CHAPTER 03 FINAL - Pipeline Emergencies

Report
Pipeline Emergencies
1
Pipeline
Emergencies
101
Awareness Level Training
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
2
Objectives
• Basic overview of Pipeline Operations and
Pipeline Incidents including basic operations,
incident recognition and identification, and
tactics.
• Keeping responders safe
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
3
The Pipeline Transportation Chain ….
 Pipelines and piping systems are
the safest and second largest
method of hazardous materials
transportation within the United
States and Canada
 All piping systems are based upon
the following principles:
 A material is inserted or injected
into a pipe
 The product is moved from this
origination point to a pre-specified
destination
 The product is ultimately removed
from the pipeline at its destination
point
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Pipeline Transportation Chain
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Crude Oil Pipelines…
 Crude oil is petroleum taken
directly out of the ground from both
on-shore and off-shore production
facilities
 The exact composition of this
produced fluid varies depending
upon where in the world the crude
oil was produced
 Crude oil may also have a high
concentration of hydrogen sulfide
(H2S)
 Commonly referred to as a “sour
crude,” exposures to low
concentrations of this toxic gas can
result in death
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Crude Oil Pipelines…
 Gathering lines are small pipelines,
usually 2 to 8-inches diameter
 They move the crude oil mixture
from individual wellheads and
production locations to an oil
processing facility
 Depending upon the location of the
production site and the type of crude oil
being produced, the crude oil is then
shipped through larger trunk lines or by
cargo tank trucks to a refinery or shipping
terminal
 Onshore
 Offshore platforms
 North slope of Alaska
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Liquid Pipelines …
 The most common liquids transported
by pipelines are refined petroleum products
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gasoline
Aviation gas
Jet fuel
Home heating fuels
Diesel fuels
Carbon dioxide
Natural gas liquids (NGL)
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Anhydrous ammonia
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Liquid Pipelines …
 Transmission pipelines move refined
products from refineries to marketing
and distribution terminals
 The products are then loaded onto
rail cars, cargo tanks trucks, and
barges for delivery to the consumer
 Refined petroleum product
transmission pipelines carry several
different liquid products
simultaneously
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Liquid Pipelines - Highly Volatile Liquids
 Highly volatile liquids or “HVL” pipelines
are hazardous liquids which will form a vapor
cloud when released to the atmosphere
 HVLs include any liquid with a vapor pressure
exceeding 40 psia (276 kpa) at 100ºF (37.8º C)
 Examples of common highly
volatile liquids (HVLs)






Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Propane
Butane
Ammonia
Carbon dioxide
Hydrogen
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Gas Pipelines
 Natural gas may be produced
 As a separate material
 During exploration and production
operations
 As a by-product of crude oil production
operations
 The handling of natural gas and natural gas
liquids (NGLs) parallels the process for
crude oil pipelines
 Transmission pipelines ranging up to
48-inches in diameter move the
natural gas from production and
processing to the distribution network
 Ultimately delivering the product to
residential and industrial consumers
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Identification Of Pipelines …
 The location of an underground pipeline is
usually marked by aboveground signs and
markers that indicate the presence of a
pipeline
 The primary function of these markers is to alert
those who might be working along the pipeline
corridor or doing construction in close proximity
to the pipeline, and to provide initial emergency
contact information
 Markers are required to be present whenever a
pipeline crosses under roads, railroads, or
waterways
 They may also be found at other intervals and
locations along the pipeline right-of-way, such
as near buildings and structures
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Identification Of Pipelines …
 Although the color, format and design
may vary, all markers are required to
provide:
1. The pipeline contents
2. The pipeline operator
3. Emergency telephone number
1
2
3
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Identification Of Pipelines …
While pipeline markers indicate the
presence of a pipeline(s), the
absence of a pipeline marker is no
assurance that a pipeline is not
present
Click to see the pipeline location
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
ROW
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Identification Of Pipelines
 Other markers may also be found along
the right-of-way, including:
 Painted metal or plastic posts may be
used to indicate the right-of-way,
especially in urban and suburban areas
 Pipeline casing vents are sometimes
found where a pipeline crosses under
a road or rail corridor within a
pipeline casing
 Aerial markers are larger markers
with a specific number that
indicate a specific geographic
location along the pipeline
right-of-way
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Pipeline Rights-of-Ways (ROW)
 The ROW is a strip of land usually about 25 to 150 feet wide
containing one or more pipelines or other subsurface utilities (e.g.,
cables communications)
 The ROW:
 Enables pipeline personnel
to gain access for inspection,
maintenance, testing or emergencies
 Maintains an unobstructed view
for frequent aerial surveillance of
the pipeline
 Identifies an area that restricts
certain activities to protect the
landowner and the community
 May be located adjacent to a
power line right-of-way or
within A highway right-of-way
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
Pipeline Right-of-Way
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Clues That Indicate A Right-of-Way
 The primary method to identify
pipelines and their right-of-way is
through the use of pipeline markers
located at roads, railways and other
intervals along the ROW
 Pipeline markers only show the
approximate location of the buried
pipelines, as the depth and exact
location of the pipelines can vary within
the ROW
Railway
PIPELINES
MARKER
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Pipeline Rights-of-Ways (ROW)
 Rows are either owned by the
pipeline operator or acquired
through an agreement with the
property owner
 Pipeline companies are responsible
for maintaining their right-of-way to
protect the public and environment,
the line itself, and other customers
from loss of service
 Typically, a permit must be obtained
from the pipeline operator for any
activity or encroachment into the
row
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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The Pipeline …
 Pipelines can vary from
2-inch diameter for gathering
lines to 48-inches for
transmission or trunk lines
 Most modern pipelines are
constructed of either seamless
steel or steel with a welded
longitudinal seam in 40 to 60 ft
Lengths
 The individual pipe joints are
welded together into sections
 To inhibit corrosion, pipe coatings
and wrappings applied at the steel
mill or on-site are used
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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The Pipeline …
 Minimum depths vary - natural gas
distribution mains have a 24-inch
minimum depth
 Federal regulations require that
transmission pipelines have a
minimum depth
of 30 inches in
rural areas and
deeper in more
populated areas
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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The Pipeline …
 When crossing a river, most
pipelines are drilled under
the riverbed without
disturbing the bottom surface
 If drilling is not possible,
the piping may be laid and
weighted with concrete or steel
anchors to keep it on the bottom
 Aboveground pipelines may be
found at pump and compressor
stations, meter stations, some valve
stations, river crossings, bridges,
and plant and terminal facilities
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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The Pipeline
 Aboveground pipelines are also
constructed in a zigzag pattern
instead of a straight line to allow for
pipeline movement due to thermal
expansion or ground movement
 Once in-place, the pipeline must
then be tested for leaks
before being placed in service
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Corrosion Control
 Corrosion is a natural process that,
under the proper conditions, can
affect any metal or alloy
 Pipeline operators must also have
written guidelines and procedures for
most corrosion-related activities
 Pipeline corrosion is most prevalent
when the failure of coatings,
inhibitors, or cathodic protection
occurs in a corrosive environment
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Types and Causes of Corrosion
 External corrosion may be caused by
damage to coatings, manufacturing
defects within the metal, or through the
loss of cathodic protection
 Internal corrosion of pipelines is a
concern to all pipeline operators
 Causes include chloride, carbon
dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, and
micro-biological activity
 Microbiologically influenced corrosion
(MIC) involves microbes that produce
corrosive conditions
 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the
cracking of A pipeline from the
combined influence of tensile stress
and a corrosive medium
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Pig Receiver on a Natural Gas Pipeline
Cutaway of
pipeline
with pig inside
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Moving And Controlling The Product
 Pumps and compressors
 Provide the force and pressure to move liquid and gas products
through a pipeline system
Pumps are commonly used to provide the
pressure and force to move products in a
liquid pipeline
Compressors are typically used on gas pipelines
to boost and maintain the pipeline pressure,
thereby keeping the gas flowing
 The size of the pumps and compressors used in a pipeline system
will be dependent upon the type of pipeline, and the product and
volumes being transported
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Moving And Controlling The Product …
 Valves
 A critical and essential element of a pipeline system
in controlling the movement and flow of product
 Valves can be identified by type or by function, and
can be equipped with locking devices to prevent the
accidental or malicious operation of the valve
 Types of valves commonly found on pipeline
systems include :
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Gate valves
Plug valves
Ball valves
Butterfly valves
Check valves
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Moving And Controlling The Product
 Valves
 Pipeline flow rates and
pressures on transmission
lines and large distribution
lines are controlled through
the use of large control
valves
 Safety note
 Emergency response personnel should never attempt to isolate any
pipeline valves on large-diameter transmission or distribution lines
unless under the direction of pipeline operations personnel
 Failure to do so may actually create additional problems that are
worse than the original event
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Moving and Controlling The Product
 Pressure relief valves (PRV)
 Provide over-pressure protection for pipeline
systems and storage tanks
 Spring-actuated valves that automatically open
and relieve pressure when actuated at A pre-set
pressure
 On liquid pipeline systems, the PRV discharge is
often directed into A breakout tank where the
liquid outflow is collected
 When actuated, PRVs can generate a
tremendous amount of noise, as well as strong
odors if the natural gas is odorized
 A PRV venting to the atmosphere is performing
properly, it should never be isolated or restricted
by emergency response personnel
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Pressure Relief Valves
Pressure Relief Valves
Control Valve
Remember - A PRV venting to the
atmosphere is performing properly, and
its discharge should never be isolated or
restricted by emergency response
personnel
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Moving and Controlling The Product …
 Manifolds
 Both liquid and gas pipelines use valve
manifolds to control the flow path of
products
 Manifolds, with numerous valves and
meters, are used to divide the pipeline flow
into parts, to combine several flows into one
larger pipeline flow, or to reroute product
flow to several possible locations
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Moving and Controlling The Product
 Manifolds
 Manifolds may perform a number of
operations, including:
 Pumping product through
the main pipeline at a
pumping station
 Receiving product from the field
into any tank
 Delivering product from the main
pipeline into any storage tank
 Transferring product from one
tank to another
 Meters are used to measure and
record the quantity or volume of product
passing through a specific location
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Pipeline Control Centers …
 The pipeline control center is the
heart of pipeline operations
 Information about the pipeline’s
operating equipment and parameters
is communicated into the control
center, where operators use
computers to monitor the pipeline
operation
 Pipeline monitoring is accomplished
through a computerized system
known as a supervisory control and
data acquisition (SCADA) system
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Pipeline Control Centers …
 Many pipeline operators have their 24hour emergency phone number
connected directly to the pipeline
control center
 The SCADA system continuously
monitors the volume in the pipeline and
provides line balance reports
 Most SCADA systems offer multiple
computer screens so that an operator
can instantly check operations and
facts at any location
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Tactical Response
 Pipeline emergencies are handled safely and effectively when
responders are dependent on a predetermined and approved
system for managing the event
 The Eight Step Process© is copyrighted by Jones & Bartlett
Learning. It was originally developed by Gregory Noll, Michael
Hildebrand, and James Yvorra
 Material in this section has been reproduced with permission from
Jones & Bartlett Learning
 For more information on the eight step process© see Hazardous
Materials: Managing The Incident, (4th edition), Jones & Bartlett
learning, Sudbury, MA
 The Eight Step Process© can serve as a general framework for
systematically resolving a pipeline emergency
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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The Eight Step Process©
 There are eight basic functions that must be evaluated at pipeline
emergencies & hazardous materials
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Site management and control
Identify the problem
Hazard and risk evaluation
Select personal protective clothing and equipment
Information management and resource coordination
Implement response objectives
Decontamination and clean-up operations
Terminate the incident
The Eight Step Process© is used in this section with permission from Jones
and Bartlett Learning
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Step 1: Site Mgt. and Control Street Smart Tips
 Site management establishes the playing field for the
overall response
 The initial 10 minutes of the incident will determine
operations for the next 60 minutes, and the first 60
minutes will determine operations for the first 8 hours
 Don’t try to control more real estate than you can
effectively isolate and control
 Smaller and tighter may be better than bigger and looser
 Remember the basics
 The more time, distance and shielding between you and
the material, the lower the risk will be
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
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Step 1: Site Mgt. and Control Street Smart Tips
 Designate an emergency evacuation signal and identify rally points
if emergency evacuation is necessary
 Remember the first law of hot zone operations when dealing with
hazardous materials: to play in the game you must:





Be trained to play
Be dressed to play
Have A buddy system with back-up personnel
Have Decon established
Coordinate with command and safety
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Step 2: Identify the problem Street Smart Tips
 A problem well-defined is half-solved
 Assume that initial information is not correct
 Always verify your initial information
 Verify – verify – verify
 Conduct reconnaissance operations, as necessary
 Defensive recon
 Offensive recon
 Never permit response personnel to perform activities in areas
where un-ignited gases or vapors may have accumulated
 Always verify flammable gas concentrations through continuous air
monitoring
 Always be alert for the presence of improvised explosive devices
(IED) and secondary events
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
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Step 3: Hazard/Risk Evaluation Street Smart Tips
 Look at where the problem is now – and where it is going!
Consider the travel of both liquid and vapors
 Focus on those things that you can change and that will make a
positive difference to the outcome
 Every incident will arrive at some outcome…with or without your
help
 If you can’t change the outcome, why get involved?
 There’s nothing wrong with taking a calculated risk
 If there is much to be gained, there is much to be risked
 If there is little to be gained, then little should be risked
 Pubic safety personnel should view their roles as that of risk
evaluators, rather than risk takers
 Bad risk takers get buried
 Effective risk evaluators come home
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Step 3: Hazard/Risk Evaluation Street Smart Tips
 Hour one priorities within the IAP are:






Establish site management and control
Notify the pipeline operator
Determine the materials involved
Ensure the safety of all personnel from ALL hazards
Ensure that PPE is appropriate for the hazards
Initiate tactical objectives to accomplish initial rescue, Decon, medical,
and public protective action needs
 If criminal activities are involved (e.g., Terrorism incidents), maintain
the integrity of potential evidence
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
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Step 4: PPE Clothing and Equip Street Smart Tips
 Remember that structural firefighting protective clothing is
not designed to provide protection against chemical hazards
 There is no one single barrier that will effectively combine
both chemical and thermal protection
 Wearing ANY type and level of impermeable protective
clothing creates the potential for heat stress injuries
 Personal protective clothing is your LAST line of defense!!!!
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
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Step 5: Info Mgt. and Control Street Smart Tips
 Consider the security of the ICP and all other incident response
areas (e.g., Staging, rehab) of the incident
 Don’t look stupid because you didn’t have a plan
 Bad news doesn’t get better with time
 If there’s a problem, the earlier you know about it the sooner you can
start to fix it!
 Don’t allow external resources to “free-lance” or do the “end run”
 Don’t let your lack of a planning section become the Achilles heel
of your response
 Establish it early, particularly if the incident has the potential to
become a “campaign event”
 Work together to solve the problem!
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Step 6: Implement Response Objectives Street Smart Tips
 Always ask yourself , What will happen if I do nothing?
 Remember – this is the baseline for hazmat decision-making and
should be the element against which all strategies and tactics are
compared
 Remember the basic principles of spill control:
 Divert the spill to an open area, if possible
 If flammable liquids are involved, use Class B firefighting foams for
vapor suppression
 Conduct air monitoring – the fire threat takes priority over the
environmental threat!
 Cover storm drains and sewers ahead of the release
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
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Step 6: Implement Response Objectives Street Smart Tips
 Prevent the entry of liquid products into waterways, sewers,
basements or confined areas
 Booms, pads and other absorbent materials will not be effective in
confining large liquid spills, or spills that have had Class B aqueous
film-forming foams (AFFF) applied
 Underflow dams may be used to control hydrocarbon
 Liquids released into creeks and streams
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Step 6: Implement Response Objectives Street Smart Tips
 Remember the basic principles of fire control:
 Flammable liquids and gases will give off A tremendous amount of
radiant heat
 Protect exposures, as appropriate
 Never extinguish a flammable gas fire
 Always control or isolate the source of the leak
 If you can’t isolate the source, then attempt to reduce the operating
pressure of the pipeline
 Permit the fire to self-extinguish and consume any residual fuel that
may remain inside or around the pipeline
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
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Step 6: Implement Response Objectives Street Smart Tips
 Remember the basic principles of leak control:
 Emergency responders should NEVER attempt to isolate any pipeline
valves on large-diameter transmission or distribution lines unless
under the direction of pipeline operations personnel
 Failure to do so may actually create additional problems that are
worse than the original event
 Don’t touch natural gas plastic piping, as it may generate a static spark
that could act as an ignition source
 Shutting off the main natural gas supply to large commercial or
industrial facilities may actually create secondary or tertiary problems
worse than the original incident
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Step 6: Implement Response Objectives Street Smart Tips
 Remember the basic principles of leak control:
 Once a flammable gas supply is shutoff, NEVER turn the service valve
ON again
 Service restoration should only be conducted by gas utility representatives
 Don’t fill up an open hole or trench with water
 It won’t stop the flow of natural gas, may delay efforts to control the
problem, and won’t make the pipeline workers who have to fix the problem
happy
 Surprises often occur on the emergency scene
 Always have A plan B in case plan A doesn’t work!
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Step 7 Decon and Clean UP Street Smart Tips
 Establishing an emergency Decon capability should be part of the
incident action plan for any incident where hazardous materials are
involved
 Remember that flammables may be absorbed into structural
firefighting clothing and be carried into “safe” areas
 Decon involving large numbers of people will be a challenge
 Remember the basics – separate people from the problem and
keep them corralled until emergency Decon is established
 Never transport contaminated victims from the scene to any
medical facility without conducting field Decon
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
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Step 8: Terminate the Incident Street Smart Tips
 Although every organization has a tendency to develop its own
critique style, never use a critique to assign blame
 Organizations must balance the potential negatives against the
benefits that are gained through the critique process
 Remember – the reason for doing the critique in the first place is to
improve your operations!
 Most critiques fall into one of three categories:
 We tell each other that we did a great job – whether we actually did or
not
 We beat up on each other for making bad decisions
 We focus on the lessons that were learned and the
changes/improvements that must be made to our response system
CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations
Pipeline Emergencies
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Closing
 Be safe
 For more information
 www.pipelineemergenices.com
 Philip Oakes
 307-222-4227
 [email protected]
Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 7 Scenarios

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