acquired

Report
Objectives
1. To learn the major
categories of canine
diseases.
2. To learn the symptoms
and causes of canine
diseases.
3. To learn the proper
prevention and treatment for
canine diseases.
2
Disease Categories
3
Viral Diseases
• Viruses are microscopic disease
agents, meaning they only
exist to multiply in
their host
• The majority of
infectious dog
diseases are
caused by
viruses
4
Viral Diseases:
Canine Distemper
• Considered the most serious viral
disease of dogs
• About 50 percent of non-vaccinated,
non-immunized dogs with the disease
will develop the symptoms of the
disease
– of those, about 90 percent will die
• More common in pups younger than
three months old
5
Viral Diseases:
Canine Distemper
• Causes
– is caused by a virus closely related to the
human measles virus
– is a highly contagious disease contracted
through the air and contact
6
Viral Diseases:
Canine Distemper
• Symptoms
– fever and depression
– vomiting and bloody diarrhea
– coughing and labored breathing
– fits and nervous twitching
– paralysis
– inflammation of tissues around the eyes
and nose
– can also cause a hardening of the nose
and pads
7
Viral Diseases:
Canine Distemper
• Prevention and treatment
– vaccine for the disease should be
administered every three to four weeks
from six to 16 weeks of age with annual
boosters
8
Viral Diseases:
Canine Parainfluenza
• Is a highly contagious disease causing
upper respiratory disease and
infectious tracheobronchitis
• Is considered to be one of the most
predominant infectious respiratory
diseases in canines
9
Viral Diseases:
Canine Parainfluenza
• Causes
– disease can be contracted through direct
contact or through the air
– environmental influences (e.g., drafts,
cold, etc.) may promote susceptibility to
the disease
10
Viral Diseases:
Canine Parainfluenza
• Symptoms
– coughing
– fever
– nasal secretion
– conjunctivitis
– tonsillitis
– lethargy
– anorexic behavior
11
Viral Diseases:
Canine Parainfluenza
• Treatment
– vaccinations will curb the severity of the
disease
– vaccinations should be given at four week
intervals from eight to 16 weeks of age
– require annual revaccinations
12
Viral Diseases:
Infectious Canine Hepatitis
• Is an extremely contagious viral
disease affecting the liver and other
organs
13
Viral Diseases:
Infectious Canine Hepatitis
• Causes
– is due to direct contact with an infected
animal or contaminated objects
– also can be transmitted by inhalation or
from fleas, ticks or mosquitoes
14
Viral Diseases:
Infectious Canine Hepatitis
• Symptoms
– can range from mild to severe
– nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite
– jaundice, bleeding from the nose and
gums
– bloody vomit and diarrhea
– enlarged abdomen
– disorientation, seizures and coma
– death occurs within five days
– one-quarter of infected dogs develop a
temporary clouded cornea
15
Viral Diseases:
Infectious Canine Hepatitis
• Treatment
– no known cure for the disease
– use intravenous fluid replacement, fasting,
blood transfusions, antibiotics and eye
drops as supportive treatments
– vaccinate
• includes injections at ten weeks, 14 weeks
and then yearly boosters
• recommended by veterinarians
16
Viral Diseases:
Canine Coronavirus
• Young pups are highly susceptible to
clinical infections
• Detection methods include electron
microscopy
17
Viral Diseases:
Canine Coronavirus
• Causes
– virus in feces is the major source of
infection
– environmental stresses (e.g., crowding,
unsanitary conditions, stress during
training, etc.) favor the development of the
diseases
18
Viral Diseases:
Canine Coronavirus
• Symptoms
– vomiting and diarrhea
– feces is watery and streaked with blood
– dehydration
– depression
– anorexic behavior
– mortality rate is low
19
Viral Diseases:
Canine Coronavirus
• Prevention and treatment
– only method of prevention is to avoid
contact with other dogs and their
secretions
– disinfection of shelter and equipment with
a three percent hypochlorite solution is
effective in killing the virus
20
Viral Diseases:
Canine Parvovirus
• Is an enteric disease usually attacking
pups between weaning age and sixmonths of age
– pups usually remain somewhat unhealthy
and weak for life
21
Viral Diseases:
Canine Parvovirus
• Causes
– transmission occurs when dogs come in
contact with the bodily fluids of infected
animals
22
Viral Diseases:
Canine Parvovirus
• Symptoms
– bloody diarrhea
– diarrhea is foul smelling and sometimes
yellow in color
– vomiting
– high fever
– lethargy
23
Viral Diseases:
Canine Parvovirus
• Prevention and treatment
– no known cure for the disease
– use supportive therapy involving giving
fluids, regulating electrolyte levels,
controlling the body temperature and
giving blood transfusions
– vaccinate starting when pups are six- to
eight-weeks old
24
Viral Diseases:
Rabies
• Is the oldest and most well-known of
canine diseases
• Primarily attacks the nervous system
and causes encephalitis
• Is detected only by examining the brain
after death for signs of infection
25
Viral Diseases:
Rabies
• Causes
– disease is transmitted by urine, saliva and
blood
– primary source of rabies is a bite from a
rabid animal
26
Viral Diseases:
Rabies
• Symptoms
– death occurs three to seven days after
signs begin to show
– three phases of the disease exist:
1. prodromal stage
2. furious stage
3. paralytic stage
27
Viral Diseases:
Rabies
• Prodomal stage
– lasts two to three days
– symptoms include:
•
•
•
•
behavioral changes
fever
slow eye reflexes
chewing at the bite site
28
Viral Diseases:
Rabies
• Furious stage
– lasts two to four days
– signs include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
irritability
restlessness
barking
aggression
vicious attacks on inanimate objects
unexpected roaming
29
Viral Diseases:
Rabies
• Paralytic stage
– lasts two to four days
– paralysis develops
– depression
– coma
– death from respiratory paralysis
30
Viral Diseases:
Rabies
• Prevention and treatment
– dogs are easily vaccinated
– most counties and cities require dogs to
be vaccinated
– one of the highest compliance rates of all
routine dog vaccinations
– all dogs should be vaccinated
31
Bacterial Diseases
• Are caused by a bacteria
• Bacteria is microscopic in size and
rapidly multiplies in ideal environments
• Produces a toxin which affects normal
activity
32
Bacterial Diseases:
Canine Leptospirosis
• Is an acute infectious disease
• Is diagnosed by lab testing blood and
urine
• Causes
– contact with infected urine
– ingestion of urine-contaminated water (most
common)
– contact with organisms during breeding or
gestation
– contact with eye membrane, bite wounds or
abrasions
– ingestion of the flesh from an infected animal
33
Bacterial Diseases:
Canine Leptospirosis
• Symptoms
– depression and loss of appetite
– fever, jaundice and uremia
– vomiting
– excessive urination, dehydration and
excessive thirst
– difficulty breathing
– muscular tremors
34
Bacterial Diseases:
Canine Leptospirosis
• Treatment and
prevention
– vaccines are available
– infected dogs should
be quarantined and
areas of contamination
should be washed and
disinfected
35
Bacterial Diseases:
Lyme Disease
• Causes
– transmitted through a tick bite
– tick must remain attached to the skin for at
least one day before the bacteria can be
transmitted
36
Bacterial Diseases:
Lyme Disease
• Symptoms
– generalized pain and swollen joints
– anorexic behavior
– high fevers
– lameness
– can lead to neurological disorders
– swollen lymph nodes
37
Bacterial Diseases:
Lyme Disease
• Treatment and prevention
– can be controlled by antibiotics
– treatment is long
– prevention is possible by keeping ticks
away from dogs
– a vaccine is now available
• given twice at a two-week interval and annual
revaccination is necessary
38
Bacterial Diseases:
Brucellosis
• Symptoms
– associated with the reproductive tract
– for females is abortion after 45 to 55 days of
gestation
– for males is epididymus of one or both testes
• semen from males contains larger numbers of
abnormal sperm and inflammatory cells
– can also include
•
•
•
•
lethargy
loss of libido
premature aging
lymph node enlargement
39
Bacterial Diseases:
Brucellosis
• Treatment and prevention
– principle control strategy is elimination of
infected dogs
– yearly testing of all breeding stock is
needed for prevention
– treatment is expensive and difficult
– males frequently remain sterile
40
Genetic Diseases
• There are more
than 300 dog
diseases
caused by the
animal’s own
genetic makeup
• The impact of many genetic diseases
can be alleviated through breeding
practices
41
Genetic Diseases:
Cataracts
• Is a clouding of the normally clear lens
of the eye
• Causes
– most are genetically transmitted
– other reasons are:
•
•
•
•
•
age-related
trauma
dietary deficiency
electric shock
toxin
42
Genetic Diseases:
Cataracts
• Symptoms
– bumping into objects
– failing to retrieve favorite toys
– fear of being left alone
• Treatment and prevention
– surgery is the only way to remove
cataracts
– an intraocular lens is implanted during
surgery
– 90 to 95 percent of patients have good to
excellent vision after surgery
43
Genetic Diseases:
Canine Hypothyroidism
• Is the most commonly diagnosed
endocrine disease of dogs
• Is underproduction of the hormone
thyroxin, which is produced by the
thyroid gland
– thyroxin controls growth and maintains
normal protein, carbohydrate and lipid
metabolism
• Mostly occurs between two and six
years old
44
Genetic Diseases:
Canine Hypothyroidism
• Causes
– most cases are due to genetic makeup
– other causes include:
• surgical removal of the gland
• cancer
• low iodine in the
diet
45
Genetic Diseases:
Canine Hypothyroidism
• Symptoms
–
–
–
–
–
increased body weight; most common
develops a skin disease
decreased exercise and becomes lethargic
develops reproductive problems
is often called the great imitator because it
shows disease symptoms of other diseases
• Treatment
– a thyroid hormone supplementation is given
orally once or twice daily
46
Genetic Diseases:
Diabetes Mellitus
• Is a metabolic disorder signaled by a
congenital or acquired inability to
transport sugar from the blood into
cells
• Is more commonly found in middle
aged to older dogs
• Symptoms
– drinking excessively
– urinating excessively
– losing weight
47
Genetic Diseases:
Bloat
• Is a serious, life threatening condition
• Can occur in any breed or age of dog
• Enlarges stomach due to extreme gas,
dilation or a twisting of the stomach
• Clogs the esophagus preventing the
stomach from relieving gas by belching
• Blocks food from the intestines and prevents
vomiting
• Compresses one of the major veins carrying
blood to the heart resulting in abnormal
blood circulation, which leads to shock and
death
48
Genetic Diseases:
Bloat
• Causes
– usually affecting deep chested and large
breed dogs
– eating rapidly
– being underweight
– having a fearful or anxious temperament
– males are more likely to bloat than
females
49
Genetic Diseases:
Bloat
• Symptoms
– anxiety and restlessness
– whining, pacing and heavy
panting
– salivating, gagging and shallow breathing
– dry vomiting
– abdominal swelling after meals
– excessive heartbeat, weak pulse and off
colored gums
50
Genetic Diseases:
Bloat
• Treatment and prevention
– expensive and complicated treatments
through veterinarians; not always successful
– treat shock with I.V. fluids and steroids
– antibiotics and anti-arrythmics
– stomach depression
– surgery required in many cases
– feed two to three meals a day
– discourage rapid eating
– prevent exercising until two hours after a
meal
51
Parasitic Disease
• Can live internally in the form of worms
or protozoa
• Can live externally in the form of fleas
and ticks
• If severe infections are
left untreated,
can be fatal
52
Parasitic Diseases:
Coccidiosis
• Is an infection from a one-celled
organism
• Is diagnosed by microscopic
examination of a stool sample and
blood test
• Causes
– dogs are contaminated through egg
ingestion
53
Parasitic Diseases:
Coccidiosis
• Symptoms
– most dogs infected do not have any
clinical signs
– pups and weak adult dogs affected may
have diarrhea, dehydration, abdominal
distress and vomiting
– death may occur in severe cases
54
Parasitic Diseases:
Coccidiosis
• Treatment and prevention
– antibiotics given for one to 14 days are
used to eliminate the disease
– re-infection is
common, so the
dog’s environment
needs to be
disinfected
55
Assessment
1. What are the four categories canine
diseases can be classified as?
2. _______ are microscopic disease
agents, meaning they only exist to
multiply in their host.
A. Viruses
B. Bacterial
C. Genetic
D. Parasitic
56
Assessment
3. _______ is considered the most
serious viral disease in dogs.
A. Canine Parainfluenza
B. Canine Distemper
C. Rabies
D. Canine Parvovirus
57
Assessment
4. _______ is the oldest and most well
known of canine diseases.
A. Diabetes Mellitus
B. Brucellosis
C. Canine Parvovirus
D. Rabies
5. What are the three stages of rabies?
58
Assessment
6. _______ is caused by the bite of a
tick.
A. Canine Parainfluenza
B. Canine Distemper
C. Lyme Disease
D. Canine Leptospirosis
59
Assessment
7. A _______ is a clouding of the
normally clear lens of the eye.
A. Cataracts
B. Canine Leptospirosis
C. Lyme Disease
D. Diabetes Mellitus
60
Assessment
8. _______ is the most commonly diagnosed
endocrine disease in dogs.
A. Rabies
B. Canine Hypothyroidism
C. Coccidiosis
D. Brucellosis
9. There are more than 300 diseases caused
by an animal’s ______ ________.
61
Acknowledgements
http://www.lbah.com/Canine/Canine_Diseases.html
http://www.dresslersdog.com/diseases.html
http://www.br.cc.va.us/vetech/candis.htm
Dusty Moore – Production Coordinator
Clayton Franklin – Graphics Designer
Geoff Scott – Production Manager
G.W. Davis – Executive Producer
© MMIII, MMIV
CEV Multimedia, Ltd.
62

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