compressor - Website Staff UI

Report
Pengantar Teknik Kimia
Sesi 1: Peralatan Proses
Ir. Abdul Wahid Surhim, MT.
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COMPRESSOR
Oleh :
Riyandi Chairul Siregar
Rizky Feryansyah
Rumia Stephanie Monica
Ryan Indra Mukti
ChE - FTUI 2006
Kompressor
Definisi
Kind Of Compressor
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Aplikasi
Compressor is………..
compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by
reducing its volume. Compression of a gas naturally increases its
temperature.
Compressors are closely related to pumps: both increase the pressure on
a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are
compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids
are generally incompresible, so the main result of a pump is to move the
liquid elsewhere.
ChE - FTUI 2006
Kind Of Compressors are…….
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Reciprocating Compressor
Rotary Screw Compressor
Axial Flow Compressor
Centrifugal Compressor
Mixed-Flow Compressor
Scroll Compressor
Diaphragm Compressor
ChE - FTUI 2006
Reciprocating Compressor….
use pistons driven by a crankshaft. They can be either
stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can
be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines.
Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower
(hp) are commonly seen in automotive applications and are
typically for intermittent duty. Larger reciprocating
compressors up to 1000 hp are still commonly found in large
industrial applications, but their numbers are declining as
they are replaced by less costly rotary screw compressors.
Discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very
high pressure (>5000 psi or 35 MPa).
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Reciprocating Compressor….
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Rotary Screw Compressor…..

use two meshed rotating positive-displacement
helical screws to force the gas into a smaller space.
These are usually for continuous operation in
commercial and industrial applications and may be
either stationary or portable. Their application can
be from 5 hp (3.7 kW) to over 500 hp (375 kW) and
from low pressure to very high pressure (>1200 psi
or 8.3 MPa). They are commonly seen with roadside
repair crews powering air-tools. This type is also
used for many automobile engine superchargers
because it is easily matched to the induction
capacity of a piston engine.
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Rotary Screw Compressor…..
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Axial-Flow Compressor…..

use a series of fan-like rotating rotor blades to
progressively compress the gasflow. Stationary
stator vanes, located downstream of each rotor,
redirect the flow onto the next set of rotor blades.
The area of the gas passage diminishes through the
compressor to maintain a roughly constant axial
Mach number. Axial-flow compressors are normally
used in high flow applications, such as medium to
large gas turbine engines. They are almost always
multi-staged. Beyond about 4:1 design pressure
ratio, variable geometry is often used to improve
operation.
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Axial-Flow Compressor…..
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Axial-Flow Compressor…..
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Centrifugal Compressor…..

use a vaned rotating disk or impeller in a shaped housing to
force the gas to the rim of the impeller, increasing the
velocity of the gas. A diffuser (divergent duct) section
converts the velocity energy to pressure energy. These are
for continuous, heavy industrial uses and are usually
stationary. Their application can be from 100 hp (75 kW) to
thousands of horsepower. With multiple staging, they can
achieve extremely high output pressures greater than
10,000 lbf/in² (69 MPa). Many large snow-making operations
(like ski resorts) use this type of compressor. They are also
used in internal combustion engines as superchargers and
turbochargers. Centrifugal compressors are used in small
gas turbine engines or as the final compression stage of
medium sized gas turbines.
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Centrifugal Compressor…..
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Centrifugal Compressor…..
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Mixed-Flow Compressor…..

are similar to a centrifugal compressor, but have a
radial and axial velocity component at the exit from
the rotor. The diffuser is often used to turn diagonal
flow to the axial direction. The diagonal compressor
has a lower diameter diffuser than the equivalent CF
compressor. A diagonal flow compressor is used in
the Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600 turbofan.
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Mixed-Flow Compressor…..
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Scroll Compressor……..

similar to a rotary screw device, it includes
two interleaved spiral-shaped scrolls to
compress the gas. Its output is more pulsed
than that of a rotary screw compressor, and
this has caused its declining industrial use. It
can be used as an automotive supercharger,
and in an air conditioner condensing unit.
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Scroll Compressor……..
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Diaphragm Compressor….….

Diaphragm compressor is used for hydrogen
and compressed natural gas (CNG).
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Diaphragm Compressor….….
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Applications……..
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in pressurised aircraft to provide a breathable atmosphere of higher than
ambient pressure
in jet engines to provide the great mass of operating fluid and, at high
altitudes, a high enough concentration of oxygen for combustion of the air
and fuel mixture. The power to turn the compressor comes from the jet's
own turbines.
in many various industrial, manufacturing and building processes to
power all types of pneumatic tools.
in medicine and manufacturing to store purified or manufactured gases in
a small volume
as a medium for transferring energy, such as to power pneumatic
equipment
in refrigeration and air conditioner equipment to move heat from one
place to another in refrigerant cycles: see heat pump.
ChE - FTUI 2006
Applications……. (2)
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in pipeline transport of domestic gas to move the gas from the production
site to the consumer
in SCUBA diving, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and other life support
devices to store breathing gas in a small volume such as in diving
cylinders
in submarines to store gas for later use as buoyancy
in turbochargers and superchargers to increase the performance of
internal combustion engines by concentrating oxygen
providing compressed air for filling pneumatic tires
in a Biogas powerplant to raise the gas pressure for the gas turbines
in rail and heavy road transport to provide compressed air for operation of
rail vehicle brakes or road vehicle brakes and various other systems
(doors, windscreen wipers, engine/gearbox control etc).
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THANK’S FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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Crew
Riyandi C S
Rizky F
Rumia S M
Ryan I M
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Data Team
All of Us
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Computer Graphic Specialist
-41-
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Thank’s To
Tuhan Yang Maha Esa
Owner of This Laptop
Kingston Data Traveler
Warnet-Warnet Terdekat
ChE - FTUI 2006
SEE YOU AGAIN!!!
ChE - FTUI 2006

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