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Report
Principles of Drilling Fluids
钻井液工艺原理
Chapter 2
Properties of drilling
fluids
&evaluation
钻井液性能及其测试
Prof. Dr. Xiuhua Zheng
E-mail: [email protected]
Exploration Dept. School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences(Beijing)
中国地质大学(北京)工程技术学院勘查教研室
Glossary of §2
1. Drilling Fluid (Mud)
2. Viscosity
3. Marsh funnel
4. Gel strength
5. Bentonite
6. Hydrate
7. Free water
8. Water loss
9. Yielded
10. Makeup water
Drilling Fluids
§2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
钻井液(泥浆)
粘度
马氏漏斗
凝胶强度
膨润土
水化
自由水
失水
造浆
配浆水
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 2
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Contents
1. density of drilling fluids
钻井液的密度
2. Viscosity and Gel Properties
粘度和凝胶性能
3. API Filtration
API 失水
4. Solids Content
固相含量
5. Bentonite Content of Mud
泥浆的蒙脱石含量
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 3
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Contents
6. The API Sand Test
API含砂量
7. Hydrogen Ion Concentration pH值的确定
8. Filtrate Analysis
滤液分析
9. Resistivity
电阻
10. Electrical Stability of Emulsions
乳状液的稳定性
11. Treatment of Make-up Water 配浆水的处理
12. Pilot Testing
先导实验
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 4
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
1. Density(密度)
① Density, or Mud Weight(泥浆比重), is determined
by weighting a precise volume of drilling fluid and
dividing the weight by the volume.
② Density is expressed in g/cm3, lb/gal.
Fig.1-1. Mud Balance
1-Arm; 2-Knife; 3-Cup; 4-Lid of the cup; 5-Calibration tank;
6-sliding weight(rider); 7-; 8- Fulcrum; 9-
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 5
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
1.1 Density and Pressure Control(压力控制)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Formation indigenous pressures,including,
1) Formation overburden pressure(上覆地层压力);
2) Formation pore pressure(地层孔隙压力);
3) Formation matrix stress (地层基岩压力);
4) Formation fracture pressure(地层破裂压力).
Engineering operational pressures, including,
1) Mud hydrostatic pressure(钻井液静液柱压力);
2) Mud circulating pressure(钻井液循环压力);
3) Swab and surge pressure due to pipe movement(钻具运
动激动压力);
4) Surge pressure due to pump starting(开泵激动压力);
5) Shut-in drill pipe pressure (SIDPP(关井钻杆压力));
6) Shut-in casing pressure (SICP)(关井套管压力).
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 6
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
1.1.1 Formation Overburden Pressure
(上覆地层压力)
P0  0 . 1  H   r (1   )  0 . 1  H   f  
• Where,
•
P0 --Overburden pressure, kg/cm2;
•
H--True vertical depth, m;
•  r --Average density of rocks of overburden
formations, g/cm3;
•  --Average porosity of overburden formations, %;
•  f --Average density of fluids contained in
overburden formations, g/cm3.
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 7
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
1.1.2 Formation Pore Pressure
(地层孔隙压力)
• This is the pressure of the fluid contained in the pores of
the formation, generally called formation pressure. The
formation pore pressure can be divided in three
categories--normal pressure(正常压力地层
0.100~0.107 kg/cm2/m ), abnormal pressure(异常高
压地层0.107~0.231 kg/cm2/m ) and under-normal
pressure(异常低压地层0.055~0.093 kg/cm2/m ) )
according to its pressure gradient(地层压力梯度).
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 8
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Fig.1-2 Correlation between pressures
underground
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 9
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
1.1.3 Formation Fracture Pressure
(地层破裂压力)
• A formation can be fractured and begins to
absorb fluid from well bore when the mud
density is high enough and the pressure in
the well bore is raised up to a certain value.
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 10
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
1.1.4 Drilling Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure
(钻井液静液柱压力)
• Hydrostatic pressure of the mud in well bore is the
pressure exerted by the mud column on the bottom.
PH  0 . 1    H
• Where,
•
•
PH --Drilling fluid hydrostatic pressure, kg/cm2;
 --Density of the fluid, g/cm3;
•
H--True vertical depth, m.
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 11
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Fig. 1-3 Determination of drilling fluid density
according to formation overburden pressure and
formation fracture pressure
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 12
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
1.2 the affection for ROP
 随着泥浆比重的增加,钻速下降,特别是
泥浆比重大于1.06~1.08时,钻速下降尤为
明显。
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 13
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
2、Viscosity and Gel Properties
2.1 Marsh Funnel(马氏漏斗)
The Marsh Funnel is useful on the drilling rig, where it enables
the crew to periodically report the consistency(粘度/稠度) of
the mud, so that significant changes may be noted by the mud
engineer. It consists of a funnel and a measuring cup (Fig.2-1),
and gives an empirical value for the consistency
Fig.2-1. Marsh Funnel
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 14
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
2.2 Direct-Indicating Viscometers(直读式粘度计)
These instruments are a form of concentric cylinder
viscometer that enables the variation of shearing stress
(剪切应力) with shear rate(剪切速率) to be observed.
The essential elements are shown in Figure.2-2,2-3. A
bob suspended from a spring(弹簧) hangs concentrically
in an outer cylinder ( 外 筒 ) . The viscometer has 6
rotational speeds -- 3 rpm, 6 rpm, 100 rpm, 200 rpm, 300
rpm and 600 rpm, 1rpm= 1.703s-1.
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 15
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Fig.2-2. Schematic diagram of the direct
indicating viscometer. The deflection in
degrees of the bob is read from the
graduated scale on the dial
Drilling Fluids
§2
Fig.2-3. Fann direct indicating viscometer
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 16
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
3. API Filtration
• 3.1 introduction of API Filtration
API(美国石油学会) filtration can be measured using
API filtration press (Fig.3-1 Low Pressure filter tester低压
失水仪) under a pressure of applied with nitrogen gas and a
proper 9 cm filter paper.
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 17
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
4. Solids content
4.1 introduction of solids content
Solids contained in drilling fluaid include bentonite,
weighting materials and drilled solids (drilled cuttings of
formation rocks or formation detritus derived from
sloughing or collapse). Weighting materials have higher
density (usually>4.0g/cm3) and are called high-density
solids, and bentonite and drilled solids have lower
density (usually<2.7g/cm3) and are called low-density
solids. Weighting materials and bentonite are useful
solids and drilled solids are useless or harmful solids.
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 18
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
4.2 the affections for ROP
图4-1 固相含量对钻速、钻头用量和钻
机工作日的影响1-钻头用量(个);2钻机工作日(天);3-钻速(ft/d)
(1ft/d=0.3048m)
Drilling Fluids
§2
图4-2 固相分散性对钻速的影
响 1-聚合物不分散体系;2-分
散体系(膨润土与低造浆粘土
之比均为1:1
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 19
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
4.3 the Retort
The volume fractions of oil,
water, and solids in a mud are
determined in a retort such as
that shown in Figure 4-3. t is
important that any air or gas
entrained on the mud be
removed
before
retorting;
otherwise, the solids content
will be in considerable error.
Fig.4-3. Retort for determining
oil and water content of muds
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 20
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
5.Bentonite Content of Mud
5.1 Methylene
Blue Test and Cation Exchange Capacity
Equipment and Regents:
When the blue tint spreading from the spot is detected
and the blue ring again evident after two minutes ,then,
Report the cation exchange capacity of the mud as the
methylene blue capacity, calculated as follows:
Methylene
blue capacity

No. of ml of methylene
blue
3
, cm /cm
3
No. of ml of mud
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 21
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
亚甲基蓝
中文名称: (无水)亚甲基蓝
英文名称: Methylene Blue trihydrate
系统命名: 氯化3,7-双(二甲氨基)吩噻嗪-5-鎓
分子式:C16H18N3ClS2
分子量:351.91
CAS号:61-73-4
• 性质:金红色闪金光或闪古铜色光的粉状物,溶于水,稍溶于酒精则呈蓝色;
遇浓硫酸呈黄光绿色;稀释后呈蓝色;水溶液中加入氢氧化钠溶液后呈紫色或
出现暗紫色沉淀。
• 用途:可用于麻、蚕丝织物、纸张的染色和竹、木的着色。还可用于制造墨水
和色淀及生物、细菌组织的染色等方面。它可与碱性紫5BN和黄糊精以78:13:
9的比例拼混成碱性品蓝。
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 22
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
亚甲基蓝试验和终点的确定
Procedure of methylene blue test and determination of the
end point
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 23
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
f c  14 . 3 ( CEC ) m g / L
• 钻井液的阳离子交换容量通常又称做亚甲基蓝容量,其
含义是:每100mL钻井液所能吸附亚甲基蓝的毫摩尔数。
由于1mL标准溶液中含有0.01mmol亚甲基蓝,因此试验
中所消耗标准溶液的毫升数在数值上恰好等于钻井液的
亚甲基蓝容量。
• 为便于计算,一般情况下假定膨润土的阳离子交换容量
等于70mmol/(100g)。
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 24
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Contents of Bentonite in Drilling
Fluid-fc
• If : 100g (Bentonite), 70
mmol(CEC); then (CEC)m, x
g(Bentonite in 100 mL
tested Drilling Fluid)

x
100 ( CEC ) m
70
Then, 1000 mL drilling fluid, fc:
fc 
Drilling Fluids
( CEC ) m
70  100
§2
 1000  14 . 3 ( CEC ) m
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 25
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
三水合亚甲基蓝
英文名称:Methylene Blue trihydrate;tetramethylthionine chloride
系统命名: 三水合氯化3,7-双(二甲氨基)吩噻嗪-5-鎓
分子式: C16H18N3SCl·3H2O
分子量: 373.89
CAS号: 7220-79-3
熔点: 190-191℃
性质: 为发亮的深绿色结晶或细小深褐色粉末,带青铜光泽,无气味,在空气中
稳定,能溶于水,具碱性,水溶液蓝色。水中溶解度≥10g/100ml at 22 ℃。
用途:化学试剂(酸试滴定)、化学染剂(碱性染料)、医药(重金属盐解毒,比如利
用其与血红蛋白结合能力强在一氧化碳中毒可以用静脉注射亚甲基蓝的方法来救
治),杀菌、杀虫剂。避免皮肤和眼睛接触。
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 26
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
5.2 Bentonite Content of Mud
• the bentonite content of the mud can be estimated
as follows:
Bentonite content of mud in kg/m3=14.25×methlylene
blue capacity
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 27
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
6. The API Sand Test(含砂量)
6.1 introduction of API sand Test
The sand content is a measure of
the amount of particles lager than 200
mesh present in a mud. Even though it
is called a sand test, the test defines
the size, not the composition, of the
particles. The test is conveniently
made in the apparatus shown in Fig.61.
Fig.6-1. Standard API
sand sieve
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 28
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
7. Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH值的确定)
The significant influence of the hydrogen ion
concentration on the properties of drilling fluids has long
been recognized and has been the subject of numerous
studies. Hydrogen ion concentration is more conveniently,
expressed as pH, which is the logarithm of the reciprocal
of the hydrogen ion concentration in gram mols per liter.
Two methods for the measurement of pH are in
common use: (1) a colorimetric method(比色法) using
paper test strips impregnated with indicators, and (2) an
electrometric method using a glass electrode instrument.
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 29
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
8. Filtrate Analysis(滤液分析)
Some chemical tests are made on mud filtrates to
determine the presence of contaminants, such as salt or
anhydrite, or to assist in the control of mud properties; for
example, the test for alkalinity in high pH muds. The same
tests can be applied to make-up waters, which in some
areas contain dissolved salts which materially affect mud
treatment. The equipment generally used for filtrate
analysis includes automatic burette, reagent bottle,
dropper bottler, casserole, graduated cylinder, graduated
pipette, and glass stirring rod.
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 30
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
9. Resistivity(电阻)
9.1 the introduction of Resistivity
Control of the resistivity of a mud and mud filtration
while drilling may be desirable to permit better evaluation of
formation characteristics from electric logs. The
determination of resistivity is essentially the measurement
of resistance to electrical current flow through known
sample configuration.
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 31
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
10. Electrical Stability of Emulsions
(乳状液的电稳定性)
The electrical stability test indicates the
stability of emulsions of water in oil. the
stability can be tested by the emulsions tester
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 32
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
11. Treatment of Make-up Water
(配浆水的处理)
• In areas where only hard water is available for mixing
mud, the yield of the clay can be increased and the
water loss decreased by removing the dissolved calcium
and magnesium. Soda ash is added to form a precipitate
of calcium carbonate while caustic soda will be required
to precipitate magnesium as the hydroxide.
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 33
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
12. Pilot Testing
• Certain suggestions as to pilot testing procedures will be
helpful as a guide in determining the appropriate
treatment to condition a mud. For example, confusion
can be avoided by recording the results of pilot tests in
field units.
• It is important when making pilot tests to consider the
order and manner in winch materials will be added under
field conditions
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 34
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Discussion
A. The properties and their relationship to the drill
operations? E.g. the roles of the density and
how to design and adjust density?
B. How about viscosity, filtration, yield point, pH?
Drilling Fluids
§2
Properties of drilling fluids &Evaluation
2010 中国地质大学(北京)
page 35
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)

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