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Report
San Diego County: Towards a Reliable and
Sustainable Public Transportation System
Franco Boscolo
Research Associate, Global Energy Network Institute (GENI)
Under the supervision of
Peter Meisen
President, Global Energy Network Institute (GENI)
Summary
• Fleet information
• Population trends
• Suggestion for a more reliable system
• Suggestion for a more sustainable system
Fleet information
• MTS
• Bus
• Trolley
• NCTD
• BREEZE
• COASTER
• SPRINTER
• Amtrak
• Pacific Surfliner
Population trends
Modes of commuting to work (2010)
Driving Alone
Carpooling
76%
Work at home
Public Transits
2%
3%
Walking
3%
6%
10%
Other
miles
Population trends
16
Daily Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT) per capita
14
12
10
2009
2010
8
6
4
2
0
San Francisco
Los Angeles
Orange County
San Diego
CALIFORNIA
Millions of miles
Population trends
70
Daily Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007
Millions of ridership
Population trends
600
Transit ridership by city
500
400
300
200
100
0
New York City
Chicago
San Francisco Los Angeles Washington
San Diego
Millions of people
Population trends
5.0
Population, jobs and housing growth
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
2000
2010
Population
2020
2030
Jobs
2040
2050
Housing
2060
Proposal: reliable system
Comparison of perception of mode performance
Source: SANDAG 2008, San Diego Region – Public Transit Opinion Study, Encinitas, True North Research.
Proposal: reliable system
Motivations for not using transits
No travels to necessary areas
13.9
10.8
Stops locations are inconvenient
General inconvenience of transit
15.0
9.8
Takes too long
No transit options near home
Schedule inconvenient
8.5
Prefer other modes
Too expensive
20.2
8.0
Do not need / Rarely travel
4.5
4.2
5.1
Other
Proposal: reliable system
2050 regional development plan
• Area improvement
• Transit development
• Fast connections
Source: SANDAG 2011, 2050 Regional Transportation Plan – Our region, Our Future, San Diego.
Proposal: reliable system
Bus lanes and automatic light systems
0
• Toll lanes on
highways
• Bus lanes on
city centres
• Active signal
priority system
12th & Imperial
12th & Petco Pk.
12th & K
Park & J
Park & Island
Park & Market
Park & G
Park & F
Park & E
Park & Brodway
C & 11th
C & 10th
C & 9th
C & 8th
C & 7th
C & 6th
C & 5th
C & 4th
C & 3rd
C & 2nd
C & First
C & Front
C & India
Average
10
20
seconds
30
40
50
Proposal: reliable system
• More transit options
• Higher transit frequency
Source: TfL (Transport for London) 2012a, Timetable of Bus 159 towards
Paddington Basin (W2), Accessed on 15 August 2012, <http://www.tfl.gov.uk/>.
Proposal: reliable system
• GPS-tracked transits:
• Online and mobile Apps:
Source: Apple Inc. UK 2012, iTunes Preview – App Store > Navigation, Accessed on 15 August 2012,
<http://itunes.apple.com/gb/genre/ios-navigation/id6010?mt=8&letter=L&page=3#page>.
Proposal: sustainable system
g/km
Diesel vs. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
CO
Reduction: 25.45%
Euro3 Diesel
NOx
28.45%
Early CNG
PM
98.12%
Proposal: sustainable system
Diesel vs. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
•
•
When both engine types
are retrofitted with
cleaning technologies,
reductions decrease
Emissions (gCO2eq/km)
Source
Diesel
CNG
Reduction
Beer et al. 2001
1,759
1,604
8.81%
Sliva et al. 2006
2,277
2,070
9.09%
Costs do not justify CNG choice:
Cost Details
Incremental CNG Fuel
CNG Fuel Station Maintenance
Incremental Bus Maintenance
Incremental Cleaning Technology
Diesel Fuel Station Maintenance
Clean Technology Replacement
Annual Technology Cleaning
TOTAL
CNG ($)
Per Bus
Per Fleet
2,860
0.6 x 106
0.9 x 106
5,200
1.0 x 106
2,500,000
Clean Diesel ($)
Per Bus
Per Fleet
1,040
208,000
92,000
137
27,400
670
134,000
461,400
Source: DEER (Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research) 2003, Comparison of Clean Diesel Buses
to CNG Buses, New York City Transit Department of Buses, from August 26, 2003 DEER Conference, Newport, RI.
Proposal: sustainable system
Electrification of the railway system
•
Rail and light-rail services powered by Diesel engines:
Service
Company
Travel (mi)
Weekly Trips
Yearly Travel (mi)
Coaster
NCTD
41
46
98,072
Sprinter
NCTD
22
132
151,008
Amtrak
63
154
504,504
Pacific Surfliner
Total
•
753,584
Electrification has the benefits of:
-
Reducing environmental impacts
-
Improving the reliability of the service
-
Increasing the capacity of trains
-
Reducing maintenance, fuel and wear and tear costs
Proposal: sustainable system
•
CO2 reduction by electrification: 20% - 35% (no local)
Diesel
Electric
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
CO2 Emissions (g/mi)
•
Reliability improvement by electrification: 29% - 57%
Regional
Diesel
Intercity
Electric
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
Distance (miles)
•
Reduced operating costs (35%) and leasing costs (20%)
Proposal: sustainable system
Regenerative braking system
Proposal: sustainable system
Cycling and walking
•
Current San Diego availability
Type
Miles
%
Bike Path
159.3
11.9
Bike Lane
890.2
66.4
Bike Route
243.9
18.2
Freeway Shoulders
47.4
3.5
1340.8
100
Total
•
Development of more bike and pedestrian paths
•
Development of a bike docking station system

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