Figure Skating - Special Olympics Michigan

Report
Figure Skating
Training Guide
Michigan
1
Events Offered
 Singles Compulsory Elements

Level I, II, III, IV
 Singles Freestyle

Level I, II, III, IV
 Pairs Compulsory Elements

Level I
 Pairs Freestyle

Level I
 Ice Dancing

Level I, II, III
2 Special Olympics Michigan
Figure Skating Uniforms
 In the preliminary round the female figure skating uniform
should be simple, fitted figure skating dress, skirt or jumper
with a turtleneck and/or sweater. Exceptions will be made by
the discretion of the Games Committee.
 In the final round, the female figure skating uniform may have
beading, sequins, and/or lace, in good taste with approval of
professional coach as long as decoration does not interfere
with skating. No props may be used.
 Female skaters should wear sheer-to-waist pantyhose or
tights, and undergarments should not be visible.
 In the preliminary round, the male figure skating uniform
should be full length trousers, a long sleeved sweater, and/or
turtleneck. Sweat pants or tights are not acceptable. In the final
round, the male uniform should be simple fitted pants and
turtleneck/sweater or a jumpsuit. Material of any color with
simple decoration is acceptable as long as decoration does not
interfere with skating. No props will be allowed.
Figure Skates
 Skates should be clean and
polished with laces tucked in.
 Hockey skates or speed skates
shall not be used.
 Dress should enhance and not
detract from the skater’s
technical proficiency.
General Rules
 Each skater must provide
music on a CD at the venue
site prior to competition.
 Athletes will be awarded one
medal each for the compulsory
and freestyle events. Figure
Skating athletes are permitted
to enter three events.
Singles Freestyle Level I General Rules
 Skater may start program at any spot on ice surface.
Judging and timing will begin when skater commences to
skate.
 This is a beginning freestyle program and should be well
balanced with elements selected from Badge 1-5 with
emphasis on balance, glide and beginning moves. (The
Badge Program can be found in the Special Olympics
Figure Skating Skills Guide).
 No spins and only a two foot jump will be permitted.

A two foot jump is a jump where you take off on two feet and land on two feet.
Singles Freestyle Level I General Rules Cont.
 The skills may be performed in any order. The skater is not
required to perform a set number of skills, however, the skater
will be judged on the quality of the performance and the
content.
 The program must be performed to instrumental music. A
mandatory .2 deduction will be made for vocal music.
 The program will not exceed a time limit of 60 seconds, plus or
minus 10 seconds.
Singles Level II Freestyle General Rules
 Skater may start program at any spot on ice surface. Judging and timing will begin
when skater commences skating.
 This is an Advanced Beginner Free Style Program. A well balanced program with
elements selected from Badges 1-10 with emphasis on Glide and Turns.
 Any spin beyond a two foot spin, and any jump beyond a bunny hop will receive a
mandatory .2 deduction for each added element.
 The skills may be performed in any order. The skater is not required to perform a set
number of skills, however, the skater will be judged on the quality of the performance
and the content.
 The program must be performed to instrumental music. A mandatory .2 deduction
will be made for vocal music.
 The program will not exceed a time limit of 90 seconds, plus or minus 10 seconds.
 No back spiral permitted in Level II programs, a .2 deduction will be made.
Singles Level III Freestyle General Rules
 Skater may start program at any spot on ice surface. Judging and timing will
begin when skater commences to skate.
 This is an intermediate Level Free Style program. A well balanced program
with elements selected from Badges 1-12 with emphasis on flow, carriage and
a slightly more advance skill level.
 Skaters may perform simple footwork, field moves and additional jumps,
salchow and toe loop.
 Any spins beyond a one foot spin and any jumps beyond a toe loop and
salchow will receive a mandatory .2 deduction for each added element. The
skills may be performed in any order.
 The skater is not required to perform a set number of skills, however, the
skater will be judged on the quality of the performance and the content.
 The program must be performed to instrumental music. A mandatory .2
deduction will be made for vocals music.
 The program will not exceed a time limit of two minutes, plus or minus 10
seconds.
Singles Level IV Freestyle General Rules
 Skater may start program at any spot on skating surface. Judging and timing
will begin when skater commences to skate.
 This is a more advanced free style program. A well balanced program of free
skating elements with emphasis on spins, jumps and footwork.
 The program may include ½ revolution jumps and three full rotation jumps—
salchow, toe loop and loop jump, but no other full rotation jumps.
 The program may include a two foot spin-pick up the outside foot (a
beginning back spin), but no other change of foot spin. Any full rotation jump
besides salchow, toe loop and loop jump and any change of foot spin
besides a beginning back spin as explained above, will receive a mandatory
.2 deduction for each element.
 The program must be performed to instrumental music. A mandatory .2
deduction will be made for vocal music.
 The program will be two minutes, plus or minus 10 seconds.
Singles Level I Compulsory Element Group
 Skaters shall skate each of the following elements
separately and be given two opportunities to perform
the element group.
 Forward swizzles for a distance of ten meters,
backward swizzles for a distance of ten meters and a
one foot snowplow stop.
Singles Level II Compulsory Element Group
 Skater must perform two 180 degree turns continuing in the same
direction down the rink and stop in order to receive a score.
 Skater starts at one end of the rink. Skater begins when instructed by the
referee. Skater skates forward using stroking motion (not swizzles, a .2
deduction will be made for swizzles) to the second blue line or a point
approximately two-thirds the length of the skating area.
 At the second blue line, skater performs a backward to forward turn.
After turn, skater skates forward to the finish line. At finish line, skater
performs a T-Stop.
 Each skater has two attempts to complete the compulsory element
group.
 Level II Compulsory Element Group crossovers around the hockey
circles in figure eight pattern. One pattern clockwise and
counterclockwise (with no stop between), minimum of five crossovers
per circle.
Singles Level III Compulsory Element Group
 Skater starts elements at point designated by the referee. Skater begins
elements when so instructed by the referee. Skater must perform the
following skills:
 Outside and inside forward edges shall be skated. The skating edges
shall be short strokes will correct take-offs from one foot to the other.
Four consecutive edges beginning with the right foot and alternating to
the left foot shall be skated across the width of the rink.
 The skater shall execute a Forward Outside Three Turn on the right foot
and a Forward Outside Three Turn on the left foot. This skill must be
performed twice. The competitor shall approach, execute, and exit each
Three Turn on one skate. The skate which the Three Turn is to be
executed up on shall be the only skate to touch the ice one meter prior
to, during, and one meter after the execution of each Three Turn.
Singles Level III Compulsory Element Group Cont.
 The skater shall execute a right forward inside edge to
left backwards inside edge open Mohawk and a left
forward inside edge to right backward inside edge open
Mohawk. The free leg should be extended before and
after the turn.
 Skater is allowed two attempts to receive one score for
each of the above elements. The attempt which
produces the highest aggregate score will count toward
the skater’s final score. The score from the other
attempt is discarded. Skater will perform the above
elements separately.
Singles Level IV Compulsory Element Group
 Skaters will skate outside and inside backward edges. The
skating edges shall be short strokes with correct take-offs
form one foot to the other. Four consecutive edges
beginning with the right foot and alternating to the left shall
be skated across the width of the rink.
 Skaters must perform forward crossover, inside Mohawk,
and backward crossover step forward (step sequence must
be repeated two times and performed left and right). Skaters
will skate a three step Waltz sequence:

The waltz three step is sequenced in a figure eight pattern. A two-step introduction
may be added i.e. L-R-feet together, then RFO three, LBO edge, etc. Optional free
leg on three-turns and on the back edge. A minimum of three, three-turn/back edge
sequences per circle.
Pairs Compulsory Element Group
 Teams shall consist of two athletes one male and one
female, two females, or two males.
 Skaters participating in this event must be a Level II
singles skater and capable of passing Badges 1-10.
 Skaters may perform any singles elements from Badges
1-10. Skaters start at a point designated by referee.
Skaters begin when instructed by referee.
 Level I Pairs will be skated as a continuous move.
Pairs Compulsory Element Group Cont.
 Skaters have a maximum of 1 minute, 30 seconds to perform
without music, using the following skills: Beginning in the hockey
goal crease at the end of the rink, the couple will skate hand-in-hand
forward stroking to the middle of the rink. Skate into a forward
crossover figure eight pattern (one sequence clockwise and
counter-clockwise), then continue forward stroking to the other end
of the rink and at the goal crease execute a T-stop, then a side-byside two foot spin.
 Skaters will skate each compulsory element as a team. Each
element will be performed separately.
 Each team is allowed two attempts. The attempt, which produces
the highest score from the judges will count toward the skater’s final
score. The scores from other attempts shall be discarded.
Level I Pairs Freestyle
 The program must be performed to instrumental music.
A mandatory .2 deduction will be made for vocal music.
Each team will perform a program lasting one minute,
plus or minus ten seconds. This is a beginning Pair
program. Any spin beyond a two foot spin and any
jump beyond a bunny hop will receive a mandatory .2
deduction for each added element. The skills may be
performed in any order. The skaters are not required to
perform a set number of skills. However, the skaters
will be judged on the quality of the performance and the
content.
Ice Dancing Level I: Compulsory Dance
 Skaters competing in Level 1 dance must have passed
Badge 10 or Level II, but no higher than a Level III
singles skater. All ice dancing competitions may be
skated solo or may be skated by a dance team
comprised of two Special Olympics athletes, one male
and one female, two females or two males.
 All Level 1 compulsory dances will be skated to music.
Skaters will be required to perform the following: 2010
Rhythm Blues & Dutch Walz, 2011 Dutch Walz &
Canasta Tango, 2012 Canasta Tango & Rhythm Blues,
2013 Canasta Tango & Rhythm Blues, 2014 Rhythm
Blues & Dutch Walz.
Ice Dancing Level II: Compulsory
Dance
 All level II compulsory Dances will skate to music.
The dance will commence at the end of the rink
designated by the referee. The introduction may
include a maximum of 7 steps. Skaters will be
required to perform the following: 2010 Fiesta Tango
& Cha Cha, 2011 Cha Cha & Swing Dance, 2012
Swing Dance & Fiesta Tango, 2013 Swing Dance &
Fiesta Tango, 2014 Fiesta Tango & Cha Cha.
Ice Dancing Level III: Compulsory Dance
 All level III Compulsory Dances will be skated to music.
The dance will commence at the end of the rink
designated by the referee. The introduction may
include a maximum of 7 steps. Skaters will be required
to perform the following: 2010 Willow Waltz & Hickory
Hoedown, 2011 Hickory Hoedown & Ten Fox, 2012
Ten Fox & Willow Waltz, 2013 Ten Fox & Willow Waltz,
2014 Willow Waltz & Hickory Hoedown
See the SOI website for diagrams or all dances.
Figure Skating Skill Technique:
Lesson on Forward Swizzles
•
#1 First stand with the knees straight. Put the heels together. Turn out the toes so that the
feet make a "V.“
•
#2 Bend the knees forward. Push the knees out over the toes by using the calf muscles. The
blades should be on inside edges, but the feet should not fall too far to the inside. Once the
knees push forward, and if the blades are on the correct inside edges, the skater will find
himself gliding forward a bit. The weight on the skater's feet should move from the back of the
skate to the middle of the blade.
•
#3 After gliding a bit, straighten the knees and make the toes touch. The weight on the feet
will move to the front of the skate at this point. The speed during swizzles comes from
bending and straightening the knees. Also, the skater must be on inside edges, not flats.
Some new figure skaters find it difficult to bring the toes back together during this exercise. It
is important that the skater use his or her knees at the midpoint of the swizzle to help move
the toes together. If the toes don't touch immediately, the skater should not be discouraged.
The toes will touch eventually as the skater practices swizzles over and over. Warning! If the
skater allows the feet to go out too far without the knees distributed over the toes, he or she
will go into the splits! Practicing swizzles over and over will help a skater become stronger at
using the knees and edges.
•
#4 Bring the feet into a parallel position and glide for a short distance. Then, bend the knees
and do another swizzle. Do several swizzles in a row without stopping.
Figure Skating Jumps
Toe Loop
‣
A toe loop is done with a toe assist. While skating backward on an outside edge, the figure
skater picks with the other toe, then jumps a half revolution in the air like a waltz jump, and
lands on the foot that did not pick. The skater should be gliding backward on an outside
edge when he or she lands. This jump was invented during the 1920's by Bruce Mapes who
was an American professional show skater. In fact, in artistic roller figure skating, the toe
loop is called a Mapes Jump.
‣
Most of the time, the toe loop is entered from a forward inside three turn.
Salchow
‣
A salchow jump is done from the back inside edge of one foot to the back outside edge of
the other foot. A half revolution is done in the air. The salchow jump was invented by Ulrich
Salchow in 1909.
‣
The salchow is usually done from a forward outside three turn. After the three turn, the
skater stops momentarily with the free foot extended behind, then swings the free leg
forward and around with a wide scooping motion. Then, the skater jumps in the air and lands
backwards on the foot and leg that did the scooping motion.
‣
Sometimes, the salchow is entered from a forward inside mohawk instead of a three turn.
Figure Skating Jumps
Loop
‣
In a loop jump, an ice skater takes off from a back
outside edge, jumps a full revolution in the air, and
lands backward on the same back outside edge from
which he or she took off. This jump is easy for nonskaters to recognize since there is no toe assist. It is
considered an “edge jump" since no toe assist is used
on the take off. Loop jumps are often done as the
second jump in figure skating jump combinations.
Why Off the Ice Exercises?
 Figure skating is a sport that puts significant strength and flexibility
demands on the body. Athletes in other sports may say that figure skating
is not a "sport" and it is more artistic performance, but they are quite
wrong! Skaters are some of the strongest athletes in the world.
 Some skaters have natural strength, balance, and core strength that will
take them through the lower levels of skating quickly, but the majority of
skaters need to improve upon each of those attributes in order to progress
to higher levels. Once the "naturally talented" skaters reach a level at
which double jumps and difficult spins are required, that natural ability will
only take them so far. The core strength and plyometric strength
requirements of the sport are significant, and at some point, a skater
needs to build strength beyond what he or she naturally has. By
completing an off-ice training program at least twice a week, skaters will
progress their on-ice skills at a faster pace, and be able to handle the
strength demands of jumping, spinning, and longer programs.
Some Examples…

Core strength and stability: Core strength originates from the abdominal and back muscles. These muscles
work together to act as a "control center" for the body’s balance and stability. In the sport of figure skating,
skaters need exceptionally strong core muscles to maintain balance, check rotation and maintain a tight air
position for jumping, control the center of spin rotation, and control the upper body position during footwork,
stroking, and crossovers.

Balance: Think about how much of skating is done on one foot: almost everything! Some people are blessed
with natural balance, but the majority of us need improvement through exercises. There are several factors
which affect the sense of balance in our body. First, our vestibular system (the inner ear) helps us sense the
body’s position while we are moving. Second, the eyes help us detect our surroundings. Third, and most
important for skaters, the balance receptors in our feet and lower extremities tell us where our bodies are in
relation to the ground.

Strength and power: Without muscle strength, a skater would skate very slowly, have small jumps, have shorter
and slower spins, and would tire easily in a program and in practice sessions. Strength creates power and can
improve endurance, and is the number one necessity for a skater to improve and become consistent. Through
exercise, a muscle’s fibers become tighter and stronger, and can withstand more repetition for longer durations
when asked to contract.

Flexibility: Spirals, biellmans, split jumps, spread eagles...just to name a few elements that require
extraordinary flexibility. Muscle flexibility controls the angle of the knee, hip, and ankle joint on a jump take-off
and landing, and a small deficit in muscle length can affect the quality of a jump. Joint position and motion,
controlled by the surrounding muscle length, also affects the angle of the joints in the lower extremity during
basic stroking, crossovers, spins, and footwork. Each joint in your body needs a balance of flexibility on all
sides to move in the proper range of motion.
What Kind of Off the Ice Exercises?
 In the past ten years or so, sports training has progressed from
solely using weight machines to using an athlete’s body weight as
resistance in exercise. Many functional exercises incorporate the
use of several muscle groups at one time, instead of exercises
focusing on the contraction of a single muscle. How is this more
beneficial? In every sport, an athlete moves his or her body in
various planes of movement which require several muscles to cocontract at the same time. Each joint requires the strength from
several muscles to stabilize it for the action it performs. Functional
exercises train the body in these planes of movement to mimic the
motions performed in sports. Many sports require a high degree of
strength that an athlete may not have naturally; that strength
needs to be created through additional training. Figure skating is
no exception.
Terms
 Approach: Steps or movements across the ice leading
into a jump, spin or other move
 Axis: An imaginary straight line around which skating
curves are symmetrically grouped
 Back Spin: Any one-foot spin where a counterclockwise
spinner rotates on the right foot and a clockwise spinner
on the left
 Check: The notion of controlling rotation, shoulders
counter-rotating against hips
 Entry: Most frequently used to refer to the edge
immediately preceding a spin or jump, often referred to as
the ‘entry edge’
Terms Cont.
 ISI: Ice Skating Institute
 ISU: International Skating Union, the International Federation
for Figure Skating
 Lobe: The pattern made on the ice by an edge or steps,
forming an arc of a circle that starts and finishes on an axis
 Pivot: A movement in freestyle in which the skater places a toe
pick into the ice and revolves around it
 Pumping: An alternative term for one-foot fishies or swizzles
 Rest: to start from rest means to start from a standstill
 Step Sequence: A combination of edges and turns, usually
executed in a straight line, circular or serpentine pattern
Terms Cont.
 Strike: The action of placing the new foot onto the ice
after a thrust from the skating foot
 Stroking: The action of moving over the ice in such a
way that the coordination of thrust, knee bend and
transference of weight is used to produce the best
results
 Toe Pick: Any one of the sharp projections on the
front of a skate blade, but most frequently refers to
the lowest and usually the most prominent pick

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