Essential Vocabulary Essential Skills LEARNING TARGET Focus Area: English K–5 Essential Knowledge HIGH EXPECTATIONS Prepared for the Professional Learning Network of the VIRGINIA ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS by Dan Mulligan, Ed. D., flexiblecreativity.com February 2014 Hampton Road’s Natural Law of School Lots of snow days in January and February Last faculty meeting of 2013 -2014 in July! Effective Instruction: focus on essential knowledge, skills, processes, & vocabulary Three types of curricula exist in any classroom: The Intended Curriculum: content/skill specified by the state, division, or school at a particular grade level. The Implemented Curriculum: content/skill actually delivered by the teacher. The Attained Curriculum: content/skill actually learned by the students. Intended Curriculum Implemented Curriculum Attained Curriculum “Seven Survival Skills for the New Economy” ~Tony Wagner, The Global Achievement Gap 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving Collaboration across Networks and Leading by Influence Agility and Adaptability Initiative and Entrepreneurialism Effective Oral and Written Communication Accessing and Analyzing Information Curiosity and Imagination “Rigor” is using academic knowledge to create new knowledge/content and to solve real problems. “Engagement” begins with the MIND, not with the HANDS (that is a very loose paraphrase) — activities & action do not equal “rigor” Find a NEW friend in the room from a different school and/or division. Find 2 comfortable seats and relax. *Please bring a pen(cil)! instructional strategies Please send a table representative to pick-up a resource for each team member. Work collaboratively (e.g., construct viable arguments, critique, agree) to identify key words that capture the essential elements of instructional strategies with fidelity. Enjoy working with your new best friend. Good Instruction (Keep it Simple…Keep it Real) “We can, whenever and wherever we choose, successfully teach all children whose schooling is of interest to us. We already know more than we need to do that. Whether or not we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven’t so far.” ~Ron Edmonds If you want a learner to truly understand and own essential knowledge, expand your exploration from ‘what it is’ to also ‘what it is NOT’. Work with your partner to prepare a conceptual example that can be shared with your staff. IDid justyou love bring these your Dan Mulligan with handout workshops! you? Introduce your partner to your table team members. here we are… “A positive attitude may not solve all of your problems, but it will annoy enough people to make it worth it.” -Maya Angelou Essential Vocabulary page 6 IDENTIFYING THE WORDS TO TEACH… page 7 Find out which words are "your" words. Read the Curriculum Framework for your grade level, highlighting the words you think your students won't know. Then go back to each year prior to yours and highlight those words. Next, create a pre-assessment for your students with these critical words and glue it in their Interactive Notebook. A simple list of words followed by columns marked "Yes" (I understand), "No" (I don't understand) and "Maybe" (I might understand) is a start. Use this information and your professional judgment to decide which words have not yet been mastered and require instruction. Book A page 2 Book A page 4 & 5 Common Core and College and Career Words page 2 McREL researchers estimate 85% of achievement test scores are based on the vocabulary of the standards. Students from poverty, ELL students, and other at-risk students are particularly in need of learning these words in ways that meet their specific learning needs. CRITICAL VERBS NOUNS Analyze Articulate Alliteration Analogy Comprehend Contrast Central Idea Conclusions Describe Connotative LanguageDetermine Details Draw Figurative Language Evaluate Illustrations Infer Integrate Metaphor Mood Organize Paraphrase Rhetoric Simile Suggest SupportTheme Structures Trace Cite Compare Argument Delineate Demonstrate Connections DevelopEvidence Distinguish Explain Interaction Identify InterpretPoint ofLocate View Refer Stanza Retell Summarize Tone Synthesize Sample VA SOL Item Stems As many as thirteen of the critical words can be found in the VA SOL kindergarten standards. Extra for Experts As many as thirteen of the critical words can be found in the ELA kindergarten standards. With a partner, create a set of five questions that involve the use of as many critical words as appropriate to the standard. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Spin the Word modified VA SOL Essential Nouns and Verbs • Remove the cards from the bag. • Place the deck of cards face down in the center of the table. • Determine the order of playing by each person rolling the die. • Each card contains: • Math vocabulary word, and • Method of giving clues • Remember: • Each person has a turn, • Each person has a lifeline! • Enjoy! Nouns and Verbs nouns Click on the arrow to start and stop spinner. WHAT EDUCATORS CAN DO TO IMPROVE VOCABULARY? page 7 A six-step process for teaching vocabulary: 1. The teacher provides a description, explanation, or example of the new term. 2. Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in own words. 3. Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the term. 4. Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their notebooks. 5. Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another. 6. Involve students periodically in games that allow them to play with the terms. page 30 Leslie Williams, Hampton City Schools! Be an active reader! Work with your partner to annotate the text: • Place a box around and number each paragraph. • After reading the passage Box each main idea; Underline supporting details; and Cloud any word that you think someone in our class would struggle to understand its meaning. Use context clues or root words to help you understand the word. • Have fun! Answer the Questions… Question the Answers… Working with your partner – • Refer to the boxed and underlined information in the passage to identify at least five thinking questions from the list. • Discuss the value of each question in developing essential skills and processes for your students. • Enjoy! Answer the Questions… Question the Answers… VOCABULARY REVIEW ACTIVITIES AND GAMES Team A: Strategies 1 -4 • Form groups of four. Letter off as A, B, C, and D. • Form a temporary team of like letter teams • As an expert team, review the activities/games (pages 8 - 20) and record a summary of each strategy. • Return to your home team to share your focus activities/games. • Identify the TOP your staff. 3 to share with Team B: Strategies 5 – 8 Team C: Strategies 9 – 12 Team D: Strategies 13 – 17 Extra Time… Check out the bonus structures on page 21 to 24! 1 What is a strategy students experience in your school that has proven effective in deepening student’s understanding of essential vocabulary? Why is it effective? 3 What is one effective strategy teachers used in your school to prepare students for the SOL assessment? 2 How do teacher(s) effectively engage students in higherorder thinking as required by Virginia’s revised SOL (and beyond)? Does it involve differentiation, technology, project-based etc.? 1 3 What is a strategy students experience in your school that has proven effective in deepening student’s understanding of essential vocabulary? Why is it effective? What is one effective strategy teachers used in your school to prepare students for the the SOL assessment? 2 How do teacher(s) effectively engage students in higherorder thinking as required by Virginia’s revised SOL (and beyond)? Does it involve differentiation, technology, project-based etc.? Premise of the Workshop As the United States continues to compete in a global economy that demands innovation, the U.S. education system must equip students with the four Cs: 1. 2. 3. 4. critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation. Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition Model The Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition Model offers a method of seeing how computer technology might impact teaching and learning. It also shows a progression that adopters of educational technology often follow as they progress through teaching and learning with technology. While one might argue over whether an activity can be defined as one level or another, the important concept to grasp here is the level of student engagement. One might well measure progression along these levels by looking at who is asking the important questions. As one moves along the continuum, computer technology becomes more important in the classroom but at the same time becomes more invisibly woven into the demands of good teaching and learning. SAMR model developed by Dr. Ruben Puentedura http://www.hippasus.com/ Page 3&4 Depth of Knowledge (Thinking) Level 1 Recall of a fact, information, or procedure Level 2 Use information or conceptual knowledge, two or more steps, etc. Level 3 Requires reasoning, developing a plan or sequence of steps, some complexity, more than one possible answer Level 4 Requires an investigation, time to think and process multiple conditions of the problem Digging Deeper: Depth of Knowledge and Reading Sharing a DOK Resource aligned to the VA Curriculum Framework page 17 - 18 Depth of Knowledge Essential Understanding: Unlike Bloom’s system, the DOK levels are not a taxonomical tool that uses verbs to classify the level of each cognitive demand. The DOK level is determined by the degree of mental processing required by the student to meet the objectives of a particular classroom activity. In the case of assessment, DOK is the cognitive demand required to correctly answer test questions. page 36 A.23 Fiction Text Nonfiction Text Comprehension Strategy The True Story of the Three Little Pigs Chapter 3 “The American Revolution” Previewing What is the story about? What might I guess? What do I know about stories like this? What do I already know about the American Revolution? What can I learn from the headings and subheadings? Are there pictures with captions? Self Questioning Why is the Wolf telling the story? Why did this war occur? Making Connections How does this pig story compare to others I have heard? How is the character of the wolf similar or different to wolves in other books I have read? How does the information in this chapter compare to the movie we saw? How does it compare to the historical fiction I read set at the same time period? Visualizing Is my mental picture of the wolf still good? Should I change it? What did an American soldier look like? A British soldier? Could I draw a picture for a friend who had not read the chapter? Knowing how words work Does the word make sense in the sentence? Do I know chunks of the word? What clues in the test can be used to figure out the word? Can I find a prefix or suffix that will help? Monitoring Does what I am reading make sense? Do I need to go back and reread? Does what I am reading make sense? Did French soldiers fight in this war? How can I find out? Summarizing What has happened so far? What is the most important information in the chapter? Evaluating Do I believe the Wolf’s story? Why? How does this story rate to others I have read? How would my life be different if we had not won this war? DOK 3: Strategic Thinking & Reasoning Nonfiction Fiction Advanced Organizers Use Visuals Advanced organizers help students organize the information and retain 5 times more of the information. Musical/Rhythmic Sing it Create a beat Rap it Make a cheer Create a jingle Hum it Identify sounds React to sounds Listen to sounds Connect to music Write a poem Verbal/Linguistic Read it Spell it Write it Listen to it Tell it Recall it Use “you” words Apply it Chunk information Say it Use mnemonics Logical/Mathematical Make a pattern Chart it Sequence it Create a mnemonic Analyze it Think abstractly Think critically Use numbers Prove it Interpret the data Use the statistics Body/Kinesthetic Role play Walkabout Dance Lip sync Skits/charades/mimes Construction Math manipulatives Sign language Sports Activity centers Body language Intrapersonal Metacognition Use self-talk Work independently Solve in your own way Understand self Journal it Rehearse it Use prior knowledge Connect it Have ownership Interpersonal Think-Pair-Share Jigsaw Cooperative grouping Drama Debates Class meetings Role play Meeting of minds Peer counseling Tutors/buddies Giving feedback Shared Journals Visual/Spatial Mind maps Graphic organizers Video Color code Highlight Shape a word Interpret a graphic Read a chart Study illustrations Visualize it Make a chart Create a poster Naturalist Label it Categorize it Identify it Form a hypothesis Do an experiment Adapt it Construct it Classify it Investigate it Discern patterns Name a noun. Form a sentence. Name a verb. Name an adjective How can you use the Where do I belong? structure to support your role as teacher/administrator? ? ? A = bh 4 right angles Right Triangle 3 sides 1 right angle 4 sides Opposite sides equal One side is the longest Rectangle A = ½ bh Responding to Nonfiction vs. Responding to Fiction Framework for Instructional Planning McREL, 2012 1. Create an Environment for Learning – Helping students know what is expected of them, providing students with opportunities for regular feedback on progress, assuring students they are capable of learning content and skills 2. Helping Students Develop Understanding – Integrating prior knowledge with new knowledge – Procedural knowledge: constructing a model of the steps required of the process and practicing its variations; using the process or skill fluently or without any conscious thought 3. Helping Students Extend and Apply Knowledge – Moving beyond ‘right answer’ learning to an expanded understanding and use of concepts and skills in real-world contexts. Hey… This looks familiar… Which of the high yield instructional strategies do you see in this structure? PAGE 7 Name a noun. Form a sentence. Name a verb. Name an adjective Thank you for your commitment to children! "It's your attitude, not just your aptitude that determines your ultimate altitude." --Zig Ziglar Dan KEY QUESTION: Why are common assessments so important? WHY do we ASSESS: 1. INFORM INSTRUCTIONAL DECISIONS 2. ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO TRY “You can enhance or destroy students’ desire to succeed in school more quickly and permanently through your use of assessment than with any other tools you have at your disposal.” Rick Stiggins, Assessment Trainers Introduce your partner to the other people at your table.