Motivation to Eat AP Psychology What Motivates us to Eat? Complete the survey The measure is based on a four-category model of motivations for alcohol use The model specifies the following four specific motivations for eating that extend beyond the need for nourishment To cope with negative affect To be social To comply with others’ expectations To enhance pleasure What Motivates us to Eat? Most important— this scale recognizes that psychological motivations can play an important role in the initiation of both healthy and disordered eating Scoring Coping Add the numbers placed Social Motivation Add the numbers placed before the following items: before the following items: 5 7 9 10 11 4 12 13 14 18 Scoring Compliance Add the numbers placed Pleasure Add the numbers placed before the following items: before the following items: 15 16 17 19 20 1 2 3 6 8 Take a moment to identify your mean score for each category Mean Scores Female Undergraduates The mean scores Male Undergraduates The Mean scores were: were: 1.78 for Coping 2.74 for Social 1.60 for Compliance 2.33 for Pleasure 1.78 for Coping 2.66 for Social 1.54 for Compliance 2.28 for Pleasure What commonalities do we see? What might explain the similarities and differences What’s the Significance? Mean scores are for a group of generally healthy people May suggest: These psychological motivations are not the dominant reasons healthy undergraduates eat The Authors suggest: Disturbed eating results from chronically acting on coping, compliance, and pleasure motivations Even those who diet may see their eating as motivated by depression, feelings of personal inadequacy, and as a way to comfort themselves. What Motivates us to Eat? Would you do anything to survive? Would you eat anything to live? 1972 plane crash in the Andes Mountains Survivors were stranded for 72 days, existing on wine, chocolates, and finally the flesh of their dead comrades The Decision to Eat Factors Affecting their Choice: Difficult decision “Life is more important” Developed rules for eating Changed definitions of “taboo” Encouraged others to eat their flesh, if they too should die Discuss How strong is the hunger drive? What do you think you would do in this situation? The Psychology of Hunger What affects hunger? Hunger does NOT come from our stomach. It comes from our… Brain What part of the brain? The Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Lateral Hypothalamus Ventromedial Hypothalamus Initiates Hypothalamus Hunger Mnemonic: Stops Hunger Orexin- a hormone that When lesioned you will when released by the I’m latehypothalamus for lunch. lateral makes you feel hungry hypothalamus When lesioned (destroyed) you will never be hungry again. never feelThe full again. I’m hungry. lateral makes you hungry. What affects hunger? Glucose- sugar that circulates throughout the body that is used for energy- Run low on glucose you feel hungry as orexin is now being released as a response “Satisfy your hunger and eat a Snickers” What is the key ingredient in any candy bar? Sugar. Run low on glucose you become hungry What affects Hunger? Insulin- hormone that converts glucose to energy- high levels of insulin result in low levels of glucose- you feel hungry Think of a teeter-totter- when insulin goes up/ glucose goes down- producing hunger What affects Hunger? CCK- produced by hormones in the gut that provide short-term signals of satiation, or being full CCK is released while you are eating in response to the lining of the stomach stretching The more it stretches- the more CCK is released When you say; “I am stuffed,” that is because CCK was released, signifying to the brain to stop eating Review 1. The most critical physiological factor controlling hunger is the A. level of blood sugar B. stomach contractions C. taste of food D. presence of fatigue Review 2. The maintenance of steady states of temperature and blood pressure are examples of A. thermostasis B. homeostasis C. intrinsic motivation D. biological rhythm Review 3. Electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamus will cause a rat to A. start eating B. stop eating C. start drinking D. stop drinking Review 4. If the lateral hypothalamus is destroyed, a rat will A. drink more water than biologically needed B. refuse to drink until forced to do so. C. eat until it becomes obese D. refuse to eat until force fed. Review 5. The employees at a factory were excellent workers until a week before Christmas when a rumor spread that economic conditions would force the plant to close in four days. The quality and quantity of work took a down turn as the workers spent time discussing among themselves the plausibility of the rumor and what they would do if it were true. Maslow would say that these workers were motivated by A. meta-needs B. intrinsic motivation C. esteem and self-esteem D. safety and security Set-Point Theory Set point theory is maintaining of the body’s ideal weight This is maintained, or regulated through homeostasis, which affects the basal metabolic rate- (BMR) the rate at which your body conserves and burns off calories. The hypothalamus acts like a thermostat. Wants to maintain a stable weight. Activate the lateral when you diet and activate the ventromedial when you start to gain weight. Ghrelin Set-Point Theory Factors that affect the BMR: Women have a slower BMR. Not eating lowers your BMR. Exercising speeds up the BMR. Overweight people have a higher BMR. Set-Point Theory--Leptin Leptin is a cell-signaling hormone vital in the regulation of appetite, food intake and body weight. When fat mass decreases, the level of plasma leptin falls so that appetite is stimulated until the fat mass is recovered. By contrast, when fat mass increases, so do leptin levels and appetite is suppressed until weight loss occurs. In this way leptin regulates energy intake and fat stores so that weight is maintained within a relatively narrow range. Resistance to leptin, or a lack of it have been associated with obesity Obesity Obesity- is indicated by over 30 on the BMI- the Body Mass Index Severely overweight to the point where it causes health issues. Mostly eating habits but some people are predisposed towards obesity. Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Characterized by an obsession with body weight and a preoccupation to burn calories through excessive exercising and not eating Bulimia Nervosa Characterized by binging (consuming large amounts of calories) and purgingmethods that involve ridding the body of food Eating Disorders Eating disorders often involve perceptual distortions- even though a person is underweight they still see themselves as being overweight, which is why professional help is often required With a small group… Read the article: “Why Men are Better Dieters Than Women” Respond: What makes men better dieters? Which motivational theory best matches up to this? Do you agree with their hypothesis? Are there any social or cultural aspects they may have ignored?