By: Angélica Guerra, MS Greater Miami Adventist Academy A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought . It starts with a capital letter. TYPES: Declarative: Makes a statement, ends with a period. Interrogative: Asks a questions, ends with a question mark. Exclamatory: Shows strong feeling, ends with an exclamation mark. Imperative: Gives a command OR makes a request, ends with a period or an exclam. mark. Every sentence has 2 parts – the SUBJECT and the PREDICATE. SUBJECT: Who or what the sentence is about. PREDICATE: What the subject is, has, does, or feels. COMPLETE S & P ALL the words in the S are the Complete Subject. ALL the words in the P are the Complete Predicate. Contains a VERB or VERB PHRASE + all the words that complete the meaning of the sentence. SIMPLE S & P The MAIN word (or words) in the S is the Simple Subject. Usually a NOUN or PRONOUN The MAIN word (or words) in the P is the Simple Predicate. Always a VERB or VERB PHRASE COMPLETE SUBJECT & PREDICATE The chef in the Italian restaurant by my house always sings “The Wedding of Figaro.” SIMPLE SUBJECT & PREDICATE Chef sings. • Natural Order Sentences: When the subject comes before the predicate. Most sentences are like this. A butterfly was flying over the bushes. • Inverted Order Sentences: When the subject FOLLOWS all or part of the predicate. Over the bushes a butterfly was flying. Flying over the bushes was a butterfly. Over the bushes was a butterfly flying. ETC. Find the verb; ask who or what does the action, and rearrange the sentence so it will be in natural order. Under the table are my shoes. Here is the most-looked-for criminal in America. (Sentences that start with HERE or THERE are always inverted!) When do the players come out? It expresses ONE complete idea. (It has subject and predicate.) The fastest man in the world won the gold medal. It may have: • • • a compound subject – (Lucy, Peter, and their dog play frisbee.) a compound predicate – (My mom cleans the house and washes clothes.) both – (The captain, the first mate, and the rest of the crew wear life vests and practice a drill.) If different subjects are doing the same action, you can write a comp. subject sentence. Ana is playing soccer. The boys are playing soccer too. Ana and the boys are playing soccer. If the same subject is doing several actions, you can write a comp. predicate sentence. At home, John eats. At home, he also sleeps. And at home, he studies. At home, John eats, sleeps, and studies. Coordinating Conj. Correlative Conj. AND Conjunctions – joining similar ideas BUT – contrast or difference between ideas OR – choice between ideas used in PAIRS They make a stronger connection EX: both … and either … or neither … nor whether … or Conjunctions are used to connect words or groups of words that have the SAME function in a sentence. (Used in Compd. Subject, Compd. Predicate, Compd. Modifier, Compd. Sentence) expresses TWO OR MORE complete ideas that are equal in importance. The Vietnam War was a military conflict that lasted from 1955 to 1975, and almost fifty thousand Americans died. The Vietnam War was a military conflict that lasted from 1955 to 1975; almost fifty thousand Americans died. Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction (and/or/but) ,and ,or ,but Add a semicolon ; NOW YOU TRY IT!!! Follow the directions. You CAN divide it into TWO separate sentences. Steven cut his finger with the knife, but he is OK. 1. Steven cut his finger with the knife. 2. He is OK. (Notice that each sentence has a subject and a predicate.) is a sentence that contains TWO parts – * an independent clause: a part of the sentence that CAN stand on its own. * a subordinating (or dependent) clause: a part of the sentence that is LESS important because it CAN NOT stand on its own. Subordinating Independent When I Clause: much I eat too (What happens?) Clause: feel sluggish. (This is a complete thought.) If it is at the BEGINNING: Follow it by a comma(,). Before breakfast, I pray. If it is in the MIDDLE of the sentence: DO NOT add a comma. I pray before breakfast. Continuation: COMPLEX SENTENCES after although as as if as long as because before if since so that unless until when whenever where whereas wherever while ETC. My Dalmatian chewed its bone. Dr. Ryans visits her patient. Ana will go to the mall. The old man dances well. FRAGMENT Doesn’t express a complete thought Missing subject OR predicate Leaves questions unanswered ------------------------------------------------------------------------- FIX IT by providing what’s missing. FRAGMENT: When I get home. SENTENCE: I will eat when I get home. Two or more sentences that run together with commas OR without any punctuation. -----------------------FIX IT by making 2 separate sentences, a compound sentence, or a complex sentence. Run-On: Manny cooks dinner, Lucy walks the dog. • Manny cooks dinner. Lucy walks the dog. • Manny cooks dinner, and Lucy walks the dog. • Manny cooks dinner while Lucy walks the dog.