fuel cell apps draft - Department of Chemistry

Report
PEM applications
FUEL CELLS
HIDEKEL MORENO LUNA
HC 399
What is a fuel cell?
 Usually hydrogen is
 Basic definition:
 A device that creates
electricity by a
chemical reaction.
 Composed by two
electrodes are
respectively called
anode(+) and cathode(-)
that carried a redox
reaction. The reaction is
speed up by the
calalyst.
the fuel in conjunction
with oxygen.
 Every cell generates a
amount of energy that
can be couple with
others to create a cell or
a stack. The purpose of
such is to make current
do work outside of the
system(cell), that
powering an electric
motor.
Types of Fuel Cells


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







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
Metal Hydride Fuel Cell
Electro-galvanic Fuel Cell
Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell;
DFAFC
Zinc Air Battery
Microbial Fuel Cell
Upflow Microbial Fuel Cell; UMFC
Regenerative Fuel Cell
Direct Bromohydride Fuel Cell
Alkaline Fuel Cell
Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell
Direct-Ethanol Fuel Cell
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel
Cell; PEM








RFC-Redox
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell;MCFC
Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel
Celll;TSOFC
Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell
Direct Carbon Fuel Cell
Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Enzymatic Biofuel Cells.
Fuel Cell Name
Metal hydride fuel cell
Electro-galvanic fuel cell
Direct formic acid fuel cell
(DFAFC)
Zinc-air battery
Electrolyte
Qualified Power (W)
Aqueous alkaline
solution
(e.g.potassium
hydroxide)
Aqueous alkaline
solution (e.g.,
potassium hydroxide)
Polymer membrane
(ionomer)
Aqueous alkaline
solution (e.g.,
potassium hydroxide)
to 50 W
Working
Temperature (°C)
Electrical efficiency
Status
above -20
(50% Ppeak @ 0°C)
Commercial/Researc
h
under 40
Commercial/Researc
h
under 40
Commercial/Researc
h
under 40
Mass production
Microbial fuel cell
Polymer membrane
or humic acid
Upflow microbial fuel cell
(UMFC)
Regenerative fuel cell
Polymer membrane
(ionomer)
Direct borohydride fuel cell
Aqueous alkaline
solution (e.g., sodium
hydroxide)
Alkaline fuel cell
Aqueous alkaline
solution (e.g.,
potassium hydroxide)
under 40
Research
under 40
Research
under 50
Commercial/Researc
h
70
10 kW to 100 kW
under 80
Commercial
Cell: 60–70% Commercial/Researc
System: 62%
h
Direct methanol fuel cell
Polymer
membrane
(ionomer)
Reformed methanol fuel
cell
Direct-ethanol fuel cell
Proton exchange
membrane fuel cell
100 mW to 1 kW
90–120
Cell: 20–30% Commercial/Resear
System: 10–20%
ch
Polymer
membrane
(ionomer)
5 W to 100 kW
(Reformer)250–
300
(PBI)125–200
Cell: 50–60% Commercial/Resear
System: 25–40%
ch
Polymer
membrane
(ionomer)
up to 140 mW/cm²
above 25
? 90–120
Polymer
membrane
(ionomer) (e.g.,
Nafion or
Polybenzimidazol
e fiber)
100 W to 500 kW
(Nafion)50–120
(PBI)125–220
Research
Cell: 50–70% Commercial/Resear
$30–35 per watt
System: 30–50%
ch
RFC - Redox
Liquid electrolytes with
redox shuttle & polymer
membrane (Ionomer)
Phosphoric acid fuel cell
Molten phosphoric acid
(H3PO4)
Molten carbonate fuel cell
Tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC)
Molten alkaline carbonate
(e.g., sodium bicarbonate
NaHCO3)
O2--conducting ceramic
oxide (e.g., zirconium
dioxide, ZrO2)
1 kW to 10 MW
up to 10 MW
150-200
Cell: 55%
System: 40%
Co-Gen: 90%
100 MW
600-650
Cell: 55%
System: 47%
850-1100
Cell: 60–65%
System: 55–60%
up to 100 MW
Protonic ceramic fuel cell
Direct carbon fuel cell
Planar Solid oxide fuel cell
Enzymatic Biofuel Cells
H+-conducting
ceramic oxide
700
Several different
O2--conducting
ceramic oxide (e.g.,
zirconium dioxide,
ZrO2 Lanthanum
Nickel Oxide
La2XO4,X= Ni,Co,
Cu.)
Any that will not
denature the
enzyme (usually
aqueous buffer).
up to 100 MW
Research
700-850
Cell: 80% Commercial/Resear
System: 70%
ch
850-1100
Cell: 60–65% Commercial/Resear
System: 55–60%
ch
under 40
Research
Main Applications
 Back up power
 Base load power plants
 Electric and hybrid vehicles
 Auxiliary power
 Off-grid power supply
 Notebook computers
 Belt charges for cell phones or palms
 Smart phones( GPS)
 Mass Transportation
Fuel Cell Challenges
Cost:
the cost of power systems must be reduced before
they can be competitive with convectional
technologies. For stationary systems is $400-750/KW
and is now as much as $1000/KW on initial
applications.
Durability and Reliability:
there is no durability established for some fuel cell
systems. For stationary applications , more than
40,000 hrs. of reliable operation in a temperature
range of 35˚C-40˚C.
System size
if wanted to use in the automobile industry the size
and weight must be reduced to give a higher
efficiency.
Air, thermal and water management
the compressor used for some cells is not suitable for
non-stationary applications such as automobiles.
Also the thermal and water management for fuel
cells are issues between the ambient and operating
temperatures that makes cells add an extra
component for large heat exchangers.
PEM
 Description:
 With an operation temperature relatively low have
a large energy density can vary their output
quickly to meet shifts in power demand.
 According to the U.S. Department of Energy
(DOE), "they are the primary candidates for lightduty vehicles, for buildings, and potentially for
much smaller applications such as replacements
for rechargeable batteries”
 How a PEM fuel cell works
 The electrolyte; proton conducting membrane
separates the anode and the cathode.
 On one side hydrogen diffuses to the anode
catalyst where it later dissociates into protons and
electrons. These protons react with oxidants
causing it to become like a multi-faliciiltated
proton membranes(MFPM). The protons are
conducted through the membrane to the cathode;
while the electrons travel in an external circuit
because the membrane is electrically insulated.
 On the cathode oxygen molecules react with
electrons and protons to make water! In either
liquid or vapor.
Continued
PEM fuel cell transforms the chemical energy
liberated during the electrochemical reaction
of hydrogen and oxygen to electrical energy
as opposed to the direct combustion of
hydrogen and oxygen to produce thermal
energy.
 Applications and cost for PEM applications
 Off –power supply
 Portable power
 Transportation
$30-35 /W
http://www.ballard.com/files
/pdf/Spec_Sheets/PEM_FC_Prod
uct_Portfolio_docmetrics.pdf
http://www.ballard.com/files
/pdf/Case_Studies/Bus_Benefi
ts_docmetrics.pdf

Government Investment 41.9 million this year April 15

Given to some states
 Arkansas (FedEx East:35 fuel systems for a complete lift truck 1.3 million)
 California (Jadoo Power: usage of 1kW fuel cell power systems as opposed to
traditional gas/diesel generators and lead acid batteries 1.8 million, Polyfuel:
integrate and minituarize the components of Polyfuel’s power system for use in
mobile computing)
 Colorado(Anheuser-Bush: will deploy 23 fuel systems as battery replacements for a
complete fleet of electric lift trucks 1.1 million)
 Massachusetts( Nuvera Fuel Cells: to accelerate market penetration of fuel cells in
conjunction with East Penn Manufacturing will deploy 10 fuel cell fork lifts)
 Michigan(Delphi Automobile: to test and demonstrate 3-5 kW solid oxide fuel cells,
SOFC, auxiliary power for heavy duty commercial class 8 trucks 2.4 million)
 New York( MTI microfuel cells:accelerate fuel cell use in electronic use 2.4 million,
Plug power validate the durability of plug power 5-kW stationary combined heat
and power fuel cell system verifying commercial readiness and other project for
Gencore rack –mounted fuel cell product that provides clean and highly reliable
emergency backup power for a total of 6.1 million)
 Pensylvannia( GENCO: will deploy 156 fuel cell systems as battery replacements for
fleets of electric lift trucks 6.1 million)
 Texas( Sysco of Houston: will deploy 90 fuel cell system for battery replacement for
a fleet of pallet trucks 1.2 million)
 Virginia( Sprint Communications: demonstrate viability of packaged 1-kW to 10-kW
fuel cell systems with 72 hrs. of onsite fuel storage for back power 7.3 million)
 Washington( ReliOn: add reliability to a utility communications network were no
backup power was previously available at 25 sites will deploy 180 fuel cell system to
locations of AT&T mobile network 8.6 million)
Production Processes
Energy Inputs, Raw Units [2]
Farmed Trees, kg
Natural Gas, Nm3
Ethanol, gallons
Electricity, kWh
Pittsburgh #8 Coal, kg
Energy Inputs, Common
Units
Farmed Trees, Btu
Natural Gas, Btu
Ethanol, Btu
Electricity, Btu
As Received Bituminous Coal,
Btu
Central
Coal
Central
Forecourt Forecourt Forecourt
Gasificati Central Natural Gas
Water
Ethanol Natural Gas
Central
on with
Natural
Reforming Central Electrolysis Reforming, Reforming,
Biomass Central Coal
CO2
Gas
with CO2
Water
1500
1500
1500
Gasification Gasification Capture Reforming Capture Electrolysis kg/day [3] kg/day [4] kg/day [4]
12.839
0.170
1.600
-
8.508
1.720
7.849
4.501
0.569
-
4.489
1.406
-
53.440
-
55.178
-
237,919
5,901
-
-
156,249
155,833
-
-
2.191
2.457
-
4.488
3.077
-
155,798
167,239
8,385
5,459
-
5,867
1,942
4,796
182,345
188,277
10,501
-
223,253
205,960
-
-
-
-
Energy Outputs, Raw Units
[2]
Hydrogen, kg
Electricity, kWh
1.000
-
1.000
3.175
1.000
-
1.000
-
1.000
-
1.000
-
1.000
-
1.000
1.000
-
Energy Outputs, Common
Units
Hydrogen, Btu
Electricity, Btu
113,940
-
113,940
10,834
113,940
-
113,940
-
113,940
-
113,940
-
113,940
-
113,940
113,940
-
Conversion Efficiencies [5]
45.7%
55.9%
53.8%
72.0%
70.9%
62.5%
60.5%
64.9%
68.5%
-
Conclusion
 PEM’s offer a great option for stationary
power systems and backup power and are
good overall for commercial applications
such as forklifts and buses.
 Some future fuel cell technologies might give
an arise to other promising fuel cells such as
SOFC and MCFC.
Questions/Comments
Sources
 http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/annual_progress0

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
8.html
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/
http://www.fuelcells.org
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&
_imagekey=B6TG0-3TYMR5D-SD&_cdi=5240&_user=576687&_orig=search&_cover
Date=08%2F21%2F1998&_sk=999569975&view=c&
wchp=dGLbVzzzSkWA&_valck=1&md5=3ed76fa4875d8e6c3d3b32b
c880a9700&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
http://www.ballard.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_cell

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