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Plant Reproduction > Reproductive Development and Structure
Reproductive Development and Structure
• Introduction
• Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms
• Sexual Reproduction in Gymnosperms
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Plant Reproduction > Reproductive Development and Structure
Introduction
• Vegetative reproduction is a type of asexual reproduction that results in new plant
individuals without seed or spore production.
• Vegetative reproduction is also utilized by horticulturists to ensure production of
large quantities of valuable plants.
• Plants have flowers that produce seeds through sexual reproduction; seeds are
dispersed to increase propagation of the next generation.
• Seeds are often dispersed by animals via ingestion of the fruits, which surround
the seeds, promoting seed dispersal.
Plants and sexual reproduction
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Plant Reproduction > Reproductive Development and Structure
Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms
• A typical flower has four main parts, or whorls: the calyx (sepals), corolla (petals),
androecium (male reproductive structure), and gynoecium (female reproductive
structure).
• Angiosperms that contain both male and female gametophytes within the same
flower are called complete and are considered to be androgynous or
hermaphroditic.
• Angiosperms that contain only male or only female gametophytes are considered
to be incomplete and are either staminate (contain only male structures) or
carpellate (contain only female structures) flowers.
• Microspores develop in the microsporangium and form mature pollen grains (male
Structures of the flower
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gametophytes), which are then used to fertilize female gametophytes.
• During megasporogenesis, four megaspores are produced with one surviving;
during megagametogenesism, the surviving megaspore undergoes mitosis to
form an embryo sac (female gametophyte).
• The sperm, guided by the synergid cells, migrates to the ovary to complete
fertilization; the diploid zygote develops into the embryo, while the fertilized ovule
forms the other tissues of the seed.
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Plant Reproduction > Reproductive Development and Structure
Sexual Reproduction in Gymnosperms
• In gymnosperms, the cones contain a leafy green sporophyte and male and
female gametophytes in the cones; female cones are bigger than male cones and
are located higher up in the tree.
• A male cone contains microsporophylls where male gametophytes (pollen) are
produced and are later carried by wind to female gametophytes.
• The megaspore mother cell in the female cone divides by meiosis to produce four
haploid megaspores; one of the megaspores divides to form the female
gametophyte.
• The male gametophyte lands on the female cone, forming a pollen tube through
which the generative cell travels to meet the female gametophyte.
Conifer life cycle
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• One of the two sperm cells released by the generative cell fuses with the egg,
forming a diploid zygote that divides to form the embryo.
• Unlike angiosperms, ovaries are absent in gymnosperms, double fertilization does
not take place, male and female gametophytes are present on cones rather than
flowers, and wind (not animals) drives pollination.
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Appendix
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Plant Reproduction
Key terms
• androecium the set of a flower's stamens (male reproductive organs)
• gynoecium the set of a flower's pistils (female reproductive organs)
• megasporophyll bears megasporangium, which produces megaspores that divide into the female gametophyte
• microsporophyll a leaflike organ that bears microsporangium, which produces microspores that divide into the male
gametophyte (pollen)
• perianth the calyx (sepals) and the corolla (petals)
• vegetative reproduction a form of asexual reproduction in plants
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Plant Reproduction
Plants and sexual reproduction
Plants that reproduce sexually often achieve fertilization with the help of pollinators such as (a) bees, (b) birds, and (c) butterflies.
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Plant Reproduction
Structures of the flower
The four main parts of the flower are the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium.The androecium is the sum of all the male reproductive organs, and
the gynoecium is the sum of the female reproductive organs.
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Plant Reproduction
Pollen grain structure
Pollen develops from the microspore mother cells.The mature pollen grain is composed of two cells: the pollen tube cell and the generative cell, which is
inside the tube cell.The pollen grain has two coverings: an inner layer (intine) and an outer layer (exine).The inset scanning electron micrograph shows
<em>Arabidopsis lyrata</em> pollen grains.
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Plant Reproduction
Embryo sac
As shown in this diagram of the embryo sac in angiosperms, the ovule is covered by integuments and has an opening called a micropyle.Inside the
embryo sac are three antipodal cells, two synergids, a central cell, and the egg cell.
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Plant Reproduction
Superior and inferior flowers
The (a) lily is a superior flower, which has the ovary above the other flower parts.(b) Fuchsia is an inferior flower, which has the ovary beneath other
flower parts.
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Plant Reproduction
Staminate and carpellate flowers
The corn plant has both staminate (male) and carpellate (female) flowers.Staminate flowers, which are clustered in the tassel at the tip of the stem,
produce pollen grains.Carpellate flower are clustered in the immature ears.Each strand of silk is a stigma.The corn kernels are seeds that develop on the
ear after fertilization.Also shown is the lower stem and root.
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Plant Reproduction
Microsporangium
Shown is (a) a cross section of an anther at two developmental stages.The immature anther (top) contains four microsporangia, or pollen sacs.Each
microsporangium contains hundreds of microspore mother cells that will each give rise to four pollen grains.The tapetum supports the development and
maturation of the pollen grains.Upon maturation of the pollen (bottom), the pollen sac walls split open and the pollen grains (male gametophytes) are
released.(b) In these scanning electron micrographs, pollen sacs are ready to burst, releasing their grains.
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Plant Reproduction
Male and female gametophytes
These series of micrographs shows male and female gymnosperm gametophytes.(a) This male cone, shown in cross section, has approximately 20
microsporophylls, each of which produces hundreds of male gametophytes (pollen grains).(b) Pollen grains are visible in this single microsporophyll.(c)
This micrograph shows an individual pollen grain.(d) This cross section of a female cone shows portions of about 15 megasporophylls.(e) The ovule can
be seen in this single megasporophyll.(f) Within this single ovule are the megaspore mother cell (MMC), micropyle, and a pollen grain.
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Plant Reproduction
Conifer life cycle
This image shows the life cycle of a conifer.Pollen from male cones blows up into upper branches, where it fertilizes female cones.Examples are shown
for female and male cones.
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Plant Reproduction
Which of the following statements describes sexual reproduction?
A) The production of new plants without the production of seeds
B) The production of new plants without the production of spores
C) The production of new plants without the production of fruit
D) The production of new plants by the production of seeds
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Plant Reproduction
Which of the following statements describes sexual reproduction?
A) The production of new plants without the production of seeds
B) The production of new plants without the production of spores
C) The production of new plants without the production of fruit
D) The production of new plants by the production of seeds
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Plant Reproduction
Which of the following is associated with development of
microspores?
A) The megagametophyte where the microscopore mother cell divides to
produces four microspores
B) The synergid cells which help form the pollen tube that is used for
microspore development
C) The microsporangium where the microspore mother cell divides to
produce four microspores
D) The micropyle which produces the microspore mother cell that divides
to produce microspores
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Plant Reproduction
Which of the following is associated with development of
microspores?
A) The megagametophyte where the microscopore mother cell divides to
produces four microspores
B) The synergid cells which help form the pollen tube that is used for
microspore development
C) The microsporangium where the microspore mother cell divides to
produce four microspores
D) The micropyle which produces the microspore mother cell that divides
to produce microspores
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Plant Reproduction
Which component of the flower, associated with the male
gametophyte, is necessary to provide nutrition to developing
microspores?
A) The tapetum cells
B) The pollen tube cells
C) The generative cells
D) The synergid cell
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Plant Reproduction
Which component of the flower, associated with the male
gametophyte, is necessary to provide nutrition to developing
microspores?
A) The tapetum cells
B) The pollen tube cells
C) The generative cells
D) The synergid cell
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Plant Reproduction
Which of the following statements describes sexual reproduction
in gymnosperms?
A) The female gametophyte is enclosed in an ovary.
B) Wind carries pollen to the female gametophyte.
C) Double fertilization is an essential part of the life cycle.
D) Fruit formation takes places after fertilization.
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Plant Reproduction
Which of the following statements describes sexual reproduction
in gymnosperms?
A) The female gametophyte is enclosed in an ovary.
B) Wind carries pollen to the female gametophyte.
C) Double fertilization is an essential part of the life cycle.
D) Fruit formation takes places after fertilization.
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Plant Reproduction
Attribution
• Wikipedia. "vegetative reproduction." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/vegetative%20reproduction
• Wikibooks. "Botany/Plant reproduction." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Botany/Plant_reproduction
• Connexions. "Introduction." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44720/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Connexions. "Reproductive Development and Structure." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "gynoecium." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/gynoecium
• Wiktionary. "androecium." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/androecium
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/perianth
• Connexions. "Reproductive Development and Structure." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Connexions. "Reproductive Development and Structure." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "microsporophyll." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/microsporophyll
• Wiktionary. "megasporophyll." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/megasporophyll
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