Chapter 2 Power Point Slides

Report
Michael R. Cummings
Chapter 2
Cells and Cell Division
David Reisman • University of South Carolina
2.1 The Chemistry of Cells
 ALL Cells are constructed from four classes of large
molecules called macromolecules.
• Carbohydrates include small sugars and large polymers of
sugars
• Lipids consist of fats and oils, phospholipids, and steroids.
• Proteins are polymers of amino acids and carry out a multitude
of functions and activities
• Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. They store and
transfer genetic information in the cell.
2.1 Cell Structure Reflects Function
 The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in all
organisms, including humans
 Although cells of different tissues (nerve cell vs. muscle cell)
differ in their size, shape, function, and life cycle, at the
structural level they are all similar.
 All cells have a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, organelles,
and a membrane bound nucleus.
 The function of a cell is under genetic control and many
genetic disorders are caused by changes in cell function.
Inside the Eukaryotic Cell
The Plasma Membrane
A double-layered plasma membrane separates the cell
from the external environment. The membrane controls
the movement of molecules into and out of the cell.
Organelles
Nucleus
• Membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells that
contains the chromosomes
Wittman, Bokoch, Waterman-Storer, CIL: 9537
Elements within the Nucleus
Nucleolus
• Dense region within the nucleus where ribosomes are
synthesized
nucleolus
chromatin
Nuclear
pores
Organelles
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
• System of cytoplasmic membranes arranged into
sheets and channels
• Synthesizes and transports gene products
Ribosomes
• Cytoplasmic particles that aid in the production of
proteins
Organelles
Golgi complex
• Membranous organelles composed of a series of
flattened sacs
• Sort, modify and package proteins synthesized by the
ER
Lysosomes
• Membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive
enzymes
Organelles
Proteins travel to the Golgi complex and then out of the
cell (secreted proteins) or to the lysosomes (digestive
proteins)
secreted proteins
Vesicle fusing with plasma membrane
Milk protein
being secrected
from a cell in
the mammary
gland of a rat.
Marilyn G Farquhar, CIL: 9537
Organelles
Mitochondria (singular: mitochondrion)
• Membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm of all
eukaryotic cells
• Sites of energy production (where ATP is made)
Keep In Mind
 A problem with any one of the organelles just
described can cause a genetic disease.
Back to the Nucleus…
 Chromosomes
• Threadlike structures in the nucleus that carry genetic
information
• 46 chromosomes (diploid number, 2n) are present in
most human cells
 Genes
• Fundamental units of heredity present on
chromosomes
Structures of the Chromosome
 Sister chromatids
• Two chromatids joined by a common centromere
• Each sister chromatid carries identical genetic
information
Structures of the Chromosome
 Centromere
• Region of a chromosome to which microtubule fibers
attach during cell division
• Centromere location gives a chromosome its
characteristic shape as we will discuss in Chapter 6
Human Chromosomes
 Sex chromosomes
• Human X and Y chromosomes are involved in sex
determination
 Autosomes
• Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes
• Human chromosomes 1 through 22 are autosomes
2.3 The Cell Cycle
 Cell cycle
• The sequence of events that takes place between cell
divisions
• The proper order of these events is under genetic
control
The cell cycle
Three Phases of the Cell Cycle
1. Interphase
• G1, S, and G2 phases
2. Mitosis
• Process where the duplicated chromosomes are
segregated into two daughter cells.
3. Cytokinesis
• Process by which the cytoplasm is divided between
the two daughter cells.
Interphase has Three Stages
G1 Phase
Growth takes place after division - the cell doubles in
size and replenishes organelles and ribosomes and
prepares for chromosome replication.
S Phase
DNA synthesis stage. Each chromosome is copied
G2 Phase
Period of preparation for cell division
Mitosis Occurs in Four Stages
Prophase
Chromosomes
condense.
Prometaphase
Nuclear envelope breaks down
chromosomes attach to microtubules and
begin to align at the metaphase plate.
Mitosis Occurs in Four Stages
Metaphase
Chromosomes align at
the cell equator, known
as the metaphase plate.
Anaphase
Chromosomes
separate.
Telophase
Chromosomes continue
to move apart and to
decondense.
2.4 Mitosis is Essential for Growth
and Cell Replacement
 Human cells are genetically programmed to divide
about 50 times (known as Hayflick limit)
 This limit allows growth to adulthood, and repairs
such as wound healing
 Alterations in the limits to cell division can lead to
genetic disorders (such as premature aging) or to
cancer
Keep In Mind
 Cancer is a disease of the cell cycle—cells lose their
ability to stop growing, in a sense, they have found
the “fountain of youth”
Spotlight on…Cell Division and Spinal Cord
Injuries
 Many highly differentiated cells, such as those of the nervous
system do not divide (They are in the G0 phase.)
 As a result injuries to nervous tissue such as spinal cord do
not heal though cell replacement
 New approaches using embryonic tissue suggests that is
may be possible to reconnect damages nerve tissue.
 Newly described growth factors also show potential for
stimulating the growth and division of cells of the nervous
system.
2.4 Cell Division by Meiosis:
The Basis of Sex
 Meiosis: A form of cell division that produces four
haploid cells containing only one copy (paternal or
maternal) of each chromosome
• Meiosis I
• Meiosis II
Homologous Chromosomes
 Homologous chromosomes
• Have identical gene loci
• You receive one from mother and one from father
• Chromosomes that physically pair during meiosis
 Diploid (2n)
• 23 chromosomes from mom, 23 from dad (46 total)
 Haploid (n)
• Each chromosome is represented once, in an
unpaired condition
• The result of meiosis
Meiosis I
prophase I
homologous
chromosomes
find each other
metaphase I
chromosome
pairs align
anaphase I
telophase I
homologues
cytokinesis
separate
(sister chromatids
stay together)
Meiosis II
interkinesis prophase II
No DNA
chromosomes
replication
attach to
microtubules
metaphase II anaphase II telophase II
chromosomes
sister
4 haploid
align at the
chromatids
cells
metaphase plate separate
2.5 Formation of Gametes
 Meiosis results in two kinds of haploid, sexual
gametes
• Males produce spermatids by the process of
spermatogenesis
• Females produce oocytes by the process of
oogenesis
• Meiosis maintains a constant chromosome number
from generation to generation
Meiosis Produces New Combinations of
Genes in Two Ways
1. Crossing over: The exchange of chromosome
segments of non-sister chromatids of a between
homologous pair during prophase I
2. Independent or random assortment of maternal and
paternal chromosomes in metaphase I.
Chromosome pairs line up at random
Crossing over
Access Excellence @ the National Health Museum
Independent (Random) Assortment

similar documents