### Collins Part II. - People Server at UNCW

```DIBELS – Part II
SED 368
Fall 2012
Review
• DIBELS Benchmarks
– 3 times/year
– At grade-level learners may need only benchmarks
– Can be used as a screener to help identify at-risk
learners
• DIBELS Progress Monitoring Probes
–
–
–
–
Used to record progress toward goal
May be needed for at-risk learners
Help to determine the utility of instruction
Can be administered weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly
Steps in Conducting CBM
• Step 1: How to Place Students in a Reading
CBM Task for Progress Monitoring
• Step 2: How to Identify the Level for Material
for Monitoring Progress for Oral Reading
Fluency and Maze Fluency
• Step 3: How to Administer and Score Reading
CBM
DIBELS Timeline
Steps in Conducting CBM, cont.
• Step 4: How to Graph Scores
• Step 5: How to Set Goals
• Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to
Graphed Scores (Change instruction/raise
goals)
• Step 7: How to Use the CBM Data to Describe
Students’ Strengths and Weaknesses
Step 4: Graphing Student Scores
• Graphing student scores is vital
• Graphs provide teachers with a straightforward
way of
–
–
–
–
Reviewing a student’s progress
Monitoring the appropriateness of student goals
Judging the adequacy of student progress
Comparing and contrasting successful and
unsuccessful instructional aspects of a student’s
program
Step 4: Graphing Student Scores
• Horizontal axis: the number of weeks of
instruction (dates CBM administered)
• Vertical axis: range of scores for the task
Vertical Axis (0 - _)
FSF
60
PSF
81
NWF – CLS
143
NWF - WWR
50
DORF
94 – 140 (or higher)
DAZE
51 – 70
Step 4: Graphing Student Scores
C o rrectly R e ad W o rd s P er M in u te
The vertical axis is labeled with the
range of student scores.
100
90
80
70
60
50
The horizontal axis is labeled with
the number of instructional weeks.
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
W e e ks o f In stru ctio n
10
11
12
13
14
Step 4: Graphing Student Scores
C o rrectly R e ad W o rd s P er M in u te
The vertical axis is labeled with the
range of student scores.
100
90
80
70
60
50
The horizontal axis is labeled with
the number of instructional weeks.
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
W e e ks o f In stru ctio n
10
11
12
13
14
Step 4: Graphing Student Scores
Options for creating graphs
– Graph paper & Pencil (students can use this to
graph their own progress)
– Excel
– ChartDog
– Other graphing software
Step 5: How to set goals
• For typically developing students, identify the
end of the year CBM benchmark - DIBELS Next
Benchmark Goals
• National norms
• Intra-individual framework
Step 5: How to set goals
• National Norms (ORF)
• For typically developing
students, a table of
average rates of weekly
increase can be used to
find end-of-year
performance goal
Step 5: How to set goals
Step 5: How to set goals
• Hasbrouck-Tindal_chart (ORF)
Example: A 3rd grade student at 50 WCPM
# Weeks: 15 Weeks
Rate of Improvement: 1.1 words/week
1. 15 * 1.1 = 16.5 WCPM
2. 50 + 16.5 = 66.5 WCPM
66.5 WCPM = New Goal
Step 5: How to set goals
Example
• Use the Hasbrouck & Tindal Chart
• 2nd Grade Student - 47 WCPM
Using the rate of improvement for the 50th
percentile, calculate the end of the year goal.
Step 5: How to set goals
• Intra-Individual Framework
– Weekly rate of improvement is calculated using at
least 8 data points
– Baseline rate is multiplied by 1.5
– Product multiplied by number of weeks until end
of school year
– Added to student’s baseline score to produce endof-year performance goal
Step 5: How to set goals
• 1st 8 scores: 10, 12, 9, 14, 12, 15, 12, 14
• Difference between the highest and lowest scores:
15 – 9 = 6
• Divide by the number of scores: 6 ÷ 8 = 0.75
• Baseline rate multiplied by 1.5: 0. 75 × 1.5 = 1.125
• Multiplied by weeks left: 1.125 × 14 = 15.75
• Product added to median: 15.75 + 11 = 27.75
• 28 is end-of-year performance goal
Example
• 1st 8 scores: 25, 28, 22, 29, 32, 27, 28, 30
• Difference between the highest and lowest scores:
32-22= 10
• Divide by the number of scores: 10 ÷ 8 = 1.25
• Baseline rate multiplied by 1.5: 1.25 × 1.5 = 1.875
• Multiplied by weeks left: 1.875 × 14 = 26.25
• Product added to median: 26.75 + 28 = 54.25
• 54 is end-of-year performance goal
Step 5: How to set goals
90
80
70
P er M in u te
W IF : C o rrectly R ead W o rd s
100
X
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
W e e ks o f In stru ctio n
10
11
12
13
14
Monitoring the Appropriateness of the
Goal
• After drawing the goal-line, teachers
continually monitor student graphs
• After 7-8 CBM scores, teachers draw a trendline to represent actual student progress
– Goal-line and trend-line are compared
• Trend-line is drawn using the Tukey method
Monitoring the Appropriateness of the
Goal
• Tukey method (cont.)
– In the first and third groups:
• Find median data point and the median date
• Mark the intersection of these two with “X”
– Draw a line connecting the first group “X” and
third group “X”
– This line is the trend-line
Drawing the Trend Line
Drawing the Trend Line – Practice I
WIF: Correctly Read Words Per Minute
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Weeks of Instruction
10
11
12
13
14
Drawing the Trend Line – Practice I
Drawing the Trend Line – Practice II
WIF: Correctly Read Words Per Minute
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Weeks of Instruction
9
10
11
12
13
14
Drawing the Trend Line – Practice II
Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to
Graphed Scores
• After trend-lines have been drawn, teachers
use graphs to evaluate student progress and
formulate instructional decisions
• Standard decision rules help with this process
Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to
Graphed Scores
• Based on 4 most recent consecutive scores:
– If scores are above goal-line, end-of-year
performance goal needs to be increased
– If scores are below goal-line, student instructional
program needs to be revised
WIF: Correctly Read Words Per Minute
Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to
Graphed Scores
100
90
goal-line
80
goal-line
70
X
60
X
50
40
30
20
Most recent
4 points
most recent
10
4 points
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Weeks of Instruction
10
11
12
13
14
Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to
Graphed Scores
Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to
Graphed Scores
• Based on the student’s trend-line:
– If trend-line is steeper than goal-line, end-of-year
performance goal needs to be increased
– If trend-line is flatter than goal-line, student’s
instructional program needs to be revised
– If trend-line and goal-line are fairly equal, no
changes need to be made
Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to
Graphed Scores
Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to
Graphed Scores
Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to
Graphed Scores
Step 7: How to Use Data to Describe
Student Strengths and Weaknesses
• Using CBM ORF, student miscues may be
analyzed to describe possible student
strengths and weaknesses
• Student reads a CBM ORF passage and
teacher writes down student errors
• First 10 errors are analyzed using a Quick
Miscue Analysis Table
Step 7: How to Use Data to Describe
Student Strengths and Weaknesses
• Teacher writes the written word from the ORF
passage in the Written Word column
• Student mistake, or miscue, is written in the
Spoken Word column
• Graphophonetic error preserves some
important phonetics of the written word, even
if it does not make sense (i.e., written word
“friend” spoken word “fried.”)
Step 7: How to Use Data to Describe
Student Strengths and Weaknesses
• Syntax error preserves the grammar of (i.e., is
the same part of speech as) the written word.
Does the error have the same part of speech
as the written word? (i.e. “ran” is the same
part of speech as “jogged”)
• Semantics error preserves the meaning of the
sentence. Does the error preserve the
meaning of the sentence? (i.e., “The woman
is tall” means the same as “The lady is tall”).
Step 7: How to Use Data to Describe
Student Strengths and Weaknesses
Step 7: How to Use Data to Describe
Student Strengths and Weaknesses
Step 7: How to Use Data to Describe
Student Strengths and Weaknesses
Step 7: How to Use Data to Describe
Student Strengths and Weaknesses
Example
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