Slide - IAOS 2014 Conference

Prepared by
Beatrice W. Gichohi,
Chief Manager Research Planning and Development,
Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority, Nairobi, Kenya
[email protected]
Tana and Athi Rivers
Development Authority (TARDA)
•Is a statutory corporation in
Kenya with a mandate for
regional development,
organized around Tana and Athi
Rivers Basin.
•Tana and Athi Rivers Basins
comprise of 19 counties (out of
the 47 counties in Kenya)
•According to 2009 Census
report Kenya 14.3 ( 37%) of
Kenya's population of about
38.6 million people lived in the
•Of these ,about 11 million
(78%) lived in the rural areas
while about 3.3 million lived in
Survey Design
Thinking Future
• TARDA has been formulating a Regional
Development Plan for Tana and Athi Rivers basin.
• This is a 20 year plan which identifies and
prioritizes strategies, programs and projects to be
implemented in the region for sustainable
equitable development and improved livelihoods.
• The plan has involved resource mapping as well
as identification of development needs and
priorities of the communities.
• In March 2014, a Household survey was conducted to evaluate
the perception of the community on
 Resources in the region and their potential ,
 Levels of resource utilization
 Socio- economic Challenges
 development priorities
• A total of 3,400 households were selected for the study
• A questionnaire was used to collect data
• This paper looks at how the questionnaire was administered
Internet Access and Mobile phone
Usage in Kenya
According to the communications commission of Kenya, (CCK) 20112012 Report,
• Internet usage via traditional users grew by 19.2%
• Kenya has about 7 million users of internet - About 72% of Kenyans
lack internet access
• 29.7 million mobile phone users- 11% lack mobile telephone access
• Disparity in access to high speed internet remains a large obstacle
Majority of internet users are located in Nairobi.
Lack of access to internet and mobile telephones has mostly affected
communities in the rural areas.
Enumerators in a training
session in in a previous data
collection exercise in Kajiado
In the past
TARDA used conventional methods of pen
and paper data collection methods.
Characterized by
•High cost of administering
•A lot of time required to collect , enter ,
clean and analyze data
•A lot of errors in data especially due to
missing and incomplete data
•Other logistical problems
There was need to leverage on
technology and devise a method which
would minimize the above problems
Survey Design
• The data collection method designed was a
hybrid of Web surveys and the enumerator
assisted conventional field data collection.
Methodology- Data Collection Tools
Online questionnaire
• A questionnaire with 120 variables ( Closed
ended and open ended questions) was created
and uploaded to the organizations website.
• The questionnaire was organized by the six
thematic areas of study ;Economic, social cultural
, demographic, Physical features, infrastructure
and human settlement
Mobile phones;
3G enabled mobile phones were used to access and
respond to the online survey
Methodology - Data collection Organization
• Tana and Athi Rivers Basin
• 3 Catchments
• 1 Coordinators Per Catchment
• 4 enumerators per county
• Each enumerator was in charge of a county ward
Methodology -Sampling
• A directory obtained from the Kenya Population and
Housing census 2009 was used as the sampling frame.
• 17 counties studied. From each 200 house holds would
be selected.
• Multistage Random sampling was used to select the
• Simple random Sampling was used to select four wards
per county
• From each ward a cluster sample of 50 household’s
was selected. Each cluster was a sub village. A total of
3,400 households were selected for the survey.
Methodology- Data Collection
• To qualify as an enumerator a person had to
Be a resident of the County ward
 have a 3G enabled mobile phone
 have at least secondary school level of
• The catchment coordinators trained the
community enumerators during a one day
training session.
Methodology- Data Collection
•Bulk internet bundles was bought and
distributed to the which were distributed to
the enumerators.
•Each of the enumerators would visit the
respondents at a pre arranged convenient
location (at home, on their farms, shopping
center, and market).
•Respondents with previous exposure to
web applications would respond with
minimum assistance
•Where there was no access to internet, an
offline copy which had been saved in the
phone would be used
•Each enumerator would complete an
average of 15 questionnaires each day
•Internet allocation was 100 MB per day/
Enumerator .
Data collection at a shopping
Center in Machakos
Methodology- Data Cleaning
• Back in the office, the catchment coordinators were
tracking the responses as they came in.
• Data from completed questionnaires would be
downloaded at regular intervals and subjected to
• The enumerators would be informed of any errors
identified and would verify accuracy of data with
• The data collection exercise took five days within which
all data had been collected, downloaded and cleaned.
Cost effective;
• Cost of web survey was about -KES
300,000 ($3,500)
• Initial budget of about- KES 1,000,000
($11,500) for data collection and
entry conventional methods.
Minimized Sampling Error ; Web
surveys are characterized by big
sampling errors. However this being a
hybrid of the conventional survey
methods and web surveys probability
methods of sampling were
Clean Data; eliminated errors resulting
from data entry. The coordinators
were also able to clean the data in
their offices as data collection was
going on in the field.
High Response rate. Out of the
Targeted 3,400 households, 3,284
responded translating to a response
rate of 96.5%.
Respondent Guidance; Respondents
were guided in taking the Web
survey. This ensured that everybody
regardless of their levels of education
had the same interpretation of the
Quick Results; It took four days to
collect, enter and clean data from
3,200 respondents.
• Data Security; with rapid growth
of incidents of cyber crime in
Kenya, Some respondents were
uncomfortable with their
responses being uploaded on
• Internet Access; The initial
assumption that internet would
be accessible everywhere, any
time was proved wrong.
Enumerators in a few areas were
unable to access internet. They
however were able to use the
offline version of the survey
which they would later upload
• Mobile Phone Battery; Some
mobile phones batteries could
not last the whole day. This posed
a problem in some rural areas
where there was no access to
• Literacy levels and previous
exposure; Literacy levels vary
greatly with from one county to
the other. Questionnaires should
be designed to fit the varied
literacy levels.
There was a significant association between Respondent’s Levels
of Education and their catchments of residence
• This was a hybrid of the web survey and the
conventional enumerator assisted data
collection method .
• The Hybrid benefited from the strengths of
each of these two methods
• offered solutions to the initial skepticism of
using the web survey which revolved around
issues of low literacy levels, and internet
And Thinking Future
• Kenya’s population is ready and enthusiastic
about adoption of technology
• In future, with more exposure to mobile phone
technology and increasing access to internet,
communities in Kenya will be able to respond to
self administered online surveys.
• Issues of sampling, internet access and ability of
the respondents to self administer a
questionnaire should be considered.

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