I. George Washington as President

I. George Washington as President
New Government is Launched
Battling the National Debt
Building up the Economy
The Whiskey Rebellion
Foreign Policy
Precedents (examples) set by Washington
New Government is Launched
- Washington’s inauguration (ceremony at which the
President officially takes the oath of office) was on
4/30/1789 in NYC
- In 1789, Congress created the first Cabinet (officials
who head government departments and advise the
President) because Washington needed help carrying
out his duties
President Obama’s Cabinet:
In 1789, Congress passed the Judiciary Act, the law
that organized the federal court system. John Jay
was named Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
(highest court in the land)
Cabinet: group of advisors to the
Washington's Cabinet
was made up of the
best minds of the time
John Adams served as
Vice President
Thomas Jefferson as
Secretary of State
Edmund Randolph as
Attorney General
Alexander Hamilton as
Secretary of the
Henry Knox as
Secretary of War
Left to right: President
Washington, Secretary of War
Henry Knox, Secretary of the
Treasury Alexander Hamilton,
Secretary of State Thomas
Jefferson, and Attorney General
Edmund Randolph
Time to Review
Why was a Cabinet created?
 Indentify three men, and the positions
they held, in Washington’s Cabinet.
 Identify three current members (and
the positions they hold) of President
Obama’s Cabinet.
B. Battling the National Debt
 The
U.S. borrowed $ from foreign
countries and individuals to pay for
soldiers and supplies during the
Revolutionary War
 Alexander Hamilton planned to pay
off this debt by borrowing money in
order to buy up all of the old war
bonds, and so the national
government pay off state debts
 A bond is a certificate that promises
to pay the holder the money loaned
plus interest by a certain date
Some people opposed Hamilton’s plan to buy
up all of the old war bonds because they felt it
rewarded speculators (someone willing to
invest in a risky venture in hopes of making a
great profit)
Original bond price
Speculators bought
bonds for this price
Price Hamilton's
plan would buy
bonds from
How did Hamilton win Southern support for
his plan of assuming all state debts?
Southern states opposed Hamilton’s plan because they
had already paid their debts and felt northern states
should do the same.
To win Southern support for his plan of paying off all
state debts, Hamilton proposed that the new nation’s
capital city be located in the South.
In July 1790, Congress voted to repay state debts and
move the capital to a strip of land between Virginia and
This became the District of Columbia, the city of
Washington D.C.
C. Building up the Economy
-Congress set up the Bank of the United
States in 1791. Tax money could be
deposited into the bank and then the bank
could issue loans to farmers and businesses
- In February 1791, the First Bank of the
U.S. received a national charter for 20
C. Building up the Economy Continued
Hamilton proposed a tariff to help fix the economy
What is a tariff?
Price of
made in
Price of
Tariff of $20
placed on
steel from
making the
price $120
would you
Who does
a tariff
C. Building up the Economy Continued
Hamilton proposed a tariff, or tax, be
placed on imported goods. This tax
would be a protective tariff, because it
would protect American industries from
foreign competition
 Northerners supported tariffs because
new factories were being built there;
southerners opposed tariffs because
they did not want to pay more for
foreign goods
 Congress did eventually passed a tariff
but it was MUCH lower then what
Hamilton had proposed
Time to Review
Why did Hamilton want to repay the
national and state debts?
 How did Hamilton plan to strengthen
the economy?
 Why did many southerners oppose
protective tariffs?
D. The Whiskey Rebellion
Congress passed a bill that taxed all liquor in
the U.S in order to raise $ for the government
Farmers were angered by this because they
often converted their corn into Whiskey because
it was easier to ship to markets in the East
Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against the tax
Washington called up the militia and put down
the rebellion
This proved that the new government could
respond quickly in times of crisis
E. Foreign Policy
The French Revolution began in France in 1789 and
became VERY violent by the 1790s
European countries (like Britain) tried to help put down
the Revolution
Some Americans felt the U.S. should support the
revolution while others felt that it was too violent and
doomed to fail
Washington issued the neutrality proclamation, which
stated that the U.S. would not support either side of
the war in Europe
Britain and France ignored the Neutrality proclamation
and seized American ships that were heading to their
enemy’s port
In 1793, British ships captured American ships trading
with the French; some Americans wanted war
War was avoided when Congress approved Jay’s Treaty,
which required Britain to pay damages for ships seized
in 1793, and give up remaining forts in Ohio River
Valley. Americans had to pay off old debts to British
F. Precedents
A Precedent is an act or decision that sets
an example for others to follow
Precedents set by Washington: appointed
a Cabinet of advisors, remained neutral,
chose the simple title of “President”, and
did not seek a third term as President
In Washington’s Farewell Address, he
urged the U.S to remain neutral in foreign
affairs, and to avoid political parties
Time to Review
Why did Washington issue the
Neutrality Proclamation?
 How did Britain and France respond to
the Neutrality Proclamation?
 How did Congress avoid war with
Britain in 1793?
 What were two pieces of advice
Washington gave in his Farewell
Directions: Choose one of the issues listed below. Write a one
paragraph response in which you state and defend your
 Issue
#1: Should the government have
the right to tax its citizens on the goods
they buy?
 Issue #2: Should the United States remain
neutral in foreign affairs?
 Issue #3: Should a President be allowed
to serve more than 2 terms?

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