A Training Report on

Report
ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE WORKSHOP
BHUSAWAL (P.O.H.)
Submitted By:
Amit S. chavan
Guided By:
S.R. Maheshri
Prof: K. R. Patil
(H.O.D)
KCE SOCIETY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. &
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
JALGAON (2012-13)
Submitted To
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING.
 History of Railway
Introduction of POH
Types of loco
Loco contents
Section of ELW
Functions of the equipments used in loco
Wheel section
Bogie section
Conclusion
Reference
HISTORY OF RAILWAY
 In 15th century stone slabs wooden bulks
were laid flush with the road surface for
carriage of heavy goods loaded on the carts
and drawn by animal’s .these were called
“Tramways’. These Tramways were
extensively used in 16th century.
It was only in the year 1804 when Richard
Trevithick designed and constructed a steam
locomotive how ever could be used for
tractions on roads only
The credit of panicking the design finally
goes to George Stephenson who in the year
1814 produce the steam locomotive used for
traction Railways.
The first railway opened in India in 1853
The maiden trips of Indian soil at the first
train consisting of steam engine and for
coaches was made on 16april 1853.When it
travel 21 mile stretch between Bombay and
Thane in about 1:25 hours time.
Starting from this humble beginning the
Indian railways system becomes Giant
networking at 62,000 route KM and crisis
crossing the great country from Himalaya
foot hill in the north to Kanyakumari in the
south.
The Indian railway about 11,000 trains every day,
serving 6,990 railway station and carry about 411
million tonnes of good traffic in the year.
DIFFERENT GAUGES ON THE WORLD RAILWAY
Sr. no. Types of gauges
Gauge in
mm
Names of Country
1
Standard Gauge
1434
2
Broad Gauge (W)
1676
England, USA, Canada
Europe
India, Pakistan, Brazil,
Argentina
3
Cap gauge
1067
África, Japan, Java,
Australia, New Zealand
4
Meter Gauge
1000
India, France, Switzerland,
Argentina
5
Narrow Gauge
762
India
INTRODUCTION TO P.O.H.
Indian railway now a day’s largely are
locomotives of electrical variety because at
their large advantages over locomotives
The electrical locomotive workshop (E.L.W.)
repairs and does the necessary maintains at
these engine. The locomotive comes to
E.L.W. for P.O.H. (periodic overhauling).
In India there are two P.O.H.
workshops
1) Kacharpara (near Kolkata)
Kanchrapara Workshop came into
existence in 1863.
It caters to P.O.H.requirment at central,
western and northern railways.
2) Bhusawal(M.S.)
Electric locomotive workshop Bhusawal was set
up at a cost of Rs.3.52 corers in the year 1970 to
cater to P.O.H second workshop of electrical
locomotives .
The biggest locomotives workshop Bhusawal.
CAPACITY OF E.L.W. BHUSAWAL
As newly establishment ELW bhusawal
carry out 5 loco per month but now a days
they carry out 12 loco per month.
FURTHER PLANS (ELW BHUSAWAL):1) POH capacity extension to 15 loco per month .
2) POH of three phase loco
3) Up gradation at EDP centre
Every locomotive brought here every six
year or 600000 of run for periodic
overhauling (POH).
As new locomotive comes after 9 years on
900000 KM of run.
Mainly drawback of that POH Bhuswal is
that only do maintenance of the loco
THE production and designing of new
loco had done only in Chittranjan
locomotive workshop (CLW)
TYPES OF LOCO AND GEAR RATIO
Where
W-Broad Gauge
A.A.C.-Electric loco
M-Mixed Service
G-Goods Loco
CA-AC & DC LOCO
Type of loco
Gear ratio
WAM4
58/21
WAG5
62/15
WAP1/3
58/21
WAP4
58/23
WAM4 TAO
58/21
WCAM-1/2
58/21 or 61/16
WAG5-HITACHI
64/18
WAG7-HITACHI
65/17
WCG2
74/18
WAG9
77/15
All these loco comes in (ELW) Bhusawal for periodic overhauling
.
WAM4
WAG5
WAP1/3
WAP4
WCG2
WCG9
ONE LOCOMOTIVE CONTAINS MAIN
EQUIPMENT
Sr. No.
Name of Equipment
Quantity
1
Body
1
2
Bogie
2
3
Wheel set
6
4
Traction Motor
6
5
Transformer
1
6
D.I.
1
7
B. A. panel
2
8
Rectifier
2
9
Compressor
2/3
10
Exhauster
(except air break)2
11
SMGR
1
12
MVMT(Blower for T.M.)
2
13
RPS
1
14
DBR
1
15
MPS(Blower for SL)
2
16
S.L.
2
17
S.J.
3 set
18
Arno
1
19
Baby Compressor
1
20
Battery Charger
1
Sr. No.
Name of Equipment
Quantity
21
Batteries
10
22
RTPR
2
23
Main reservoir
5
24
M.P.
2
25
Buffers
4
26
C.B.C.
2
27
Pantograph
2
28
CABS
2
29
Brake arrangement
5
30
Hom
2
31
Head light
2
32
Marker Height
4
33
Parking Light
4
34
Flasher
2
35
Total valves
40
36
Brake cylinder
8/12
37
R.C. Panel
1
38
Sand boxes
8/10/12/16
39
HOM Switch
1
SHORT DESCRIPTION, FUNCTIONS OF THE
EQUIPMENTS USED IN A LOCO
1) Arno In loco there are many three phase induction
motor because at their advantages then single phase
motor but OHE supply 25 KV is single phase.
To convert single phase supply into three
phases Arno is used. The Arno converter is designed a
type of three phase squirrel cage induction motor.
2) Transformer –
To provide different voltage supply to TM
transformer with tab changer is used. In this transformer
laminated core is magnetic circuit is made having three
legs. One of the leg having auto winding and with this tab
changing connector having laminated core. Another leg is
low voltage winding in their auxiliary circuit is supplied (380
V) constantly to drive 12 auxiliaries in loco. And others are
primary and secondary winding.
CAPACITY
WEIGHT
TOTAL
TONNES
TAP CHANGER WEIGHT
TONNES
OIL WEIGHT
TONNES
OIL CONTAIN
LITRES
- 3469 KV
- 6880 KG
- 11.5
- 0.5
- 1.7
- 2000
3) Pantograph –
The most important function of pantograph is to make contact with OHE or
cater nary wire and collect all supply from OHE (I.e. 25 KV)
Full panto is made up of hallow
aluminium pipe and strips and it can be
hold easily with 7 Kg contact pressure. The
whole panto is controlled by two spring. The
springs are fitted at the piston at
servomotor.
The time period of touching should 65
to19 sec. And lowering time for panto is
max. 10 sec. The height of OHE from base of
panto is between 1.75 to 2 meter
4) HOM –
Indian Railway has a great safety policy. For this HOM switch is
designed in loco. It is a main switch of loco
When any maintenance is done in H>T>
Compartment HOM switch is used.
Compartment are closed and the keys are
not placed in B.V. Box pantograph key cannot
be taken out. There are 4 H.T. Compartment
keys.
5) D.J. –
D.J. is most important circuit breaker at loco D.J. helps in supplying single
phase 25 KV from pantograph to transformer. This circuit breaker having
specially that is takes very less time to open the loco circuit. To eliminate
the major fault in a loco DJ is used.
There are two types of D.J. –
i) Air blast circuit breaker
ii) Vacuum blast circuit
The time for DJ closed in 4 sec.
The time for DJ trimming is 0.02 to 0.03
sec
6) Rectifier –
Rectifier is used for converting AC into DC and
the process is known as rectification. The rectifier
uses silicon and germanium diode. It is a bridge
rectifier and have simply p-n junction.
7) S.L. (Smoothing reactor) –
D.C. voltage obtained from rectifier is not pure. It contain
little amount of A.C. pulse. It directly supply is given to T.M.
the eddy current will generate and motor get heated and also
spark and flashing occur between brush and commentator
therefore by smoothing reactor (S.L.) is provided which
absorbs A.C. pulse and gives D.C. to T.M
8) S.J. (Inductive Shunt) –
When we increased voltage with increase in tab T.M.
get sudden voltage and increases speed suddenly and
loco get jerking. To avoid this S.J. or inductive shunt
which provide smooth current and constantly to T.M. for
proper running.
9) Body
This is the main convert at locomotive. This
is made of very high strength of metal sheet.
It is also called as spinal cord of loco. It
protects all the equipment in loco form air.
Rain or dust etc.
It contains 2 cabs and all lighting system.
10) RPS (Permanent Field Resistance)
It is called as permanent field resistance. The current coming
from S.L.also not 100% pure D.C. It contain very little amount
of A.C. pulses. To absorb this pulses RPS is in parallel with T.M.
Also in case of shunting for increasing speed after 24 notches
these acts as resistance and lowers current and increases
speed at loco.
 RPS should form a current and voltage in
stator windings specially.
11) D.B.R.
When the locomotive on the sloping track then
voltage given is zero but the motor is revolving and
becomes as generator and emf is induced in a
T.M.This generated emf is directly gone to the
D.P.R. for rheostat braking(electric braking).It is
given with the help of M.P.in a braking side.
12) M.P.
It is called as master controller. We may call it as brain of
loco. When complete loco is ready and it doesn’t move without
M.P.
 M.P. contains control switches driver
handle, shunting handle, panto switch, R.F
switch and etc. It has 32 notches. As the
notches are increased the speed of loco is
increased.
13) T.M.
Traction motor is the main part of the loco. Without T. M. loco is unable to
move. Traction motor wants pure D.C. supply.
It has two main parts1) Armature
2) Winding
Following are the sections in ELW
Bhusawal
Erection Section
B.A Panel Section
Bogie Section
Mill Wright Section
Wheel Section
Static Section
Recalling Section
White metal Section
Traction motor Section
Inspection Section
Transformer Section
Test Laboratory
Test room Section
Test room (Relay)
Pneumatic Section
E.P Contactor section
Machine shop Section
Rewinding Section
R & M Section
DIFFERENT SECTIONS AND
RESPECTIVE FUNCTION OF ELW
•Erection Section :When loco comes in ELW for POH it is
comes to erection for dismantle. Assembling and
dismantling of all loco parts is carried out in this section.
After dismantling all parts are dispatched to respective
section for maintenance after completing all maintenance
work assembling of loco is done.
• Bogie Section :After dismantling loco bogie is send to this
section by erection section. In this section all parts are
attached from bogie frame is send for inspecting cracks.
Here wheels and traction motor are detached from
bogie and send them to respective section, where
overhauling of parts is done.
•Wheel Section :In this section wheel comes from bogie
sections. Here axle box and set are dismantle
and necessary operation are done on wheel
disc and axle box, with help of different
machines.
• Recalling Section :When whole body is checked and certificate from
erection section, it comes to recalling section. There are 15000
central cables so many power cables. All the cables have
number on both sides so that they can be connected after
overhauling at proper places. Elastomeric cables used for these
purpose of different diameter.
• Traction Motor Section :In this section relating traction motor all maintenance
including bearing and armature maintenance is carried out.
Different test are carried out on T.M. in this section.
 Tan θ Test :It is used for finding condition of insulation and is
angle between inductive and capacitive current. So value tan
θ must be minimum.
 Surge Voltage Test :In this test momentarily high voltage of applied to
T.M. and graph observed on CRO.
 H.V. Test :In this test 2.5 KV voltage applied to T.M. see the
leakage current.
 H.V. Test :In this test 2.5 KV voltage applied to T.M. see the
leakage current.
Balancing Test :Any rotor with an uneven distribution of mass
about its axis of rotation has an unbalance. It deteriorates
the bearing. So balancing test done on motor. The
balancing machine directly gives the weight to be added
and angle at which weight added.
 Run Test :In this test rated supply is given to motor and run it
for 2 hours. In between these vibration in motor, temp.
And motor, noise in rotor are observed. After completing
tests if armature and field winding are found OK. Then
they are assembled. If there is any disturb in field winding
replacement
A] Same resistance
B] Same inductance
C] No one winding open
D] No winding grounded
Growler testThere is half stator when supply is given to stator it
produce flux. As rotor shorted close circuit formed so it acts as
electromagnet. If rotor is OK it attracts iron parts so it tests rotor.
• Transformer section –
In this section maintenance of transformer is done
following function are done in this section.
I] dismantling all parts of transformer
ii] Checking insulation of winding
iii] Breaking down voltage test on insulating oil
IV] Cleaning bushing
v] Cleaning winding
vi] Replacement oil
vii] Cleaning fins of cooling
viii] H.V. test
In HV test 380 V supply is given to auxiliary winding
so 25 KV we get across primary and by changing
taps the voltage across each tap is taken and check
for temperature rise.
•Test Room (DJ &S.M.G.R.) section –
The maintenance and overhauling of main component of loco DJ and
S.M.G.R. is done.
i] Checking of opening and closing time for DJ at particular air pressure.
ii] Checking S.M.G.R.
•Pneumatic Section –
There are 40 different valves are fitted in a loco.
All leakage or any problem are removed in this section and
make them fully efficient. In this section also overhauling of
horn is done. As all loco circuit is electro pneumatic.
Pneumatic section is the heart of loco and ELW.
•Machine Shop Section –
In this section all little and small quantity work is done.
Such as turning, drilling, tapering, shaping milling, threading, etc.
I] Centre lathe
5
ii] HMT machine
3
iii] Turrelathe machine 3
iv] Drilling machine
2
v] Milling machine
5
vi] GD2 lathe
2
vii] Surface grinder
1
viii] Shaper machine
2
ix] Sloter machine
2
•R and M section –
When loco is damaged or burned then repair and maintenance is
carried out in this section. It contain –
i] Press machine for bending
ii] Sharing machine for cutting
• BA panel section In this section BA panel in the loco are overhauled. Total
maintenance of reversal switch and other equipment is done.
•Mill Wright sectionAll machine in machine shop, cranes are under mill weight
section. So maintenance of all these are done in this section. It is very
important section as it maintains all machines in good condition.
• Static section –
It involves maintenance of rectifier RPS, DBR, MSR, R118. After
doing all overhauls they send equipment to erection section
•White Metal Section –
This section includes casting of white metal
to suspension bearing brass bearing and other
equipments.
•Inspection section –
Whenever any locomotive comes to POH for
overhauling. First incoming test are done and seen all
equipments and test them. After that each equipment is
dispatched to particular section. After complete
assembly first HL tests are done and then H.T. tests
done on locomotive. After inspection loco dispatched to
customer.
•Test Lab Test lab is the most important part of ELW, Bhusawal when the new
equipment comes in ELW. All testing of sample piece is done here. After
certification of this department all stock is distributed to respective section.
Various tests are done in this section some of them are as follows:
•Non destructive Testing (NDT) –
•Ultrasonic testing
•RPDT (Red, penetrate dye test)
Ultrasonic Testing –
It is carried with the help of ultrasonic flow detector machine
used. This principle behind ultrasonic testing is based on piezoelectric
effect.
 RPDT-The kit is having 3 can –
•Cleaner
•Red dye
•Developer
Principle based on capillary action.
•Test Room In test room (relay) section all relays which are
used in loco first inspected and then necessary overhauling
is done on that relay.
•Rewinding section In rewinding section winding of aux motors and
traction motors field winding if damaged or burned are
rewound or replaced
•E.P. contactor section –
E.P. contactor means electro pneumatic contactor. In
this section different tests conducted on E.P. contactor like –
Checking operation by electrical
Checking operation pneumatically
M.V. drop test
This test is used to see how perfectly the contact of
contactor makes contacts. This voltage drop is to leakage current If
contacts are perfect then there is no leakage current so voltage drop
across contactor reduced permissible limit of voltage drop.
In case line contactor
4 to 6 mV
Shunt contactor
- 12 mV
CONCLUSION
The Industrial training helps student to experience working
environment of industry & evoked in yourself technical
thinking and develop ability to understand basic factor.
So this training taught many new technique & procedure
of such a big organization.
It helped me to learn co-ordination between department,
organizations and communication between different levels of
organization.
References
Utilization of Electric Power & Electric Traction ( J.B. Gupta )
Electric Traction ( J. P. Ghodse)
Elements of Electric traction ( L. W. Gant)
Electric Traction Railways (Sir Philip Dawson’s)

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