Energy-Nutrients for human-3

Nutrients and Non-nutrients
Nutrients : CHO, Fat, Protein, vitamins, minerals,
and water, they have certain functions in the
body and they are essential to the health.
Non nutrients : such as phytochemicals which is
not essential to the body but very beneficial to
the health, also there are some chemicals could
be harmful to the body like pesticides,
insecticide, nitrate and others
• Substances from food and used in the
body to:
• 1- produce energy
• 2- synthesize body tissue
• 3- regulating agents, to promote
growth, maintenance and repair, and
may act in some way to reduce the risk
of some diseases.
Energy Nutrients for human body
or macronutrients
• CHO, Fat, and Protein
• Carbohydrates is the main
source of energy in the body
• Participate partially in the
structure of body
• We have 2 types of
• 1- simple carbohydrates include
(monosaccharides and
• 2- Complex carbohydrates
Popular monosaccarides are :
Gulucos, fructoss and galactose
The first tow found in fruits and
honey, while the third one found
In milk attached with glucose
- We have three popular disaccharides ,
- include
- Maltose
- little in nature but produced during
- Sucrose
- Can sugar, composed of fructose and
- Lactose :
- Milk sugar, found only in milk
Poly saccharides
Two types : starch and fiber
Starch: made up of many units of
mono sugar linked together
Mostly found in grains, legumes,
and some vegetables
It is healthy for human body
It is recommended to be the main
source of energy in the body
Carbohydrate- continue
Fiber: Two categories :
Soluble Fiber: like pectin and gum
Insoluble : like cellulose, hemicellulose
and lignin
Fiber found in plants only : grain,
legumes, fruits and vegetables
Fiber: is very healthy to the body and
recommended for good health
Dietary Recommendation for CHO
• 45 - 55% of total energy from CHO
• Only 10% of energy from simple sugar
and other from polysaccharides
• Need at least 25 grams of fiber per day
and could increased to 45 per day
• More than 90% of lipid in food are triglycerides, we
have 2 types of triglycerides
• Fats : solid at room temperature
• Oils : liquid at room temperature
• Other type of lipid, they are different in structure
than triglycerides, include:
• Phospholipid
• Sphingolipid
• Cholesterol
Source of energy (recommended 25 35% energy from fat
Participate in body structure partially
(mainly in nervous system)
Source of some hormones in the body
Carry the fat soluble vitamins
Lipid – sources
Butter (saturated)
Oils (unsaturated)
Fast food
Dairy products
• Saturated fat is bad for you
• Meat and dairy products
• unsaturated fats, 2 types:
1- Monounsaturated – best for you in
moderate amount.
• Olive oil
2- Poly unsaturated also good for you in
moderate amount:
• Sun flower oil , corn oil, sesame oil, soy oil
Lipid – continue
Cholesterol : processed in the
body and from the food
necessary for the body , but
Should be in the range of body
Two types of cholesterol
Bad cholesterol, it is bad for you
Good cholesterol, it is good for
Lipid – Dietary Recommendation
• Should consume
• 25 – 35% of energy from fat
• Not more than 10% of energy from
saturated fat
• Not more than 200 mg of cholesterol
Composed of amino acids, which
is precisely composed of C, H, O,
and N
• Contain one, two, three, or four long
chain amino acid
• Protein Composed of 20 different types of
amino acids,
• Nine of them can not processed in the
body called essential amino acids
• Other amino acids are could be
processed called non essential amino
Protein –Functions
Part of every cells in the body
Build and maintain of body tissue
Build some hormone and all antibodies
Responsible for transport of many
nutrients and oxygen in the blood
• Maintain acid – base balance
• Also produce energy as the body need, if
no CHO and fat.
Protein Quality
complete protein :Egg, meat, chicken, ,
fish, dairy products
Incomplete protein : Grain, corn ,
legumes, rice, oat
Recommended 12-15 % of the energy
from protein
0.85 -1.5 gram of protein for each
Kilogram varies on certain factors
• Factors affecting requirements:
• Age
• Activity
• Pregnancy and lactation for

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