e s to these lesso n s in a sm all group setting.
Jolly Phonics (Phon
e mic A wa ren es s , Phonics)
Jolly Phonics is a fun, multi
-senso ry and child -centered
approach to teachin
g
literacy.
This research
-based progr a m p rovides systematic
in struction of the 42 main
letter sounds as
well as digr a phs. It use s different multi
-sensory methods, childre n are
taught how to form and write letters. As soon as the letter sounds are known, children
are taught how to blend them to read and
write words. Children are also taught how to
hear the different soun
d s in wor d s. Th is is a n effective w ay o f improving
spell ing .
Tricky words have irregular spellings
a nd children are taught how to learn these
separately.
A s thes e bas ic but e ssent ial phonic s skil ls a re taught so ra pidly, th e
children are able to move on to more cr
eative writing processes fa ster and the hi g her order reading comprehension
strategies c an be taught earlier.
G r eat Le aps (Pho ne mic Awa ren e s s, Phonics, Fl u en c y)
Students
work individuall
y with an in structor and t he materia ls for les s than te n
minutes
per day (three da
y s per week minimum). The material
s (one instruc tor' s
manual
and one student notebook) ar
e age appropriate and comprehe
n sive. For
example,
the high school book can take a non
-reading
high school student to
independent
reading status. (Depend
ing on the severity of the reading problem, on e to
two school years
is the average length o n intervention .)
Great
Leaps i s divided int
o three major
areas: ( 1) Phoni c s: developing
an d
mastering
essen tial sight -sound relation s hips and/or sound awaren e ss s kills; (2) Sigh t
Phrases: m a stering sight words while de v eloping and improvin g focusing s kills; an d (3 )
Reading Fluency: usin
g age -appropriat e stories s pecifically d e signed to build read ing
fluency, reading motivation, and
proper in tonation.
www.fcrr.org
http://www.fcrr.org/FCRRReports
Florida Center for Reading Research
Key: Summary Table for FCRR Reports
•
Type of Program
1 = Core Reading Program
2 = Supplemental or Intervention Program
3 = Technology-Based Program
4 = Program that may be implemented by a tutor or mentor
5 = Intervention or Remedial Program for students above third grade
•
Reading Component (PA = Phonemic Awareness, P = Phonics, F = Fluency, V = Vocabulary, C =
Comprehension)
+ = some aspects of this component taught and/or practiced
++ = most aspects of this component taught and/or practiced
+++ = all aspects of this component taught and/or practiced
n/a = Not Addressed in this program. In other words, this element of reading is not a goal of this program.
•
Special Considerations
a. explicit
b. systematic
c. student materials aligned
d. ample practice opportunities provided
e. practice only
f. oral language only
g. phonemic awareness and phonics program
h. phonics program
i. fluency program
j. vocabulary program
k. comprehension program
l. extensive professional development required
m. expertise required to make informed curriculum decisions
n. extensive organization of materials required
o. school-wide implementation required
Potential Hypotheses
1. Core program is missing most instructional elements
necessary for our students. (Adopt a new core.)
2. Core program is missing some instructional elements
necessary for our students- more reinforcement
and/or practice is needed. (Supplement your core.)
3. Core program is not implemented with fidelity.
(Implement with higher integrity.)
INSTRUCTIONAL
ENHANCEMENTS
Remember the focus must be on factors
over which you have jurisdiction:
-Quality/type/intensity of instruction &
program implementation
-Program & program emphasis
-Time (opportunities to learn)
-Grouping structures
Instructional Enhancements
(variables we can alter)
Alterable
Components
Specific Enhancements
1
2
3
4
Program
Emphasis
Use core
program &
explicitly teach
priority skills.
Use
extensions of
the core
program
(e.g., add
examples)
Supplement
core with
reteaching or
intervention
components
of core.
Replace
current core
program with
intervention
program.
Increase
opportunities
to respond
during core
instruction.
Schedule
core +
supplemental
period daily.
(90 + 30 or
60 + 30)
Schedule
two
intervention
sessions
daily (no less
than 90
minutes
total)
Schedule
small group
opportunity
for specific
practice
Reduce
group size
Provide
individual
instruction
Schedule &
deliver 90
minutes of
Time
daily reading
(Opportunities
instruction
to Learn)
(minimum 30
minutes small
group).
Grouping for
Instruction
Check group
placement &
provide
combination of
whole & small
group
instruction.
Increasing Intensity
5
Implement
specially
designed
program
Increasing Intensity
Options
TIER 1, 2, or 3
Instructional Planning Form
Instructional Strategies
Skill
Teaching
Strategy
Materials Arrangement
Time
Motivational
Strategies
Assessment
Procedures
Phonemic
Awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension
10/03 Adapted from the U of Oregon
Sample IPF:Second Grade
Student Name_______________________ Teacher Name________________ School Year ____________
Goal ___________________________________________________________________________________
Instructional Strategies
Materials
Arrangemen
t
Time
Motivational
Strategies
Assessment
Procedures
Skill
Teaching
Strategy
Decoding/Encoding
(Phonics/Word
Analysis))
Teacher-Led
Instruction
Harcourt
Trophies
Jolly
Grammar 2
19:1
Independent
30 mins.
daily
Verbal Praise
Sticker System
Benchmarking
Decodable
probes
Spelling Test
Fluency
Teacher,
Partner
Reading
Harcourt
Trophies
6 Minute
Solution
19:1
1:1
20 min.
daily
Fluency Selfmade charts
Benchmarking
Progress
Monitoring
Vocabulary
Teacher-Led
Instruction
Independent
Harcourt
Trophies
Elements of
reading-Voab.
19:1
Independent
20 mins.
daily
Verbal Praise
Vocabulary
Matching
Comprehension
(Guided Reading
Groups)
Teacher-Led
Small group
Independent
work
Leveled Book
Think Alouds
Metacognitive
Strategies
3-6:1
Independent
40 min.
daily
Conferencing
Positive
Feedback
Sticker System
Conferencing
10/03 Adapted from the U of Oregon
Examining Treatment Integrity
1.
Teacher self-report/implementation logs:
–
2.
Teacher may be interviewed regarding steps followed during
intervention or keep a log of the steps implemented
Ratings scales:
–
3.
Written step-by-step intervention plan can be used as a
checklist & implementer would complete checklist
Direct Observation:
–
4.
Of teacher behavior could be conducted periodically during
intervention (use of IPF)
Permanent Products:
–
Teacher/student created products that would demonstrate the
intervention components were implemented
5 Minute Walk Through Observation
of Implementation Integrity (sample
1)
5 Minute Walk Through Observation
of Implementation Integrity (sample
2)
Evaluation/Progress
Monitoring
Problem Identification
What is the problem?
Evaluation/
Progress Monitoring
Did it work?
Problem Analysis
Why is it happening?
Intervention Planning
What should be done about it?
REMINDER…
• EMPHASIZING AND REMEMBERING
THE ‘ROBUSTNESS’ OF YOUR
DATA….
School-Wide Reading Improvement in a
School Using Problem-Solving
Courtesy of Christine Martin, Indian Prairie School District, IL
UNIVERSAL TIER 1:
Benchmark/Core Programs:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
~5%
Trophies (Harcourt School Publishers, 2003)
The Nation’s Choice (Houghton Mifflin, 2003)
Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Reading (2003)
Open Court (SRA/McGraw-Hill, 2002)
Reading Mastery Plus (SRA/
McGraw-Hill, 2002)
6. Scott Foresman Reading (2004)
7. Success For All (1998-2003)
Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First
Comprehensive: Addressed all 5 areas
and included at least grades K-3
~15%
~80% of Students
Effects of 6 Minute Solutions on 2nd grade
on Oral Reading Fluency
120
% o f s t ud e n t s in R is k C a t e g o rie s
100
100
BEFORE
AFTER
80
61
Intervention class
60
Control Class
43
40
45
40
41
27
20
16
15
11
0
0
Fall No risk
(>90)
Fall Mod. Risk
(70-90)
Fall High risk
(<70)
Spring No risk
(>90)
Risk Categories
Spring Mod.
Risk (70-90)
0
Spring High risk
(<70)
6 Minute Solution effects: Effects of increased oral reading
fluency on reading comprehension
W e e k ly R O I o n
C o m p r e h e n s io n In d ic a t o r
Fourth Grade-Winter MAZE ROI
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.27
0.2
0.1
0
Control Class
Fall Mean scores
Intervention
Class
Winter Rates of Improvement
Monitoring Progress at Tier 1:
Benchmark Assessment to Measure
Educational Need and Benefit for All
Tier 1: General Education Benchmark
Assessment and Progress Monitoring
Helps Understand
Individual Student
Problem or More
Than 1?
Activity #3.
Do Tier 1 Problem
Solving- going through
each step of the
process.
Use the attached Problem
Analysis tool to assist
you.
Document your results on
the attached Workbook
form.
Pr o b le m An a ly sis T oo l for T ier 1/C o re Pr o gra m
III . Instr u ct io n al Pro g ram s an d M a te ria ls - T h e in stru c tion al pr o gra m s
a n d m a ter ial s h a v e d o cu m e n te d e ffic ac y , are d r a w n fr om res ear c h b a s e d find in g s an d p r acti c e s , ali g n w ith s ta te s ta n d a r ds an d
b e n c h m ar k s, a n d su p p ort the full ran g e o f le a r ne r s.
1. A co m p r e he nsi v e or c ore
re a di n g p r og r am w ith
do c um en te d res ear c h - b as e d
effi c a c y is a do pt ed fo r u se s ch ool
wid e (x 3).
2. T h e in s tru c tion al pr o gra m
a n d m a ter ial s p r ovi d e e x plici t an d
sy s te m at ic in s truct io n o n criti c al
re a di n g prior itie s (i. e ., ph o n emi c
a w ar e n e s s , p h o ni c s, fl u e n cy ,
vo ca bu lary, an d c o m pr e h en si o n)
(x 2).
3. T h e in s tru c tion al
ma teria ls a nd p r og r am al ig n wi th
a n d s upp ort s ta te
s ta nd ar d s /sc ie n tifi c ally b a s e d
pr a cti c e s an d pr o vi d e su ffici e n t
in s truct io n in es s e nt ial ele m e n ts
to allo w th e m ajorit y o f st u d en ts
to r e a c h le arn in g g o a ls.
4. S u p p lem e n tal an d
in terv e nt io n pr o gra m s of
do c um en te d effi c a c y ar e in p la c e
to s up por t s tu d e n ts w h o d o n o t
b en efi t ad e q u a tel y fr o m th e c ore
pr o gra m (x 2).
5. Pr o g r am s an d m a teria ls
are i m p lem e n te d w ith a h ig h le vel
of fid elity ( x 3).
/2 2 T ot a l P o int s
%
Perce nt of Im p le m e n t ation :
1 1 = 50 %
1 8 = 80 %
2 2 = 100 %
Sch o ol________________
_ _____
Grade_______________________
T I E R 1 - DA T A D I S C USS I ON AND
D E CI S I ONS
Ste p 1: Ide nt ify in g a pr o b lem :
A t the gr a de l ev el , w h a t p erc e n ta ge of s tu d e n ts m et t h e s u cc e s s
criter io n /b e n ch m ark tar g e t?
Ste p 2: An a ly zing t h e Pr o b lem :
If l e s s th a n 8 0 % m e et b e n c hmar k ta r ge t, w h y is th is o c curr in g ?
H y p o th e s e s :
Ess e nt ial a n d crit ical e leme n ts are m iss in g fro m the curri c u lum in terms
of c o n te n t an d de s ig n fe a tu r es. B eg in ad o p tion pr o gr e ss for n e w
curri c u lum.
Some e lem e n ts are mi s s ing from c o nt en t a n d d es ig n fe a tur e s.
Su p ple m e n t c ore curri c u lum w ith ro b u st , re s ear c h -b a s e d prog r ams.
Curric u lum n e e d s to b e imp lem e n te d w ith h ig her tre a tme n t in tegr ity .
Ste p 3: Pl a n n in g t h e inte rve nt io n
Do c um e nt s te p s y o u w ill ta k e to a dd ress y o ur h y p o th es is :
Ste p 4: E v al u a tin g
Wh a t d a ta w ill y o u u s e to eva lu at e y our pl an ?
Wh o ? Wh a t? W h e n ? W h er e ?

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